George Mobus

Is Science Another Failed Institution?

Off the keyboard of George Mobus

Published on Question Everything on July 14, 2013

weird-science-01

Discuss this article at the Podcast Table inside the Diner

The Greatest Intellectual Feat of Mankind

I love science. All science and sciences. I’ve spent a lifetime reading every popular science book I could get my hands on in every imaginable discipline. And in fields in which I was intensely interested I read the textbooks and the journal articles. Science as a way to understanding has been my passion. It therefore gives me great pain to entertain the possibility that the institution of science is yet another failed institution of Homo calidus.

The recognition of the process of science and, in particular, the scientific method has to stand as humanity’s greatest intellectual success. The notions of objectivity, observation, empirical methods, data, analysis, and provisional interpretation as the only reliable means of gaining knowledge have been woven into a beautiful tapestry of process that has proven its value over and over again. Ideologies (beliefs without actual verification) and religious dogma served a purpose to hold groups together by sharing common ideas and beliefs when our species emerged from the basic biological nexus as sentient, social self-conscious beings. Some purely practical beliefs took their origin in observations of nature that were repeatable and therefore the basis of prediction. Where the game could be found, when the rains would come, where the predators lurked, all of these kinds of regular happenings were the basis for repeatability. Each foray out to hunt was an experiment testing the hypothesis of that belief. But the existential questions that came with self-consciousness were not answerable by observations of nature. It would take the discovery of Darwinian evolution by natural selection before we could even begin to approach such questions.

And therein is the reason that ideologies and religions still exist today; that and the likelihood that the further evolution of eusapience was stymied after the invention of settled agriculture.

Even so, agriculture provided a significant boost to what would one day become science. Observation of many variables associated with plant and animal husbandry, and the application of those observations in controlled ways was incipient science at work. Large-scale agriculture gave rise to number systems for accounting, and, eventually, writing — using abstract symbols to express speech. Both were essential for codifying knowledge gained. Number systems and accounting (plain arithmetic) gave rise to mathematics when architects were commanded to build complex monuments and cities. Science (observing and interpreting) and engineering (exploiting knowledge to design and construct artifacts) were already developing as practical but unconsciously performed practices. As civilization progressed it enabled more areas to come under scrutiny and, in turn, allow civilization to progress further. Astrology (an attempt at answering existential questions) morphed eventually into astronomy and enabled long-range navigation and exploration.

The greatest accomplishment for humans was the eventual recognition of the process and its formal codification, transforming it from natural philosophy into a rigorous disciplinary method for obtaining knowledge. There were many steps in this process over a number of centuries. Aristotle had advocated what would become the empirical methods of observation. Roger Bacon, in the 13th century would advocate further for empirical observation as the basis for gaining truth. In the late 17th and early 18th centuries the Scientific Revolution crystallized and science emerged as a recognized process distinct from philosophy or religion.

And what a revolution it was. Mostly in terms of the pickup of the pace. Discoveries and exploitation came at accelerating rates. The invention of the printing press made it feasible to get it all recorded and disseminated. The institution of science would rapidly evolve.

Today science is an established institution overlaid on universities, government agencies, foundations, and industry. Money flows to researchers who conduct peer-reviewed projects with definite goals laid out. The granting institutions decide what the worthy pursuits will be and the investigators compete to show that their projects are relevant and likely to succeed. If a neuroscientist pursues an National Institutes of Health grant to study some aspect of brain function, she is required (if she wants a chance to win) to mention how her research could lead to a better understanding of Alzheimer’s disease. Failure to delineate how a line of research is going to lead to solving the energy crisis or cure cancer is a death sentence in the highly competitive fields of the modern practice of science.

The line between science and engineering has become blurred. Today engineering PhDs need to do research, ostensibly applied, to push the boundaries of what artifacts they can develop and what those artifacts can do. As in the above paragraph, scientists doing ostensibly pure research are obliged to mention the practical applications. The gaining of knowledge has come down to a gaining of new forms of wealth and wealth creation, not of gaining understanding of nature. If that happens from time to time it is a by-product, not the main goal. Put simply the funding model has changed the purpose of science and turned it into Über-engineering — finding solutions to problems. Science is now an industry*.

