AuthorTopic: Fueled by drug crisis, U.S. life expectancy declines for a second straight year  (Read 813 times)

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https://www.washingtonpost.com/national/health-science/fueled-by-drug-crisis-us-life-expectancy-declines-for-a-second-straight-year/2017/12/20/2e3f8dea-e596-11e7-ab50-621fe0588340_story.html?utm_term=.d7b9b7c84f81

Health & Science
Fueled by drug crisis, U.S. life expectancy declines for a second straight year
By Lenny Bernstein and Christopher Ingraham December 21 at 12:01 AM

American life expectancy at birth declined for the second consecutive year in 2016, fueled by a staggering 21 percent rise in the death rate from drug overdoses, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reported Thursday.

The United States has not seen two years of declining life expectancy since 1962 and 1963, when influenza caused an inordinate number of deaths. In 1993, there was a one-year drop during the worst of the AIDS epidemic.

“I think we should take it very seriously,” said Bob Anderson, chief of the Mortality Statistics Branch at the National Center for Health Statistics, which is part of the CDC. “If you look at the other developed countries in the world, they’re not seeing this kind of thing. Life expectancy is going up.”

The development is a dismal sign for the United States, which boasts some of the world’s highest spending on medical care, and more evidence of the toll the nation’s opioid crisis is exacting on younger and middle-aged Americans, experts said.

More than 42,000 Americans died of opioid overdoses alone in 2016, a 28 percent increase over 2015. When deaths from drugs such as cocaine, methamphetamine and benzodiazepines are included, the overall increase was 21 percent.

A multiyear decline in life expectancy is more commonly associated with AIDS epidemics in southern and eastern Africa or wars in Syria and Afghanistan, said Majid Ezzati, a professor of public health at Imperial College London who has studied life expectancy.

“The story does come down to young people,” he said. “It’s the overdose story, to a large extent.”


Of the nation’s 10 leading causes of death, significant increases last year came in unintentional injuries (which include drug overdoses), Alzheimer’s disease and suicides. (National Center for Health Statistics)

The data a year ago set off alarms when they showed that in 2015 the United States experienced its first decline in life expectancy since that 1993 dip. Experts pointed then to the “diseases of despair” — drug overdoses, suicides and alcoholism — as well as small increases in deaths from heart disease, strokes and diabetes.

The 2016 data shows that just three major causes of death are responsible: unintentional injuries, Alzheimer’s disease and suicides, with the bulk of the difference attributable to the 63,632 people who died of overdoses. That total was an increase of more than 11,000 over the 52,404 who died of the same cause in 2015.

Deaths from fentanyl and other synthetic opioids more than doubled from the previous year. Heroin and prescription opioid overdose deaths also rose, but more modestly.

At the same time, a long decline in deaths from heart disease continued a six-year trend of leveling out, Anderson said. The small decrease last year in the rate of the nation’s leading cause of death no longer canceled the drug epidemic’s impact on life expectancy, Anderson said.


“The key factor is the increase in drug overdose deaths,” he said.

Overall, life expectancy dropped by a tenth of a year, from 78.7 to 78.6. It fell two-tenths of a year for men, who have much higher overdose death rates, from 76.3 to 76.1 years. Women’s life expectancy held steady at 81.1 years.

The number of people who fatally overdosed on fentanyl and other synthetic opiates soared from 9,580 in 2015 to 19,413 in 2016. Deaths due to heroin were up nearly 20 percent, and deaths from other opioid painkillers such as hydrocodone and oxycodone were up 14 percent.

“It’s even worse than it looks,” said Keith Humphreys, an addiction specialist at Stanford University. Given that research has shown official figures could be undercounting the true number of opioid deaths by 20 percent or more, “we could easily be at 50,000 opioid deaths last year,” he said. “This means that even if you ignored deaths from all other drugs, the opioid epidemic alone is deadlier than the AIDS epidemic at its peak.”

And while only limited provisional data is available for 2017, things don’t look any better.

“My guess is that when all of the data are in that the [2017] trend line will be at least as steep as for 2016, if not steeper,” Anderson said.

Opioid death rates continue to increase sharply in the United States, with a 28 percent rise in 2016. (National Center for Health Statistics)

While drug mortality has been increasing among all age groups since 1999, it’s highest among those ages 25 to 54. Their fatal overdose rate for all drugs was roughly 35 cases per 100,000 individuals in 2016, compared with 12 deaths per 100,000 for people under 24 and six deaths per 100,000 among seniors 65 and older.

