AuthorTopic: The Oceans are Coming? BFD, I got other Worries.  (Read 15134 times)

Offline RE

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🌇 The Impact of Climate Change on Kivalina, Alaska
« Reply #75 on: September 19, 2019, 09:21:14 AM »
https://www.theatlantic.com/photo/2019/09/photos-impacts-climate-change-kivalina-alaska/598282/



The Impact of Climate Change on Kivalina, Alaska

Along Alaska’s west coast, about 80 miles above the Arctic circle, sits the village of Kivalina, situated on a narrow strip of land between a lagoon and the Chukchi Sea—one of several native coastal villages dealing with problems due to the warming of the Arctic. Joe Raedle, a photographer for Getty, recently flew to Kivalina to spend some time with the villagers and photograph their lives and surroundings. The warming climate has led to troubles such as the accelerated erosion of the land the village sits on, which used to be mitigated by sea ice (which is vanishing), and permafrost (which is melting). Fish and wildlife that villagers rely on for food have been forced to change their migration patterns—and poor hunting means more food must be bought from a store, further increasing the cost of living. Raedle: “The residents of Kivalina are hoping to stay on their ancestral lands, where they can preserve their culture, rather than dispersing due to their island being swallowed by the rising waters of the ocean.”

Hints: View this page full screen. Skip to the next and previous photo by typing j/k or ←/→.
    • An aerial view from a drone shows the village of Kivalina, Alaska, which sits at the very end of an eight-mile barrier reef located between a lagoon and the Chukchi Sea, photographed on September 10, 2019.

      Joe Raedle / Getty
    • Joe Swan, 84, sits in his home in Kivalina on September 13, 2019. Swan was a grave digger and noticed about 20 years ago that the permafrost was melting. While it once took him six to eight hours to dig a grave through the frozen permafrost, it now takes about an hour, because the ground is no longer frozen.

      Joe Raedle / Getty
    • An aerial view from a drone shows how close some of the homes in Kivalina are to the lagoon, photographed on September 13, 2019.

      Joe Raedle / Getty
    • Husky dogs are seen tied to their doghouses on September 9, 2019, in Kivalina, Alaska.

      Joe Raedle / Getty
    • Ben Frankson and Rose Hawley take their ATV on a boat to cross the lagoon from Kivalina to pick berries on September 11, 2019.

      Joe Raedle / Getty
    • Quwendalynn Stern,1, walks along a road in Kivalina on September 13, 2019.

      Joe Raedle / Getty
    • Russell Adams, an artist who uses beluga whalebone to make masks, jewelry, and other items, sits in his home on September 9, 2019, in Kivalina.

      Joe Raedle / Getty
    • Roy Adams Sr. (left) and Sylvester Swan Jr. spend time talking with each other on September 10, 2019.

      Joe Raedle / Getty
    • Doreen Baldwin picks up supplies dropped off by a plane on the dirt runway on September 14, 2019. Supplies needed for Kivalina are brought in by either barge or plane because no roads connect the village to any other towns or villages.

      Joe Raedle / Getty
    • Wiley Jemeyson uses a bulldozer to push dirt into place in an attempt to widen the beach area to protect the village airstrip from coastal erosion due to the Chukchi Sea on September 9, 2019.

      Joe Raedle / Getty
    • A dump truck is driven onto a barge upon completion of a job to widen the beach area to protect the village airstrip from coastal erosion on September 9, 2019.

      Joe Raedle / Getty
    • Victor Albert Norton looks out a window on September 9, 2019, in Kivalina.

      Joe Raedle / Getty
    • From left: Enoch Adams, Lukas Adams, and Charlene Adams hunt for caribou from a boat on September 10, 2019. The hunters in the village have seen the migration of fish, caribou, seals, and whales that they need for the long winter months change due to the warming weather.

      Joe Raedle / Getty
    • In an aerial view from a drone, caribou hunters are seen on September 11, 2019, in Kivalina.

      Joe Raedle / Getty
    • A pelt from a caribou is left out to dry on September 11, 2019, in the village.

      Joe Raedle / Getty
    • A pile of caribou antlers is seen on September 14, 2019. Residents of Kivalina are dependent on the migration of animals for their food, and they say migration patterns have changed due to global warming.