The universities, for their part, are producing copious PhDs in sciences and engineering even while the corporations complain that there aren’t enough. There aren’t enough of the Über-engineers based on the fact that the level of competition in innovative product development is staggeringly high. Today what counts as science is a discovery of how to cram more transistors on a chip of silicon.

And as often happens when you over produce a product you turn it into a commodity. The crops of PhDs and Master’s degreed people coming out of second and third tier universities have flooded the markets. They look for jobs as adjunct “instructors” or lecturers rather than full time, tenure-track positions in departments with active research agendas. Thanks to the societal meme that everyone should have a college degree, the subsequent rapid expansion of higher education institutions, and the demand for instructors, this has resulted in a positive feedback loop that produces stamped out of the mold products (PhDs) who then take whatever job they can get. A PhD in a science is no longer about science or the level of intellectual sophistication that it had been at the beginning of the 20th century.

A Two-Edged Sword

Science has been used for good and evil for its whole history as a human endeavor. I count evil as those acts of violence such as wars that make humanity worse off. Science has given us medicines but it also gave us the means of maiming soldiers so that they would require those medicines. Radioactive isotopes and atom smashers have been extremely useful in medical and investigative work but nuclear bombs have been a curse. And now, industrial grade agriculture is feeding billions (though some not so well) it is also poisoning our bodies, our soils, our air, and our waters. And not just our species is suffering.

Up until the mid 20th century science was mostly perceived as a force for good and progress. Very few people could or would question this proposition. But a few started to wonder about the negative effects that they began to suspect and later observe. Rachel Carson and her “Silent Spring” is a poster child of this thinking. But there were others and many even before Ms. Carson. The sword had become that of Damocles to them. We enjoyed the benefits of science and engineering, but most people were either ignorant of or simply ignored the threats hanging just over their heads as they sat on the throne of progress.

Unfortunately the warning voices were drowned out by the din of exclamations about the wonders of science. As I was just coming into more adult-level awareness, having been brought up on Flash Gordon, Buck Rogers, and (later) Star Trek, the Brussels World’s Fair (Expo 58) was a site where adulation of our knowledge of atomic energy was on display. I had been born exactly on the day the first atomic bomb had been used to kill people in Japan 13 years earlier. So I found myself conflicted over the science of atomic energy; on the one hand producing such horror, and on the other producing what seemed, at the time, like a promise of prosperity. By my senior year in high school and continuing in my first years of college, I wondered how this could be. What kind of creatures were we that we could do this to ourselves?

Ironically I would come to live in Seattle, WA. less than a decade after the Seattle World’s Fair where the expectations of progress and the great promise of science was the major theme. I had grown up reading mostly science fiction tales about space travel. Men had landed on the moon just before I came to Seattle so it looked like we were on our way to the Gordon/Rogers/Trek era. The optimism surrounding what would be possible given our mastery over science was palpable throughout the western world (as long as you could suppress thinking about the Cold War and nuclear Armageddon). To this day I like to visit the Pacific Science Center on the grounds of that fair, with the towering Space Needle a constant reminder of the notion of progress. I still love science, with its ability to produce meaningful knowledge of how the universe works. But I have developed considerable doubts about its payoff for humanity given our propensity to see that knowledge as only valuable if it increases our profits or helps us kill our enemies.

The Failure

Science itself, as a means for gaining knowledge, is not a failure. As a process it is not inherently a two-edged sword. It is not evil. It is the use of science that has turned evil. I hinted at this above.