Men of all ages (26 deaths per 100,000) are twice as likely to die of a drug overdose as women (13 per 100,000). At the state level, West Virginia stands alone as the epicenter of overdose mortality, with 52 deaths per 100,000 residents in 2016. The next two states, New Hampshire and Ohio, each saw 39 deaths per 100,000 last year.

“This is no longer an opioid crisis,” said Patrick Kennedy, a former Rhode Island congressman who was a member of President Trump’s Commission on Combating Drug Addiction and the Opioid Crisis. “This is a moral crisis . . . we know how to answer this problem, but we can’t get around our own prejudices.”

Kennedy said medication-assisted therapies, including newer injectable drugs that block opioid cravings, are crucial to curbing the crisis. But there is “a bias in recovery circles” against such treatments, with the attitude that “you’re not supposed to take medications — that’s not called sobriety,” he said.

On July 31, the commission recommended Trump declare the crisis a national emergency, a designation that could have made emergency funding available. Instead, the president in October declared a public health emergency; he has since devoted little additional resources to the problem.

“He gave a fantastic speech,” Kennedy said of Trump. “But so far he’s all talk and no follow-through.” The political dithering cost 174 deaths a day from drug overdoses in 2016 — one every 8½ minutes, he said.

The 10 leading causes of death accounted for roughly three-fourths of the 2.7 million deaths last year. Rates for heart disease, cancer, chronic lower respiratory diseases, strokes, diabetes, influenza and pneumonia, and kidney disease fell, as did the nation’s overall death rate.

The 9.7 percent jump in unintentional injuries, which includes drug overdoses, motor vehicle crashes and other kinds of accidents, pushed that category into third place overall among causes of death. Alzheimer’s disease deaths rose by 3.1 percent and suicides increased by 1.5 percent.

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Last year, some experts attributed the rising toll of Alzheimer’s disease to more frequent reporting of it. But Anderson said a second year of substantial increases probably indicates that more people are dying of the disease.

“As people avoid [cancer and heart disease], they’re going to survive long enough to die of Alzheimer’s,” he said.

The report also noted a small but statistically insignificant decline in infant mortality.
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💉 Jump In Overdoses Shows Opioid Epidemic Has Worsened
« Reply #1 on: March 07, 2018, 12:03:06 AM »
I think I need to get started on a Heroin addiction.

RE

https://www.npr.org/sections/health-shots/2018/03/06/590923149/jump-in-overdoses-shows-opioid-epidemic-has-worsened

Public Health
Jump In Overdoses Shows Opioid Epidemic Has Worsened
3:27


March 6, 20181:02 PM ET
Heard on All Things Considered
Rob Stein

Emergency rooms are seeing a jump in opioid overdoses. Timely treatment with naloxone can reverse the effects of opioids.
Spencer Platt/Getty Images

There's more bad news about the nation's devastating opioid epidemic.

In just one year, overdoses from opioids jumped by about 30 percent, according to a report released Tuesday by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

The overall increase in opioid overdoses seen in hospital emergency rooms between the third quarter of 2016 and the third quarter of 2017 occurred across the nation. Some parts of the country experienced far greater increases, while a few have reported declines, the analysis shows.

"We have an emergency on our hands," says acting CDC Director Anne Schuchat. "The fast-moving opioid overdose epidemic continues and is accelerating."

The largest regional increase occurred in the Midwest, which saw a 69.7 percent jump in opioid overdoses, according to the report. The jump was driven in part by a 109 percent increase in Wisconsin. Overdoses increased 40.3 percent in the West, 21.3 percent in the Northeast, 20.2 percent in the Southwest and 14 percent in the Southeast.

"We saw, sadly, that in every region, in every age group of adults, in both men and women, overdoses from opioids are increasing," Schuchat says.

The latest data could underestimate the overdoses, because many people who overdose never end up in the emergency room. "It might be even worse," Schuchat says.

The report didn't specify why overdoses vary across the country. But one factor is probably the differences in availability of newer, highly potent illegal opioids, such as fentanyl, which have been flooding the country in recent years, Schuchat says.
Life Expectancy Drops Again As Opioid Deaths Surge In U.S.
Shots - Health News
Life Expectancy Drops Again As Opioid Deaths Surge In U.S.

"We think that the number of people addicted to opioids is relatively stable. But the substances are more dangerous than five years ago," Schuchat says. "The margin of error for taking one of these substances is small now and people may not know what they have."