      Joe Raedle / Getty
    • Gary Swan prepares the meat of caribou he killed during a hunt on September 10, 2019.

      Joe Raedle / Getty
    • An aerial view from a drone shows part of the village of Kivalina, with the Chukchi Sea in the background, on September 10, 2019.

      Joe Raedle / Getty
    • Barbara Stern and Xyhandro Stern, 4, spend time at her mother's grave on September 13, 2019. She said she visits the site, located next to the airport's dirt runway, a few times a year.

      Joe Raedle / Getty
    • Ruth Ann Knox and Danny Foster listen to music from an iPhone as they hang out together on September 14, 2019.

      Joe Raedle / Getty
    • Enoch Adams rings the church bell before Sunday service on September 15, 2019, in Kivalina.

      Joe Raedle / Getty
    • From left: Barbara Stern, Zacchaeus Stern, and Corey Stern pray together during a church service on September 8, 2019.

      Joe Raedle / Getty
    • A dog sits on a snowmobile in Kivalina on September 9, 2019.

      Joe Raedle / Getty
    • Joey Swan plays on a trampoline on September 10, 2019.

      Joe Raedle / Getty
    • Jerry Norton dresses warmly on a cool morning in Kivalina, on September 14, 2019.

      Joe Raedle / Getty
    • Ikey Hank hangs out in his home, which is dangerously close to a place where the ground is eroding away, on September 15, 2019. He said that about 10 years ago is when he noticed the erosion and is hopeful his home will be moved before it crashes into the lagoon.

      Joe Raedle / Getty
    • Jeremy Hawley, 3, stands near his uncle's home, which is dangerously close to where the permafrost is melting and causing the ground to erode away on September 15, 2019.

      Joe Raedle / Getty
    • An aerial view shows most of the village of Kivalina, on September 10, 2019. The road visible at bottom is being built across the lagoon as an escape route for the village's people in case the ocean waters threaten.

      Joe Raedle / Getty
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Offline RE

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UN report on world's oceans is damning: 'We're all in big trouble'
« Reply #76 on: September 25, 2019, 09:02:51 AM »
https://www.foxnews.com/science/un-report-on-worlds-oceans-is-damning

UN report on world's oceans is damning: 'We're all in big trouble'
By Chris Ciaccia | Fox News


FILE - In this Friday, Sept. 6, 2019 file photo, storm surge from Hurricane Dorian blocks Cedar Island off from the mainland on NC 12 in Atlantic Beach, N.C., after Hurricane Dorian passed the coast. A special United Nations-affiliated oceans and ice report released on Wednesday, Sept. 24, 2019 projects three feet of rising seas by the end of the century, much fewer fish, weakening ocean currents, even less snow and ice, and nastier hurricanes, caused by climate change. (AP Photo/Tom Copeland)

A damning new report from the United Nations says that the world's oceans are undergoing drastic, accelerated change. And the risks associated with these changes to the climate are getting ever greater, threatening hundreds of millions of people and the global economy itself.

The report, issued by the United Nations' Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), highlights the changes that are happening as a result of increased emissions from greenhouse gases, including: sea levels rising by three feet by 2100; significantly fewer fish in the oceans; stronger hurricanes; and regular flooding in coastal cities such as New York.

"Global warming has already reached 1 [degrees Celsius] above the pre-industrial level, due to past and current greenhouse gas emissions," a press release issued in conjunction with the report said. "There is overwhelming evidence that this is resulting in profound consequences for ecosystems and people. The ocean is warmer, more acidic and less productive. Melting glaciers and ice sheets are causing sea level rise, and coastal extreme events are becoming more severe."


PLASTIC POLLUTION IN WORLDS' OCEANS COULD HAVE $2.5 TRILLION IMPACT, STUDY SAYS

The report, which was worked on by more than 100 scientists from 36 countries around the world, was approved by the 195 IPCC member governments. Hoesung Lee, chair of the IPCC, said that all parts of the globe, from the highest mountains to the deepest parts of the ocean, are being affected in a faster manner.