By evil I don’t mean in a spiritual sense. I mean in the effect on human life sense. As a species we are bound to protect our interests in survival so anything that does so in the evolutionary framework is good, anything that threatens us is evil. Unfortunately in mankind’s exploitation of the knowledge we gained from science we find increasingly more evil than good. The knowledge itself is, of course, neutral. It is just knowledge. The problem is that we do not have the meta-knowledge of how to use knowledge for the long-term benefit of humanity. We have, instead, learned to exploit science, through engineering, for immediate gains without thinking about the long-term consequences. So knowledge of heat engines is used to engineer machines that propel us rapidly from point A to point B. We individuals in the here-and-now “profit” by getting places faster. Our time is then in surplus, our personal energies conserved. Why should we worry about the consequences of burning fossil fuel to achieve this short-term profit? Isn’t it easy to believe this trend will go on and on forever, that our children, and their children, will have even more profit from science and technology?

Knowledge of how to use knowledge for the long-term good of humanity is wisdom. That knowledge is not explicit nor are we necessarily consciously aware of it when it influences our intuitions. It just comes up from our subconsciousness as a feeling about the right path to follow, the right thing to do. Wisdom is also veridical knowledge. It must be valid, consistent, holistic, and morally motivated. It comes only from the experiences of a lifetime that consolidate into mental models of deep reality. It is knowledge ultimately based on evolutionary truth. It cannot be otherwise since evolutionary fitness objectively requires the species to be operating in accordance with the rules of the environment.

Evolution itself is the wisdom of ordinary biology. For every prior species that has ever existed evolution made the strategic decisions through variation and natural selection. Species improved in fitness until the environments changed radically enough to require new strategies. Variation in the genetic pools provided the raw material for selection to cause both incremental improvement, to adjust the phenotypes to shifting environments, and novelty, when needed to launch a new line, so to speak. And if the changes in environments were too extreme, as in a major die-off, evolution started over with whatever remained — the rest went extinct.

Humans emerged as a species with an expanded capacity to imagine the future by taking into account environmental changes that were possible and feasible. They began to formulate their own strategies and improve their own fitness. They figured out how to control fire, how to make artificial fur out of animal hides. They learned how to survive in inclement climates. Cultures became the new ‘species’ (or sub-sub-species). But as with any emerging property or behavior, strategic thinking started out fairly weak and only a few variant members of a population ever achieved anything close to what would eventually be needed as the cultures continued to evolve. Group selection is now being recognized as the selection process that deepened our eusocial nature, but also promoted the ascension of a few wiser leaders in early human tribes. The tribes with the most dominance of cooperation and with the wisest elders were more fit than those who were less cooperative or failed to have sufficiently wise elders.

The basis of eusociality, primarily empathy and language, along with strategic thinking ability are the roots of sapience and wisdom. Stronger sapience (i.e. genetic variants that boosted expansion of the necessary brain components in fetal development) led to more successful groups, which in turn favored the increase in sapience. But it just didn’t progress far enough or fast enough to build the kind of wisdom — knowledge of how to use knowledge — needed to manage the growth and use of simple knowledge.

Ergo here we stand today, overrun with some knowledge of the natural world (including ourselves) and lots of knowledge about stuff (the human-built world) and we haven’t a clue as to how to use it appropriately to bring balance between the two realms. What passes as science today is a mere shadow of what it was and what role it played in discovering how the universe works. There are still, fortunately, a large number of scientists who keep to the old ways. But they are generally the older members of the community. Often they are the ones who have gained wisdom. They are the ones who tend to write books about what the science they practice means in the larger sense. But their voices are barely heard at all against the clatter and banging of the modern industrialized, politicized institution we call science.

Science, as it originated, still stands as an ultimate intellectual achievement. As a method for gaining knowledge, when practiced with wisdom it stands unsullied. It is the process that uses science, the low-sapient human society, that is failed. Society creates institutions that process information and use it for supposed human uses. Something has gone terribly wrong in the institutionalized science of modern times, and that something is the lack of wisdom in humans themselves.


* Lest I be accused of painting with too broad a brush I should hasten to point out that there are still many scientific fields that are pursued for the sake of gaining knowledge without a profit motive. I’ll name one, cosmology. I don’t think cosmologists and astronomers need to justify their grant proposals with anything immediately profitable or curing a disease. However, it has been getting harder and harder to get sufficient grants as national budgets are strapped and priorities increasingly focus on “practical” work. Ask any Republican congressman if he/she thinks it valuable for the NSF to fund a project to find out if there is life on other planets and see how they respond. Ask the same person how valuable it is to research the next major weapons system and you will likely get a totally different response. My feeling is that whatever funding is going toward pure research in these fields is on the basis of momentum and tradition more than choice.