The supply of those more dangerous drugs is increasing faster in some parts of the country than in others, which may help explain the geographic variations, Schuchat says.

"Overall as a nation, we are still failing to adequately respond to the opioid addiction epidemic," says Dr. Andrew Kolodny, co-director of opioid policy research at Brandeis University. "It is concerning that 20 years into this epidemic, it is still getting worse. The number of Americans experiencing opioid overdoses is still increasing."

Although the Trump administration recently declared the epidemic to be an emergency, a significant increase in funding is urgently needed to treat Americans addicted to opioids. Kolodny says.

"It's kind of like pointing to a burning building and saying, 'Oh, there's a fire there. There's an emergency.' And then not calling the fire department and watching it burn down," Kolodny says. "There's been a lot of talk from Congress and from the administration and a recognition that we need to do something about this problem. But nothing yet has happened."

Others say the key is integrating addiction treatment better into the health care system. For example, emergency room staff need better training to make sure people with substance-use disorder get follow-up addiction treatment, says Jessica Hulsey Nickel, president and chief executive officer of the Addiction Policy Forum. Too often, addicts are simply revived and sent home without follow-up care, only to overdose again, she says.

"We can use this near-death experience — use it as moment to change that person's life," Nickel says.

The latest analysis is an attempt by the CDC to track the opioid epidemic more closely, Schuchat says. Previously, the agency looked at death from opioids, which lag behind reports from emergency rooms.

"We wanted more timely information," Schuchat says.

The analysis was based on about 91 million emergency room visits that occurred between July 2016 and September 2017, including 142,557 visits that were suspected opioid overdoses.

That survey showed an increase of 29.7 percent in 52 jurisdictions in 45 states between July through September 2016 and the same period in 2017, according to the report.

The researchers also analyzed 45 million emergency department visits that occurred in 16 states during the same period, which included 119,198 suspected opioid overdoses.

That analysis showed a 34.5 percent increase between the same periods in 2016 and 2017. But those increases varied dramatically from state to state, even within a region.

For example, overdoses increased 105 percent in Delaware, compared with 80.6 percent in Pennsylvania and 34 percent in Maine. Overdoses may have actually slightly decreased in Massachusetts, New Hampshire and Rhode Island. In Kentucky, the CDC's analysis showed a 15 percent drop in overdoses.
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Offline Surly1

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Re: 💉 Jump In Overdoses Shows Opioid Epidemic Has Worsened
« Reply #2 on: March 07, 2018, 03:18:00 AM »
I think I need to get started on a Heroin addiction.

RE

https://www.npr.org/sections/health-shots/2018/03/06/590923149/jump-in-overdoses-shows-opioid-epidemic-has-worsened

Public Health
Jump In Overdoses Shows Opioid Epidemic Has Worsened

Much overblown as a retirement strategy. I thought the same thing, as I was taking significant doses of Vicodin in convalescence.

Fine until the constipation catches up with you. Death is preferable.
"It is difficult to write a paradiso when all the superficial indications are that you ought to write an apocalypse." -Ezra Pound

Offline Eddie

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Re: 💉 Jump In Overdoses Shows Opioid Epidemic Has Worsened
« Reply #3 on: March 07, 2018, 05:23:06 AM »
I think I need to get started on a Heroin addiction.

RE

https://www.npr.org/sections/health-shots/2018/03/06/590923149/jump-in-overdoses-shows-opioid-epidemic-has-worsened

Public Health
Jump In Overdoses Shows Opioid Epidemic Has Worsened
3:27


March 6, 20181:02 PM ET
Heard on All Things Considered
Rob Stein

Emergency rooms are seeing a jump in opioid overdoses. Timely treatment with naloxone can reverse the effects of opioids.
Spencer Platt/Getty Images

There's more bad news about the nation's devastating opioid epidemic.

In just one year, overdoses from opioids jumped by about 30 percent, according to a report released Tuesday by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

The overall increase in opioid overdoses seen in hospital emergency rooms between the third quarter of 2016 and the third quarter of 2017 occurred across the nation. Some parts of the country experienced far greater increases, while a few have reported declines, the analysis shows.

"We have an emergency on our hands," says acting CDC Director Anne Schuchat. "The fast-moving opioid overdose epidemic continues and is accelerating."