“The open sea, the Arctic, the Antarctic and the high mountains may seem far away to many people,” Lee said in the press release. “But we depend on them and are influenced by them directly and indirectly in many ways – for weather and climate, for food and water, for energy, trade, transport, recreation and tourism, for health and wellbeing, for culture and identity.”

Six hundred seventy million people live in high mountain regions, 680 million people are in low-lying coastal zones, 4 million live "permanently" in the Arctic region and 65 million people live on small island developing states, according to the report.

"The oceans and the icy parts of the world are in big trouble and that means we're all in big trouble too," one of the report's lead authors, Michael Oppenheimer, professor of geosciences and international affairs at Princeton University, told the Associated Press. "The changes are accelerating."

The press release notes that "without major investments in adaptation," rising flood risks are likely, some of which could cause "some island nations" to become uninhabitable "due to climate-related ocean and cryosphere change."

NEW YORK CITY COULD SEE 'ONCE-IN-A-LIFETIME' FLOODS EVERY YEAR 5 YEARS

The changes, which previous reports have said could shrink "virtually all" economies around the globe by 2100, will affect people, plants, food, societies, infrastructure, in addition to the global economy.

The oceans absorb more than 90 percent of the excess heat from carbon pollution in the air, as well as much of the carbon dioxide itself. The seas warm more slowly than the air but trap the heat longer with bigger side effects — and the report links these waters with Earth's snow and ice, called the cryosphere, because their futures are interconnected.

"The world's oceans and cryosphere have been taking the heat for climate change for decades. The consequences for nature and humanity are sweeping and severe," said Ko Barrett, vice chair of the IPCC and a deputy assistant administrator for research at the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, in the release.

The IPCC report adds to a previous report from the U.N. that some coastal cities and those in the Arctic region will have to adopt. The previous report, published on June 25 from the United Nations Human Rights Council, warned that a potential "climate apartheid" could fracture the global population, splitting the planet between the wealthy and the rest of the world who will be "left to suffer."

CLIMATE CHANGE WILL SHRINK 'VIRTUALLY ALL' ECONOMIES AROUND THE GLOBE BY 2100, STUDY WARNS

The report also notes that some of the changes to the Earth's climate from human-induced events can no longer be stopped, such as some rise in sea levels. The report found that seas are now rising at 3.66 millimeters per year, up from a previous estimate of 3 millimeters.
FILE - This early Friday, Aug. 16, 2019 file photo shows an aerial view of large Icebergs floating as the sun rises near Kulusuk, Greenland. Greenland has been melting faster in the last decade, and this summer, it has seen two of the biggest melts on record since 2012. A special United Nations-affiliated oceans and ice report released on Wednesday, Sept. 24, 2019 projects three feet of rising seas by the end of the century, much fewer fish, weakening ocean currents, even less snow and ice, and nastier hurricanes, caused by climate change. (AP Photo/Felipe Dana)

FILE - This early Friday, Aug. 16, 2019 file photo shows an aerial view of large Icebergs floating as the sun rises near Kulusuk, Greenland. Greenland has been melting faster in the last decade, and this summer, it has seen two of the biggest melts on record since 2012. A special United Nations-affiliated oceans and ice report released on Wednesday, Sept. 24, 2019 projects three feet of rising seas by the end of the century, much fewer fish, weakening ocean currents, even less snow and ice, and nastier hurricanes, caused by climate change. (AP Photo/Felipe Dana)

Global sea-levels have risen 3.2 inches since 1993, according to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.

Other findings from the report include:

    The world's oceans have already lost 1 percent to 3 percent of the oxygen in their upper levels since 1970. As warming continues, the oceans will lose more oxygen.
    From 2006 to 2015, the ice melting from Greenland, Antarctica and the world's mountain glaciers has accelerated and is now losing 720 billion tons (653 billion metric tons) of ice a year.
    Arctic June snow cover has shrunk more than half since 1967, down nearly 1 million square miles (2.5 million square kilometers).
    Arctic sea ice in September, the annual minimum, is down almost 13 percent per decade since 1979. This year's low, reported Monday, tied for the second-lowest on record. If carbon pollution continues unabated, by the end of the century there will be a 10 percent to 35 percent chance each year that sea ice will disappear in the Arctic in September.
    Marine animals are likely to decrease 15 percent, and catches by fisheries, in general, are expected to decline 21 percent to 24 percent by the end of the century because of climate change.