Celebrate the Summer Solstice while you Can

Off the keyboard of George Mobus

Published on Question Everything on June 21, 2013

Summer_Solstice_Sunrise_over_Stonehenge_2005

Summer Solstice over Stonehenge

Discuss this article at the Epicurean Delights Smorgasbord inside the Diner

Catch My Interview with James Howard Kunstler!

Jim gave a talk at the 5th Annual Biophysical Economics Meeting. We have run into each other at various times, at conferences, or when he came to Tacoma to give a talk. Last week he e-mailed me a request to do an interview for his podcast and so we got together on the phone for it. You can catch it at: Kunstlercast

JHK, as he is referred to by his audience, writes a weekly blog called Clusterfuck Nation, published every Monday morning (usually). He is an incredibly articulate writer. Many of you may have read his life-changing book, The Long Emergency. This was a book that really got me thinking seriously about the issues.

An Overheated Boiler

I’m seeing the world as a pressure cooker or boiler that has been overheated. Some of the bolts that hold the thing together are starting to buckle and the gaskets are starting to leak. Think of all the areas of the world where steam is bursting forth. Actually try to think of a part of the world where that isn’t happening. It is a shorter list these days.

Energy costs globally are still high relative to what they were when our developed infrastructures and civilizations were in expansion. Maintenance costs for our human built world are now too high and we are seeing the beginning of it deteriorating because we cannot generate the kind of real wealth needed for reinvestment. Forget about building new things. Our access to sufficient net energy (especially per capita) is declining.

Meanwhile the smoke and mirrors illusions put forth by central banks and governments are starting to fail from the sheer pressure of reality. JHK and I talked about the situation with student debt (now topping $1 trillion) compared with the incomes they are able to get after graduation. So many of the “new” jobs being created in the US economy are junk, menial service jobs or, at best, low level manufacturing jobs (non-union) that pay miserably compared with the cost of living. Fresh graduates with non-technical degrees cannot pay off their debt with that kind of income. What happens when they decide (Kunstler calls it a “magic moment”) to simply default? Why wouldn’t they do so. That is another huge financial bubble that is about to burst. When it does it will take the whole financial system down followed by the US monetary system. Of course the government might find yet one more mirror trick to pull to buy a little time. They have become impressively good at it. But it is only buying a little time.

The combined effects of quantitative easing and the sequester is another reason why something like a student debt default would burst the boiler wide open.

Europe is in serious trouble. With the unemployment levels, especially among young males, as high as they are how can there not be significant pressures building. In Greece and Spain we’ve already seen steam escaping. The Middle East; the so-called Arab Spring is revealed for what it really is, the failure of governments to stem the rising costs of energy (including, especially, food). People in the US and other western countries would love to explain the revolts in terms of people wanting democracy but the reality is people want to be able to eat and live. They could give a rip about democracy. Just consider what has transpired in Egypt. Revolutions against governments that fail to ensure their peoples’ needs are building everywhere to one degree or another. We should get used to them, because there are no political solutions to this mess. That won’t dawn on anyone for quite a while as one regime replaces another and then, too, fails to deliver.

There are no neoclassical economic solutions either. The only economic model that comes close to explaining our predicament is the biophysical one. And it does not bring good news. It does not have any policy suggestions that would fundamentally change the trajectory we are on. Unless we find a truly viable replacement for fossil fuels, and soon, the global economic engine will grind to a halt. All we will have left is real-time solar energy.

The boiler is very close to exploding. The overheating, ironically, comes not from actual energy, but from pretending for too long that we are something we are not. We’ve borrowed so heavily from the future, a future that will never arrive, that the source of heat is the millisecond trades being carried out on-line. It is the frenetic friending going on in social media. And it is in the ever growing porn industry. We are producing nothing of lasting value and very soon, what we are producing will collapse into the void.

