AuthorTopic: First Humans in Australia Arrived Thousands of Years Earlier Than We Thought  (Read 3573 times)

Offline azozeo

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Re: First Humans in Australia Arrived Thousands of Years Earlier Than We Thought
« Reply #15 on: September 19, 2019, 03:23:23 PM »
Those might be "YOUR" relative's, but there sure not mine  :icon_mrgreen:  :icon_sunny:
I know exactly what you mean. Let me tell you why you’re here. You’re here because you know something. What you know you can’t explain, but you feel it. You’ve felt it your entire life, that there’s something wrong with the world.
You don’t know what it is but its there, like a splinter in your mind

Offline RE

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Re: First Humans in Australia Arrived Thousands of Years Earlier Than We Thought
« Reply #16 on: September 19, 2019, 03:39:25 PM »
Those might be "YOUR" relative's, but there sure not mine  :icon_mrgreen:  :icon_sunny:

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Offline azozeo

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Re: First Humans in Australia Arrived Thousands of Years Earlier Than We Thought
« Reply #17 on: September 19, 2019, 06:05:52 PM »
Those might be "YOUR" relative's, but there sure not mine  :icon_mrgreen:  :icon_sunny:

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RE

Nor am I Nummo

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I know exactly what you mean. Let me tell you why you’re here. You’re here because you know something. What you know you can’t explain, but you feel it. You’ve felt it your entire life, that there’s something wrong with the world.
You don’t know what it is but its there, like a splinter in your mind

Offline azozeo

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Re: First Humans in Australia Arrived Thousands of Years Earlier Than We Thought
« Reply #18 on: September 19, 2019, 06:38:58 PM »
Those might be "YOUR" relative's, but there sure not mine  :icon_mrgreen:  :icon_sunny:

AZ's Relatives

 :icon_mrgreen:

RE



Try to keep up ....


<a href="http://www.youtube.com/v/OMx9R6pZQhg&fs=1" target="_blank" class="new_win">http://www.youtube.com/v/OMx9R6pZQhg&fs=1</a>
I know exactly what you mean. Let me tell you why you’re here. You’re here because you know something. What you know you can’t explain, but you feel it. You’ve felt it your entire life, that there’s something wrong with the world.
You don’t know what it is but its there, like a splinter in your mind

Offline RE

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🧔 Researchers confirm timeline of human presence on Madagascar
« Reply #19 on: October 09, 2019, 11:39:32 AM »
https://scx1.b-cdn.net/csz/news/800/2019/67-researchersc.jpg

October 9, 2019
Researchers confirm timeline of human presence on Madagascar

by Kevin Sliman, Pennsylvania State University


Kristina Douglass and her team systematically reviewed all of the archaeological radiocarbon dates for Madagascar and confirmed the timeline of human presence on Madagascar.

A team of researchers has confirmed that humans arrived on Madagascar about 11,000 years ago, much earlier than commonly accepted estimates of 2,000 years.

Kristina Douglass, assistant professor of anthropology in the College of the Liberal Arts and a faculty member in the Institutes of Energy and the Environment, led the team of researchers who worked on this project. She said the debate over when people came to Madagascar has long been contentious.

For example, in 2018, two papers by different teams of researchers presented wildly different estimates of when people first arrived on the island, one estimating that Madagascar was settled 11,000 years ago, and the other arguing that people first arrived only 1,500 years ago.

To settle this debate, Douglass and her team collected all of the radiocarbon dates that have ever been generated for archaeological sites on the African island. Their work resulted in the most comprehensive database of radiocarbon dates for the island.

"The African continent has some of the oldest human remains on record, some of which are millions of years old," Douglass said. "Yet, previous research suggested that this huge island that is not that far off the coast of Africa doesn't get settled by people until about 2,000 years ago."

To determine the timeline of human settlement, the researchers used statistical models to rank the dates using specific criteria, including whether the dated samples were clearly associated with human activities and whether the samples came from long or short-lived species, so that both the reliability and precision of radiocarbon dates could be evaluated. This method of "chronometric hygiene" had never been done for Madagascar.