MELTING PERMAFROST IN ARCTIC WILL HAVE $70 TRILLION IMPACT, NEW STUDY SAYS

The report is conservative in some of its projections, including the levels of ice lost in Greenland and Antarctica, NASA oceanographer Josh Willis, who was not part of the study, told the AP.

"We're not done revising our sea level rise projections and we won't be for a while," Willis said, adding that a rise in sea levels of twice the IPCC projections is possible.

Despite the bleak nature of the report and it stating that some changes to the Earth's climate can longer be stopped, all hope is not lost. It calls on governments around the world to act and take swift action in an effort to mitigate some of the devastating effects.

“If we reduce emissions sharply, consequences for people and their livelihoods will still be challenging, but potentially more manageable for those who are most vulnerable,” Lee said in the release. “We increase our ability to build resilience and there will be more benefits for sustainable development.”

“Cutting greenhouse gas emissions will limit impacts on ocean ecosystems that provide us with food, support our health and shape our cultures,” Hans-Otto Pörtner, co-chair of IPCC Working Group II, concurred. “Reducing other pressures such as pollution will further help marine life deal with changes in their environment while enabling a more resilient ocean.”
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W. Antarctica's crumbling ice sheet to redraw global coastline
« Reply #77 on: September 29, 2019, 07:49:58 AM »

W. Antarctica's crumbling ice sheet to redraw global coastline

by Marlowe Hood

In Antarctica, 99 percent of all ice loss occurs when ice slides into the ocean

The fate of the world's coastal regions and the hundreds of millions of people who inhabit them depend on a block of ice atop West Antarctica on track to lift global oceans by at least three metres.

It is not, according to available science, a matter of "if" but "when".

Anders Levermann, a professor at the Potsdam Institute of Climate Impact Research in Germany and a top expert on Antarctica, spoke to AFP -– days before the release in Monaco of a major UN report on oceans and Earth's frozen zones -– about how is impacting the world's coldest region.

Q. Does global warming affect Greenland and Antarctica the same way?

No. In Antarctica, 99 percent of all ice loss occurs when ice slides into the ocean. There is practically no ice melt on the surface –- it is simply too cold.

In Greenland, half of the ice loss is due to melt water that runs into the ocean.

When ice in Antarctica or Greenland slides into the ocean and becomes an ice shelf, it comes into contact with surface water. Even a tenth of a degree increase in the temperature of the water can lead to a significant imbalance.

Greenland's ice sheet is much smaller than Antarctica's –- seven metres of sea level equivalent vs. 55 -– but sheds even more mass. That is because Antarctica, even if its topography has fewer barriers, is so much colder.

West Antarctica's ice sheet has shed about 150 billion tonnes of mass every year since 2005

Q. What do we know about Antarctica that we didn't know a decade ago?

Ten years ago the modelling of Antarctica showed no significant ice loss within this century. Indeed, there was some debate as to whether the continent might add ice mass.

Today, all the ice sheet models lose ice at a significant rate. The continent's ice sheet has shed about 150 billion tonnes of mass every year since 2005, virtually all of it in West Antarctica. Ice loss in both Greenland and Antarctica is accelerating.

There is no longer any ambiguity. The studies we have in hand tell us that West Antarctica has passed a tipping point. It has become unstable and will discharge all its most vulnerable ice into the ocean. Period.

Q. How much will Antarctica add to sea level rise by 2100?

A study I did with numerous colleagues in 2014 estimated that we could get 50 centimetres of sea level from Antarctica by 2100 –- which is huge. The last assessment of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) said 16 cm was the upward limit.

In 2016 an important study published in Nature –- introducing new physical processes –- proposed an even higher contribution, of up to more than a metre. That study has been much criticised, and the findings may be revised.

Q. What will happen after 2100?

In 2100, nothing stops.

If we keep to the Paris Agreement, sea level rise will at best slow down. If we don't, it will still be accelerating at the end of the century.

The most vulnerable part of the West Antarctic ice sheet -– equivalent to 3.5 metres of sea level rise -– sits in depressions below sea level, where ocean water infiltrates and erodes the ice sheet from underneath.