Nothing is Guaranteed

I feel comfortable predicting overall patterns when they are based on biophysical principles. You deplete the source of 80+% of your energy to the point that it can no longer be economically extracted and it isn’t hard to extrapolate the consequences. But I don’t usually like to predict timing. In a chaotic system such as our global civilization it is hard to say exactly when or even how the collapse will proceed. However, it seems to me that the pressure has grown so high, all over the globe, that calamity is near at hand. I still won’t predict how it will play out; too many variables to consider. But I will say I think it will be very dramatic and very likely proceed rapidly.

So once again I recommend that people make a concerted effort to form permaculture communities. I’ve written about a feasible living situation, with amplification here and here.

In my opinion such communities are the only way in which some semblance of sustainable culture can be achieved. In addition to permaculture communities I have also suggested that some hardy souls might adopt a nomadic hunter-gatherer lifestyle in order to avoid aggressive bands and accommodate climate shifts. Here are some of my past writings for those who may be new to QE and have not seen this body of work yet.

While I do consider these steps as requisite to survival in a collapsing civilization I will not claim they are sufficient or a guarantee for survival. Our world will be in chaos for some time to come. Anything can happen. We cannot really predict what the climate changes that will be experienced in various regions will be. There are regional models that suggest some areas will be more stable than others in terms of being more like what we have now. But no one really knows. These are just models of a phenomenon that we have never seen before.

By evolutionary theory, if enough such communities (permaculture and hunter-gatherer) form in enough different regions, then there is some likelihood that a few of these will survive through the ensuing bottleneck and provide the seeds of a distant future population. It is a game of chance.

Though there is no guarantee that this will work for every such community, I feel certain it is guaranteed that loners, survivalists, and city folk will eventually succumb to the selection forces at work in a strange new world.

Organizing and implementing a permaculture community takes time and a lot of up-front effort. With the pressures on civilization’s boiler what they are, it would be prudent to get started as quickly as you can. It is funny. When I first started to realize what the consequences of energy depletion and global warming would be I assumed that I would not bear witness to them. Now I suspect I will have a ringside seat.

Enjoy the Summer (If You Can)

We’ve already had some disruptive weather in various parts of the world. Climate change deniers are still out there calling it a liberal hoax. But by simply integrating over the frequency and strength of these anomalies it is pretty evident that the climate is already out of whack. You may get lucky and have a relatively calm summer. But many places are experiencing hot spells and drought. Unfortunately it is too early to see if some trends are emerging. Various regions have had long drought, for example, and then, suddenly, rains. It may take several decades to decipher any long-term trends. But even then maybe not. We just surpassed the 400 ppm mark for CO2 levels in the atmosphere. And there is no sign of easing back on emissions, even with recession lowering demand in the western world. China has stepped up its burning of coal and continues (at least for a while) to increase its contribution to global warming. We may never see any real patterns emerge, at least not for thousands of years. Adaptability is the watchword.

In spite of it all, if your weather is cooperating, drag out your hammock, your six pack, and your BBQ grill and enjoy it while you can. Not doing so might make you feel more socially responsible, but it won’t make any difference in terms of where we are headed. That is baked into the cake.

Knarf plays the Doomer Blues

https://image.freepik.com/free-icon/musical-notes-symbols_318-29778.jpg

Support the Diner

Search the Diner

Surveys & Podcasts

NEW SURVEY

Renewable Energy

VISIT AND FOLLOW US ON DINER SOUNDCLOUD

" As a daily reader of all of the doomsday blogs, e.g. the Diner, Nature Bats Last, Zerohedge, Scribbler, etc… I must say that I most look forward to your “off the microphone” rants. Your analysis, insights, and conclusions are always logical, well supported, and clearly articulated – a trifecta not frequently achieved."- Joe D

Archives

Global Diners

View Full Diner Stats

Global Population Stats

Enter a Country Name for full Population & Demographic Statistics

Lake Mead Watch

http://si.wsj.net/public/resources/images/NA-BX686_LakeMe_G_20130816175615.jpg

loading

Inside the Diner

The Rain from Isaias is now falling Mainly on Surly.  Got Kayak?RE

It.s a Hurricane.  Officially.  Landfall near LD in SC.REhttps://www.npr.org/2020/08/03/898620721/tropical-storm-isaias-expected...