The largest regional increase occurred in the Midwest, which saw a 69.7 percent jump in opioid overdoses, according to the report. The jump was driven in part by a 109 percent increase in Wisconsin. Overdoses increased 40.3 percent in the West, 21.3 percent in the Northeast, 20.2 percent in the Southwest and 14 percent in the Southeast.

"We saw, sadly, that in every region, in every age group of adults, in both men and women, overdoses from opioids are increasing," Schuchat says.

The latest data could underestimate the overdoses, because many people who overdose never end up in the emergency room. "It might be even worse," Schuchat says.

The report didn't specify why overdoses vary across the country. But one factor is probably the differences in availability of newer, highly potent illegal opioids, such as fentanyl, which have been flooding the country in recent years, Schuchat says.
Life Expectancy Drops Again As Opioid Deaths Surge In U.S.
Shots - Health News
Life Expectancy Drops Again As Opioid Deaths Surge In U.S.

"We think that the number of people addicted to opioids is relatively stable. But the substances are more dangerous than five years ago," Schuchat says. "The margin of error for taking one of these substances is small now and people may not know what they have."

The supply of those more dangerous drugs is increasing faster in some parts of the country than in others, which may help explain the geographic variations, Schuchat says.

"Overall as a nation, we are still failing to adequately respond to the opioid addiction epidemic," says Dr. Andrew Kolodny, co-director of opioid policy research at Brandeis University. "It is concerning that 20 years into this epidemic, it is still getting worse. The number of Americans experiencing opioid overdoses is still increasing."

Although the Trump administration recently declared the epidemic to be an emergency, a significant increase in funding is urgently needed to treat Americans addicted to opioids. Kolodny says.

"It's kind of like pointing to a burning building and saying, 'Oh, there's a fire there. There's an emergency.' And then not calling the fire department and watching it burn down," Kolodny says. "There's been a lot of talk from Congress and from the administration and a recognition that we need to do something about this problem. But nothing yet has happened."

Others say the key is integrating addiction treatment better into the health care system. For example, emergency room staff need better training to make sure people with substance-use disorder get follow-up addiction treatment, says Jessica Hulsey Nickel, president and chief executive officer of the Addiction Policy Forum. Too often, addicts are simply revived and sent home without follow-up care, only to overdose again, she says.

"We can use this near-death experience — use it as moment to change that person's life," Nickel says.

The latest analysis is an attempt by the CDC to track the opioid epidemic more closely, Schuchat says. Previously, the agency looked at death from opioids, which lag behind reports from emergency rooms.

"We wanted more timely information," Schuchat says.

The analysis was based on about 91 million emergency room visits that occurred between July 2016 and September 2017, including 142,557 visits that were suspected opioid overdoses.

That survey showed an increase of 29.7 percent in 52 jurisdictions in 45 states between July through September 2016 and the same period in 2017, according to the report.

The researchers also analyzed 45 million emergency department visits that occurred in 16 states during the same period, which included 119,198 suspected opioid overdoses.

That analysis showed a 34.5 percent increase between the same periods in 2016 and 2017. But those increases varied dramatically from state to state, even within a region.

For example, overdoses increased 105 percent in Delaware, compared with 80.6 percent in Pennsylvania and 34 percent in Maine. Overdoses may have actually slightly decreased in Massachusetts, New Hampshire and Rhode Island. In Kentucky, the CDC's analysis showed a 15 percent drop in overdoses.

The New War on Drugs is gonna solve all these problems. Maybe Trump will issue an executive order making it legal for cops to just shoot drug addicts on suspicion. Or Jeff Sessions can eliminate pot so junkies won't ever touch the gateway drugs that get them addicted.

Or...maybe it'll just get worse and worse until somebody finally wises up.

Nah...not likely.

I know, maybe we can use drug addiction money to start some kind of new conduit scheme to suck up tax revenue.
« Last Edit: March 07, 2018, 06:56:16 AM by Eddie »
What makes the desert beautiful is that somewhere it hides a well.

Online RE

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Re: 💉 Jump In Overdoses Shows Opioid Epidemic Has Worsened
« Reply #4 on: March 07, 2018, 06:53:50 AM »
I think I need to get started on a Heroin addiction.

RE

https://www.npr.org/sections/health-shots/2018/03/06/590923149/jump-in-overdoses-shows-opioid-epidemic-has-worsened

Public Health
Jump In Overdoses Shows Opioid Epidemic Has Worsened

Much overblown as a retirement strategy. I thought the same thing, as I was taking significant doses of Vicodin in convalescence.