"We looked at the type of material to see whether or not there was built in error based on the type of material," Douglass said. "We took all of those criteria that we called 'quality control' for those dates, and we fed that into a system where we ranked the dates to know which dates are the most reliable based on our criteria and which are the least reliable."

What Douglass and her team suggest in their paper is that the 11,000-year estimate of human presence is reliable.

Despite the reliability of this early arrival estimate, it is still unclear whether the evidence from 11,000 years ago is from permanent human settlements or if humans just visited the island temporarily, Douglass said.
A map of sites in Madagascar used in the systematic review of archaeological radiocarbon dates by Kristina Douglass and her team. Credit: Kristina Douglass

"Somebody could have floated over to Madagascar by accident and left some remains," she said.

The team's paper also supports current evidence that cities started to emerge on Madagascar about 1,000 years ago.

Douglass said that confirming the timeline of human settlement is important for historical reasons, but it also has critical meaning for today's changing world.

"The bigger context of why this matters is because this island with some of the world's greatest biodiversity hotspots is going through significant environmental change, today and within the last 2,000 years," Douglass said. "A huge number of animals went extinct on the island about 1,000 years ago—pygmy hippos, giant elephant birds, man-sized lemurs, giant tortoises."

Douglass said it is important for understanding today's environmental challenges to determine if these animals went extinct rapidly after a short co-existence with newly arrived people or if the extinctions were a more complex, longer-term process, involving climate change and human activity.

"If people arrived 1,500 years ago, then within 500 years, all of these animals go extinct and all of these changes happen," Douglass said. "If people arrived 11,000 years ago, people have been coexisting with these environments for a much longer time, so the changes we see may be less abrupt or may have been caused by a significant shift in how people were using the landscape."

Douglass added that human presence should not be used as the only indication of whether an environment is going to change. Human activity should be considered within a constellation of human-environment-climate dynamics.

"If people were there 11,000 years ago and practicing a certain kind of subsistence, that might be very different from 1,000 years ago when Madagascar is swept into booming Indian Ocean trade networks and people start building ports and cities," Douglass said. "That is when we start to see the extinctions happen."
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Offline RE

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🧔 Cave fossils show modern humans shared memes with Neanderthals
« Reply #20 on: May 14, 2020, 02:17:14 AM »
https://www.cnet.com/news/cave-fossils-show-modern-humans-shared-memes-with-neanderthals/

Cave fossils show modern humans shared memes with Neanderthals

New research suggests Homo sapiens and Neanderthals coexisted for longer than previously believed, allowing cultural ideas to be shared.

Steph Panecasio
May 12, 2020 8:46 p.m. PT

The discovery suggests the cultures may have mixed during this time.
Tsenka Tsanova/

A handful of fossils and tools unearthed in a Bulgarian cave suggest modern humans were present in Europe some 46,000 years ago -- and they likely interacted with Neanderthals for longer than previously thought.

According to two studies, published in Nature and Nature Ecology & Evolution this week, the discovery of early modern human remains in south-east Europe are the oldest evidence of Homo sapiens in the region from a time known as the initial upper paleolithic. In addition, an assortment of unique stone tools that exhibit features of both Homo sapiens and Neanderthal tool-making are present at the site, suggesting the cultures may have mixed during this time.

The discovery, located within the Bacho Kiro Cave in Bulgaria, consisted of remains such as bones and a single tooth, as well as ornaments including a pendant made from bear teeth. The cave already holds some significance, with a history of Homo sapiens archaeological finds discovered within its walls dating back to the 1970s.

Morphological analysis of the remains, and sequencing of the hardy mitochondrial DNA and protein from bone fragments, indicate they belonged to a group of Homo sapiens who likely made their home in the cave some 42,000 to 45,000 years ago. Radiocarbon dating analysis pushes that age out to somewhere around 46,000 years. Neanderthals are believed to have lived until about 40,000 years ago.

