AuthorTopic: Our Solar System is Moving into a Potentially Dangerous Interstellar Energy Clou  (Read 189720 times)

Offline azozeo

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Taurid Meteor Shower Will Light Up The Sky On Halloween
« Reply #1395 on: October 31, 2018, 10:17:38 AM »

Forget candy ó the real treat this year will be bright and colorful shooting stars.

While Halloween is always magical, this year if you pay close enough attention it could be even more special than youíd expect. With The Taurids meteor shower being present throughout October you could notice quite a few shooting stars.

Go spend an hour stargazing during late October and youíll probably see an eye-catching fireball or two. These very bright meteors coming from the constellation of Taurus are known as the Southern Taurids, a long-lasting meteor shower thatís active from late September until mid-November. It peaks in late October when around seven or so shooting stars can be seen each hour.
What are the Southern Taurids?

A relatively minor meteor shower that officially runs from Sept. 23 until Nov. 19 in 2018, the Southern Taurids are one of the longest-lasting meteor showers of the year. Itís not especially prolific, but since they tend to be exceptionally bright ďfireballsĒ that leave a visible trail as particles blast off the Earthís atmosphere, the Southern Taurids are worth braving the cold for.
What are the Northern Taurids?

Overlapping with the Southern Taurids meteor shower is the Northern Taurids, another minor meteor shower thatís merely shifted a month later. Beginning on Oct. 19 and carrying on until Dec. 10, 2018, the Northern Taurids can also produce unusually bright shooting stars.
What causes the Taurids meteor showers?

Both the Southern Taurids and the Northern Taurids are the leftovers of Comet Encke, officially called 2P/Encke, which orbits the sun every 3.3 years. That makes it the most frequent comet in the solar system that we know of. As they get closer to the sun and warm up, comets tend to shed a lot of material, thus creating a stream of dust particles. If a cometís path crosses the orbital path of Earth, thereís a good chance that Earth will later bust through that stream of debris. The result is shooting stars.
How to see the Taurids meteor showers

Look skywards around midnight on Halloween. Since astronomers predict that there will be only seven or so (albeit very bright) shooting stars each hour, the best way to spot a Southern or Northern Taurid meteor is simply to go stargazing during mid- to late-October. Since the full moon ó the Hunterís Moon, or Travel Moon ó will be bright and a major light-polluter on Oct. 24, that makes the week after ideal for stargazing. Thatís Halloween.
Where to look in the sky for Taurids meteors

Although the bright shooting stars from the Southern and Northern Taurids meteor showers can be seen anywhere, both showers have ďradiant points,Ē a precise place in the night sky where their shooting stars appear to have come from. Wherever you see a shooting star in the sky, if you can trace it back to the constellation of Taurus high in the southern night sky, you know it was a Southern or Northern Taurid (there are always other, random shooting stars in the night sky).

The Taurids appear to come from close to the Pleiades star cluster, an unmistakably bright ďfuzzyĒ patch of stars also called the Seven Sisters.
When is the next meteor shower?

Peaking on the night of Dec. 13-14, 2018 is the Geminid meteor shower, the biggest and most important of the entire year. Though itís cold outside in the northern hemisphere and few stargazers get outside for long, itís worth persevering for Geminds since they can produce up to 120 multi-colored shooting stars per hour.
So if youíre trick-or-treating this Halloween, look skywards and you may just glimpse a super-bright fireball.

https://www.consciousreminder.com/2018/10/30/taurid-meteor-shower-will-light-up-the-sky-on-halloween-making-it-a-real-treat-for-us-all-heres-how-to-see-fireballs-light-up-the-sky/
I know exactly what you mean. Let me tell you why youíre here. Youíre here because you know something. What you know you canít explain, but you feel it. Youíve felt it your entire life, that thereís something wrong with the world.
You donít know what it is but its there, like a splinter in your mind

Offline azozeo

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Rainbows to the 5th order + other sky phenoms.
« Reply #1396 on: November 01, 2018, 03:33:38 PM »
<a href="http://www.youtube.com/v/EKRVXDI8Cag&fs=1" target="_blank" class="new_win">http://www.youtube.com/v/EKRVXDI8Cag&fs=1</a>
I know exactly what you mean. Let me tell you why youíre here. Youíre here because you know something. What you know you canít explain, but you feel it. Youíve felt it your entire life, that thereís something wrong with the world.
You donít know what it is but its there, like a splinter in your mind

Offline azozeo

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<a href="http://www.youtube.com/v/PajOwfd_o7Q&fs=1" target="_blank" class="new_win">http://www.youtube.com/v/PajOwfd_o7Q&fs=1</a>
I know exactly what you mean. Let me tell you why youíre here. Youíre here because you know something. What you know you canít explain, but you feel it. Youíve felt it your entire life, that thereís something wrong with the world.
You donít know what it is but its there, like a splinter in your mind

Offline azozeo

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More purple sky phenomenon.