Q. How long will it take for the ice sheet to disappear?

I think we are underestimating the speed. That said, for all of the W. Antarctic ice sheet to discharge, it will take centuries. But it won't stop.

Q. How worried should we be?

Nobody should fear for their life because of rising seas. But if New York winds up five metres below sea level behind dikes and levees, I don't know if people will want to live there.

The most vulnerable part of the West Antarctic ice sheet -– equivalent to 3.5 metres of sea level rise -– sits in depressions be

The real impact is what we will lose. Hong Kong is currently a beacon of democracy in China. New Orleans is a bastion of culture, and New York of culture and business. Hamburg, Calcutta and Shanghai -– we are going to lose them all to if we do not stop emitting carbon into the atmosphere.

Q. Why is Antarctica harder to figure out than Greenland?

Unlike the Greenland ice sheet, ice loss in Antarctica is not due to melting, but to a discharge of icebergs into the ocean. Getting it right is difficult -– at first, we were unable to model and observe this process.

The first satellite images for West Antarctica are from 1992. So when we began to see there a decade ago, we had less than 20 years of data. That's not long enough to detect long-term trends.

Ice sheets change over a long time scale, so observations can be very misleading.

Antarctica is shielded from the rest of the world by the strongest current on the planet, and the situation is similar for the atmosphere. That is also hard to factor in.

"Do not be daunted by the enormity of the world's grief. Do justly now, love mercy now, walk humbly now. You are not obligated to complete the work, but neither are you free to abandon it."

Offline RE

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🌊 Florida Just Got a Sneak Peek of Coming Attractions in the Climate Crisis
« Reply #78 on: October 05, 2019, 12:51:14 PM »
https://www.esquire.com/news-politics/politics/a29343121/florida-king-tide-climate-change-sea-levels-septic-tanks/

Florida Just Got a Sneak Peek of Coming Attractions in the Climate Crisis

Those Chinese climate hoaxsters sure are working hard.

By Charles P. Pierce   
Oct 2, 2019


While the nation's attention is directed at the ongoing burlesque of democratic government in Washington, D.C. those clever Chinese climate hoaxsters are hard at work giving places like Florida a sneak preview of coming attractions. From the Weather Channel:

    Higher sea levels threaten the systems that carry wastewater away from more than one in five households in the United States, according to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. These homes use septic tanks that rely on dry soil to work properly. Higher water levels saturate the ground and make it impossible for the soil to filter waste from the water that comes out of septic tanks.

    The problem is particularly acute for Florida, which has 2.6 million septic systems, according to the state's Department of Health. That represents 12% of all the septic systems in the U.S.

The phenomenon in question is called "king tides," which occur regularly throughout the autumn months. These are higher-than-usual tides that last about three hours. Manholes become geysers and street flooding becomes deadly. They have nothing to do necessarily with rain—they can occur in bright sunshine—and they are exacerbated by rising sea levels. From the Miami New Times:

    According to NOAA, king tides provide a glimpse of future average water levels as sea levels continue to rise. Yesterday the United Nations' Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change released a bleak special report about how the oceans will be affected by climate change. The report says global sea levels rose nearly six inches during the 20th Century and are now rising at twice that rate and accelerating. The report says sea-level rise will increase the frequency of "extreme sea-level events," such as those during high tides and storms. Flood risks, ocean temperatures, tropical cyclone winds, rainfall, and storm surge are only expected to increase, threatening coastal areas and potentially wiping out island nations.

The point is that king tides happen every year. They will continue to happen every year as the oceans steadily rise. There also has been flooding in Houston and all over the upper midwest. From The New York Times:

    Houston’s challenge reflects the dilemma facing cities everywhere: As the climate changes, disasters aren’t just becoming more severe, but also more frequent. So even as the amount of damage increases, governments and residents have less time to repair before the next storm hits. And structural changes that might reduce cities’ exposure require years or decades to complete. “Implementation is going to take way longer than a single hurricane season,” said Shalini Vajjhala, whose company Re:Focusworks with local governments to address the physical risks of global warming. “The rains come every year.”

Yes. Yes, they do.
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