While this could help scientists understand how old modern humans are, it's equally important to consider the significance of the ornaments present in the find and how Homo sapiens' tool-making may have been adopted by another species.

These ornaments lend extra evidence to the theory Homo sapiens crossed paths with the last of the Neanderthals, who used similar tools and pendants, and may have influenced parts of their culture. Previous evidence has also established the two species mated -- and modern humans share some Neanderthal DNA, so scientists are aware of the species overlap. The fossil finds increase the time period when scientists believe the two species likely mixed and traded memes.

And we're not talking about funny images of a cat here -- these are memes in the traditional definition first described by Richard Dawkins: Cultural elements or behaviors passed from one generation to the next.

The exact chronological gap between when Homo sapiens first arrived and the decline of the Neanderthals remains to be determined, but the evidence suggest the two species were likely trading cultural ideas -- sharing memes, if you will -- with each other for longer than scientists had previously hypothesized.
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Offline RE

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https://phys.org/news/2020-05-chimpanzees-evolution-human-speech-ancient.html

May 26, 2020
Chimpanzees help trace the evolution of human speech back to ancient ancestors

by Alice Scott, University of Warwick

Two Chimpanzees grooming each other. Credit: Catherine Hobaiter

One of the most promising theories for the evolution of human speech has finally received support from chimpanzee communication, in a study conducted by a group of researchers led by the University of Warwick.

The evolution of speech is one of the longest-standing puzzles of evolution. However, inklings of a possible solution started emerging some years ago when monkey signals involving a quick succession of mouth open-close cycles were shown to exhibit the same pace of human spoken language.

In the paper 'Chimpanzee lip-smacks confirm primate continuity for speech-rhythm evolution', published today, the 27th May, in the journal Biology Letters, a consortium of researchers, including St Andrews University and the University of York, led by the University of Warwick, have found that the rhythm of chimpanzee lip-smacks also exhibit a speech-like signature—a critical step towards a possible solution to the puzzle of speech evolution.

Just like each and every language in the world, monkey lip-smacks have previously shown a rhythm of about 5 cycles/second (i.e. 5Hz). This exact rhythm had been identified in other primate species, including gibbon song and orangutan consonant-like and vowel-like calls.

However there was no evidence from African apes, such as gorillas, bonobos and chimpanzees—who are closer related to humans, meaning the plausibility of this theory remained on hold.

Now, the team of researchers using data from 4 chimpanzee populations have confirmed that they too produce mouth signals at a speech-like rhythm. The findings show there has been most likely a continuous path in the evolution of primate mouth signals with a 5Hz rhythm. Proving that evolution recycled primate mouth signals into the vocal system that one day was to become speech.
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Chimp lip-smacks as they're grooming. Credit: Katie Slocombe

African great apes, the closest species to humans, had never been studied for the rhythm of their communication signals. Researchers investigated the rhythm of chimpanzee lip-smacks, produce by individuals while they groom another and found that chimpanzees produce lip-smacks at an average speech-like rhythm of 4.15 Hz.

Researchers used data across two captive and two wild populations, using video recordings collected at Edinburgh Zoo and Leipzig Zoo, and recordings of wild communities including the Kanyawara and the Waibira community, both in Uganda.

Dr. Adriano Lameira, from the Department of Psychology at the University of Warwick comments:

"Our results prove that spoken language was pulled together within our ancestral lineage using "ingredients" that were already available and in use by other primates and hominids. This dispels much of the scientific enigma that language evolution has represented so far. We can also be reassured that our ignorance has been partly a consequence of our huge underestimation of the vocal and cognitive capacities of our great ape cousins.

"We found pronounced differences in rhythm between chimpanzee populations, suggesting that these are not the automatic and stereotypical signals so often attributed to our ape cousins. Instead, just like in humans, we should start seriously considering that individual differences, social conventions and environmental factors may play a role in how chimpanzees engage "in conversation" with one another.

"If we continue searching, new clues will certainly unveil themselves. Now it's a matter of mastering the political and societal power to preserve these precious populations in the wild and continue enabling scientists to look further."
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