Storm surge is going to slam Surly in Norfolk.RE[embed=1111,666]

"No Silver Bullet".The virus is too much like the Flu.  You'll see it reappear every year, with some mutations.  Kiss goodbye BAU until it wipes out at least 1/4 of the Global Population, which is the Biblical Standard for the 4 Horsemen of the Apocal...

Recent Facebook Posts

No recent Facebook posts to show

Diner Twitter feed

Knarf’s Knewz

Akash Goel is an assistant professor of medicine a [...]

Sanofi said it has filed a legal challenge to the [...]

NEW YORK (Reuters) - Late in March, Laura Gross, 7 [...]

A man sunbathes at Talamanca beach in Ibiza on Jul [...]

Diner Newz Feeds

  • Surly
  • Agelbert
  • Knarf
  • Golden Oxen
  • Frostbite Falls

Doomstead Diner Daily July 17The Diner Daily is av [...]

Doomstead Diner Daily July 16The Diner Daily is av [...]

The point being to wear down the "precariat [...]

Quote from: UnhingedBecauseLucid on March 18, 2019 [...]

CleanTechnicaSupport CleanTechnica’s work via dona [...]

QuoteThe FACT that the current incredibly STUPID e [...]

Akash Goel is an assistant professor of medicine a [...]

Sanofi said it has filed a legal challenge to the [...]

NEW YORK (Reuters) - Late in March, Laura Gross, 7 [...]

A man sunbathes at Talamanca beach in Ibiza on Jul [...]

Quote from: K-Dog on February 24, 2020, 06:23:52 P [...]

I wonder how much these coins have been debased? [...]

Precious tip of the day.....Buy silver NOW  She [...]

Scientists have unlocked the power of gold atoms b [...]

Quote from: azozeo on August 14, 2019, 10:41:33 AM [...]

I am OUT of Jury Service!  I got summoned to be a [...]

Quote from: Eddie on May 16, 2020, 10:30:30 AMQuot [...]

Quote from: RE on May 16, 2020, 08:20:06 AMQuote f [...]

Quote from: RE on May 16, 2020, 08:20:06 AMQuote f [...]

Alternate Perspectives

  • Two Ice Floes
  • Jumping Jack Flash
  • From Filmers to Farmers

The Flim-Flam Men by Cognitive Dissonance   I suspect if average Joe or Jane were asked to identify [...]

The Coming War With China Re-posted from CaitlinJohnstone.com   (Have you noticed that (suddenly) Ch [...]

Papers Please! By Cognitive Dissonance     For those who may not know, Mrs. Cog and I live in the mo [...]

Lies, Damn Lies and Coronavirus Statistics By Cognitive Dissonance     “Never believe anything in po [...]

The Decline and Fall of Civil Society Chapter One By Cognitive Dissonance     From my perspective at [...]

Event Update For 2020-08-01http://jumpingjackflashhypothesis.blogspot.com/2012/02/jumping-jack-flash-hypothesis-its-gas.htmlThe [...]

2020 - JUL - Spotlight StoriesCategory: Variety Pack2020-07-01 - Hundreds of elephants mysteriously dying, mostly around waterhole [...]

2020 - Swimming Pool Deaths2020-08-01 - Man, 69, dies after being pulled unconscious from swimming pool at home on King Ban Dri [...]

In other words, treat COVID-19 like a dry-run for the upcoming "big one" [...]

However don't expect strikes and yellow vests to fix underlying problems [...]

So how many more times are we going to hear that this is our last chance to take action in order to [...]

This is definitely not a bona fide post [...]