Fine until the constipation catches up with you. Death is preferable.

I already have constipation issues.

RE
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Offline Eddie

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Re: 💉 Jump In Overdoses Shows Opioid Epidemic Has Worsened
« Reply #5 on: March 07, 2018, 06:58:21 AM »
I think I need to get started on a Heroin addiction.

RE

https://www.npr.org/sections/health-shots/2018/03/06/590923149/jump-in-overdoses-shows-opioid-epidemic-has-worsened

Public Health
Jump In Overdoses Shows Opioid Epidemic Has Worsened

Much overblown as a retirement strategy. I thought the same thing, as I was taking significant doses of Vicodin in convalescence.

Fine until the constipation catches up with you. Death is preferable.

To combat the opioid epidemic, Vicodin has been taken off the market. It has been replaced with an absolutely identical drug called Norco. What a brilliant strategy.
What makes the desert beautiful is that somewhere it hides a well.

Offline Surly1

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Re: 💉 Jump In Overdoses Shows Opioid Epidemic Has Worsened
« Reply #6 on: March 07, 2018, 07:18:15 AM »

To combat the opioid epidemic, Vicodin has been taken off the market. It has been replaced with an absolutely identical drug called Norco. What a brilliant strategy.

That's exactly what I was taking. Norco (or at least the flavor I had) was vicodin plus acetomenaphin. In rehab I was eating 75Mg/day.
THAT will stop you up.
After that, all those TV commercials made more sense.
"It is difficult to write a paradiso when all the superficial indications are that you ought to write an apocalypse." -Ezra Pound

Offline Surly1

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Re: 💉 Jump In Overdoses Shows Opioid Epidemic Has Worsened
« Reply #7 on: March 07, 2018, 07:18:51 AM »
I think I need to get started on a Heroin addiction.

RE

https://www.npr.org/sections/health-shots/2018/03/06/590923149/jump-in-overdoses-shows-opioid-epidemic-has-worsened

Public Health
Jump In Overdoses Shows Opioid Epidemic Has Worsened

Much overblown as a retirement strategy. I thought the same thing, as I was taking significant doses of Vicodin in convalescence.

Fine until the constipation catches up with you. Death is preferable.

I already have constipation issues.

RE

Then you'll want another hobby.  :icon_mrgreen:
"It is difficult to write a paradiso when all the superficial indications are that you ought to write an apocalypse." -Ezra Pound

Offline Surly1

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Re: 💉 Jump In Overdoses Shows Opioid Epidemic Has Worsened
« Reply #8 on: March 07, 2018, 07:29:10 AM »
I think I need to get started on a Heroin addiction.

RE

https://www.npr.org/sections/health-shots/2018/03/06/590923149/jump-in-overdoses-shows-opioid-epidemic-has-worsened

Public Health
Jump In Overdoses Shows Opioid Epidemic Has Worsened

Emergency rooms are seeing a jump in opioid overdoses. Timely treatment with naloxone can reverse the effects of opioids.

The New War on Drugs is gonna solve all these problems. Maybe Trump will issue an executive order making it legal for cops to just shoot drug addicts on suspicion. Or Jeff Sessions can eliminate pot so junkies won't ever touch the gateway drugs that get them addicted.

Or...maybe it'll just get worse and worse until somebody finally wises up.

Nah...not likely.

I know, maybe we can use drug addiction money to start some kind of new conduit scheme to suck up tax revenue.

Apparently Jeffy Bo rolled back a series of Obama-era curbs on civil-asset forfeiture last week. Welcome back "Policing for Profit," fed-style!!!  :icon_sunny: :icon_sunny: :icon_sunny: Happy dayz are here again!
https://www.theatlantic.com/politics/archive/2017/07/sessions-forfeiture-justice-department-civil/534168/

I'm sure we can create a twofer with "Stop N' Shoot." Hunting addicts for profit...

There's a reality show in this somewhere.
"It is difficult to write a paradiso when all the superficial indications are that you ought to write an apocalypse." -Ezra Pound

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⚕️ Life expectancy varies greatly among states
« Reply #9 on: April 11, 2018, 02:26:17 AM »
https://www.cbsnews.com/news/life-expectancy-varies-greatly-among-states-study/

Life expectancy varies greatly among states


How long you might live may depend on where you live.