Daily Doom Photo

man-watching-tv

Sustainability

  • Peak Surfer
  • SUN
  • Transition Voice

The Great Pause Week 20: Coronation Part I"With the number of Covid patients closing in on 20 million, epidemiologists hope the virus has [...]

"Your future is a story you were told, like Santa Claus or the Tooth Fairy."Thirty years a [...]

The Great Pause Week 18: Midwinter Down Under"Our objectives are low-tech, anti-fragile, and human-centered. By using tools of permaculture [...]

The Great Pause Week 17: Toppling Mount Rushmore"We are being schooled in the deficiencies of human neurobiology."President Cobblepot and [...]

The Great Pause Week 16: Cash Bounties for Scalps"The word “redskin” has been coined to refer to these trophies."Paris, June 15, 1756. Anti [...]

The folks at Windward have been doing great work at living sustainably for many years now.  Part of [...]

 The Daily SUN☼ Building a Better Tomorrow by Sustaining Universal Needs April 3, 2017 Powering Down [...]

Off the keyboard of Bob Montgomery Follow us on Twitter @doomstead666 Friend us on Facebook Publishe [...]

Visit SUN on Facebook Here [...]

What extinction crisis? Believe it or not, there are still climate science deniers out there. And th [...]

My new book, Abolish Oil Now, will talk about why the climate movement has failed and what we can do [...]

A new climate protest movement out of the UK has taken Europe by storm and made governments sit down [...]

The success of Apollo 11 flipped the American public from skeptics to fans. The climate movement nee [...]

Today's movement to abolish fossil fuels can learn from two different paths that the British an [...]

Top Commentariats

  • Our Finite World
  • Economic Undertow

THANK YOU Ed, Gail and Xabier for your well wishes I really appreciated them I now have had the test [...]

In reply to Tim Groves. but okay, we all filter information through our minds in imperfect ways, so [...]

In reply to Lidia17. These teachers may be protesting themselves out of a future career. Remember Ro [...]

In reply to Robert Firth. Anne of Cleves may have been a bloke, Robert. Henry and Anne never consumm [...]

In reply to Tim Groves. new PC... cool. it must be... bAU tonight, baby! [...]

Steve seeing as how this is reante's fourth in a row, lemme know if I'm posting up too muc [...]

Hey Steve what do you think if the idea that the 1K/mo digital UBI for US citizens 18 and older (plu [...]

Who was it who used to argue here years ago about how much fat could be cut from the system? Was it [...]

Independent to me means non-commercial. They may sell half or full beefs and five or ten ton of hay [...]

Independent producers? Capitalism will make short work of them just as they did of all of the family [...]

RE Economics

Going Cashless

Off the keyboard of RE Follow us on Twitter @doomstead666...

Simplifying the Final Countdown

Off the keyboard of RE Follow us on Twitter @doomstead666...

Bond Market Collapse and the Banning of Cash

Off the microphone of RE Follow us on Twitter @doomstead666...

Do Central Bankers Recognize there is NO GROWTH?

Discuss this article @ the ECONOMICS TABLE inside the...

Singularity of the Dollar

Off the Keyboard of RE Follow us on Twitter @doomstead666...

Kurrency Kollapse: To Print or Not To Print?

Off the microphone of RE Follow us on Twitter @doomstead666...

SWISSIE CAPITULATION!

Off the microphone of RE Follow us on Twitter @doomstead666...

Of Heat Sinks & Debt Sinks: A Thermodynamic View of Money

Off the keyboard of RE Follow us on Twitter @doomstead666...

Merry Doomy Christmas

Off the keyboard of RE Follow us on Twitter @doomstead666...

Peak Customers: The Final Liquidation Sale

Off the keyboard of RE Follow us on Twitter @doomstead666...

Collapse Fiction

Useful Links

Technical Journals

This study was designed to identify trends in maximum, minimum, and average air temperatures in the [...]

Cultural sites are particularly important to Indigenous peoples, their identity, cosmology and socio [...]

Globally, subtropical circulation in the lower troposphere is characterized by anticyclones over the [...]

Numerical models are being used for the simulation of recent climate conditions as well as future pr [...]