New research suggests that if you spend your days on a sunny Hawaiian island, your life expectancy is more than 81 years. Halfway across the country in Mississippi, however, you can count yourself lucky if you make it to 75.

"In terms of health outcomes, the United States is not united," said Dr. Howard Koh, who co-authored an editorial that accompanied the new study.

"We want everyone to reach their full potential for health, and sometimes that happens. But this study also shows so much preventable death and suffering," added Koh, who was the assistant secretary for health at the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services during the Obama administration.

Overall, the study uncovered some good news: premature death rates are down in the United States as a whole. In 1990, 745 per every 100,000 people died early. By 2016, that number was down to 578 per 100,000 people.

The 10 states with the lowest probability of premature death were: California, Connecticut, Hawaii, Massachusetts, Minnesota, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Vermont and Washington.

But the news wasn't good for all states. The 10 states with the highest probability of premature death included: Alabama, Arkansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee and West Virginia.

For young and middle-aged folks, there was hope in the majority of states. The odds of dying for adults aged 20 to 55 declined in 31 states and Washington, D.C., from 1990 to 2016, the findings showed.

But in 19 states, young and middle-aged adults didn't fare as well. Decades of declining mortality rates were reversed in these states. And, in New Mexico, Wyoming, Oklahoma, Kentucky and West Virginia, the probability of death for that age group not only stopped decreasing, it actually increased by 10 percent over the study period.

Koh noted that a substantial driver in the increasing death rate in some states were "diseases of despair," which include substance-use disorders (drug and alcohol abuse), cirrhosis of the liver and self-harm.

Unsurprisingly, opioid use played a large role in some of the negative outcomes. In 1990, opioid use disorder was 52 on the list of things that caused lost years of life. In 2016, opioid use disorder rose to 15th on that list.

    Soaring opioid drug deaths cause U.S. life expectancy to drop for 2nd year

The leading cause of years of life lost was heart disease, followed by lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Alzheimer's disease and other dementias, along with colon cancer, rounded out the top five, according to the report.

The top risk factors contributing to these conditions include poor diets, obesity, diabetes, tobacco use, a lack of exercise and alcohol use, the study found.

Dr. Len Horovitz, a lung specialist at Lenox Hill Hospital in New York City, said COPD is rising because of continued tobacco smoking and air pollution.

"So many of these problems lead back to lifestyle. One of the most vexing issues we have is to get people to change their lifestyle habits," he said.

Horovitz added that getting kids to make changes and be more active and to eat healthy foods would probably be the most effective way to make lasting changes.

Dr. Howard Selinger, chair of family medicine at Quinnipiac University's School of Medicine in Connecticut, said the findings weren't surprising.

"Health care and health outcomes are very regional, and southern states tend to have more chronic disease relating to obesity and tobacco use, as well as a lack of availability of certain services. Basic preventive care is less available in the South," Selinger said.
How fat is your state?
How fat is your state?

To improve some of the study's more dismal findings will require addressing the triggers for conditions, such as substance abuse and obesity, he said. And that means addressing some of the "social determinants of health," which include factors such as housing, education, transportation, income and nutrition, Selinger explained.

"Health doesn't happen in a medical facility, it happens in the home and the community," Selinger said.

Koh added that strong public health systems are needed, but "we live in a society where prevention is still not valued as the highest priority for health, and so much of disease is preventable. Hopefully, this analysis will spark new conversations about the need to improve the power of prevention for all."

Koh recommended that every state ask itself how it can improve its public health systems and address the factors affecting its residents. "Our good health is a gift," he added.

The researchers -- led by Dr. Christopher Murray at the University of Washington in Seattle -- looked at published literature for 333 causes and 84 risk factors linked to mortality from 1990 through 2016.

The study was published April 10 in the Journal of the American Medical Association.
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Offline Eddie

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Jeff Sessions sez:

"Don't use fentanyl kids. It's a gateway to marijuana!"
What makes the desert beautiful is that somewhere it hides a well.

Offline Surly1

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Jeff Sessions sez:

"Don't use fentanyl kids. It's a gateway to marijuana!"

And dancing.
"It is difficult to write a paradiso when all the superficial indications are that you ought to write an apocalypse." -Ezra Pound

Online RE

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As one might expect, the states with the highest probability of "premature" death are those with the lowest per capita income and highest percentage of black and hispanic populations.

However, a 75 year as opposed to an 80 year expected mean lifespan is quite long already IMHO.  Is dying at 75 really "premature"?  ???  :icon_scratch:

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