<a href="http://www.youtube.com/v/d-_slsh6sOE&fs=1" target="_blank" class="new_win">http://www.youtube.com/v/d-_slsh6sOE&fs=1</a>
I know exactly what you mean. Let me tell you why youíre here. Youíre here because you know something. What you know you canít explain, but you feel it. Youíve felt it your entire life, that thereís something wrong with the world.
You donít know what it is but its there, like a splinter in your mind

Offline azozeo

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The latest stellar  :icon_sunny: observations


<a href="http://www.youtube.com/v/brdcVptaxJY&fs=1" target="_blank" class="new_win">http://www.youtube.com/v/brdcVptaxJY&fs=1</a>
I know exactly what you mean. Let me tell you why youíre here. Youíre here because you know something. What you know you canít explain, but you feel it. Youíve felt it your entire life, that thereís something wrong with the world.
You donít know what it is but its there, like a splinter in your mind

Offline azozeo

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'dark matter hurricane' will collide with the Earth
« Reply #1400 on: November 13, 2018, 02:11:03 PM »

Yes, here's the story of the dark matter hurricane -- a cosmic event that may provide our first glimpse of the mysterious, invisible particle.


https://www.cnet.com/google-amp/news/scientists-predict-a-dark-matter-hurricane-will-collide-with-the-earth/
I know exactly what you mean. Let me tell you why youíre here. Youíre here because you know something. What you know you canít explain, but you feel it. Youíve felt it your entire life, that thereís something wrong with the world.
You donít know what it is but its there, like a splinter in your mind

Offline RE

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🌀 A dark matter hurricane is headed toward Earth
« Reply #1401 on: November 19, 2018, 08:53:49 PM »
This one is for our currently MIA and Computerless Diner, AZ.  :icon_sunny:

RE

https://pix11.com/2018/11/19/a-dark-matter-hurricane-is-headed-toward-earth/

A dark matter hurricane is headed toward Earth
Posted 5:54 PM, November 19, 2018, by CNN Wire


According to a recent paper, the Earth is caught directly in the crosshairs of a cosmic hurricane. A swarm of nearly 100 stars, accompanied by an even greater amount of dark matter, is aimed directly at our stellar neighborhood and thereís nothing we can do to stop it; in fact, the vanguard is already upon us.

But is it a danger? Well, actually, no. Not at all. But itís potentially incredibly fascinating, with lots of interesting scientific interconnections. So, what is really going on?

The story starts last April, when the Gaia satellite announced the locations and trajectories of 2 billion stars in the vicinity of the Milky Way surrounding our sun. They released the data to the public.

Scientists were then able to look at the data set to see if they could spot anything peculiar. In galaxies like the Milky Way, the most common behavior is that the stars orbit the center of the galaxy in a manner broadly similar to the planets orbiting our sun. However, there are some stars that exhibit unusual motion. About a year ago, astronomers identified some ďstellar streamsĒ passing through our celestial neighborhood.

One of them, called S1 (for stream 1), consists of nearly 100 stars of similar age and composition, orbiting the Milky Way in a direction exactly opposite that of normal stars. Itís kind of like a handful of cars driving the wrong way down the highway, except with a much greater distance between them and with no likelihood of a collision. These stars are spread out over a few thousand light years and they will pass through the solar systemís neighborhood over the course of a few million years.

Astronomers identified S1 as being part of the remnants of a dwarf galaxy that collided with the Milky Way and was consumed in an epic episode of cosmic cannibalism. Dwarf galaxies are very small, typically about 1 percent the mass of the Milky Way. They can orbit larger galaxies and collide with the bigger galaxy, adding their mass to the parent. This is what appears to have happened in the case of S1, although the process has taken probably a billion years.

Dwarf galaxies often have a disproportionately large fraction of dark matter. Dark matter is a hypothetical and still-undiscovered form of matter that interacts only gravitationally. Scientists have proposed its existence to explain many astronomical mysteries, for example the observation that most galaxies rotate faster than can be explained by the known laws of physics and the stars and gas of which they are composed.

While dark matter has not yet been observed, hypothesizing its existence is the simplest and most economical explanation for myriad astronomical mysteries. Averaged over the entire universe, dark matter is thought to be five times more prevalent than the ordinary mass of stars and gas and planets.

In dwarf galaxies, the fraction of dark matter is often higher. In Fornax, a well-studied dwarf galaxy orbiting the Milky Way, researchers estimate that the dark matter is between 10 and 100 times greater than the mass found in its stars.

If that number holds for S1, the dark matter of the S1 stream is passing through the Earth at a much higher velocity than the more ordinary dark matter that orbits the Milky Way ó about twice as fast. It is thought that S1 dark matter is flying through the solar system at a speed of about 550 km/s, or about 1.2 million mph. While these numbers are impressive, they are misleading. Dark matter, if it exists, is extremely diffuse and it will have no discernible effect on the solar system.

Because dark matter hasnít been observed yet, these velocity numbers are speculative, although they are strongly supported by a very large body of evidence. However, the prospect of high velocity dark matter flying through the Earth has suggested an opportunity to detect it.

In a paper in the prestigious journal Physical Review D, researcher Ciaran OíHare and his collaborators calculated the possibilities of discovering dark matter using both existing and proposed dark matter detectors. They considered two varieties of dark matter particles: a very heavy kind called a WIMP (weakly interacting massive particle) and a very light kind called an axion. Because the ultimate nature of dark matter is not known, it is important to be open to all possibilities.

They found that the detectors they evaluated could find WIMPs for certain ranges of the particle mass. However, when they looked at the axion possibility, it appeared the prospects were even better. Because of its light mass and the manner in which an axion would interact with the detector, the apparatus simply has a better chance of seeing the axion. (If axions exist, of course.)

Experiments with names like ADMX, MADMAX and ABRACADABRA are able or will be able to search for the signatures of dark matter proposed in the recent paper. They consist of technologies that are designed to interact with axions in a strong magnetic field and convert them to ordinary microwaves or radio waves that can be easily detected.

Itís important to remember that the S1 stream poses no credible threat to the Earth and humanity. There is no need for an action hero to save us. However, the synergy of science is staggering. A careful catalog of nearby stars has opened the prospect of a better possibility of finding and identifying dark matter, which is one of the great unanswered mysteries of modern physics.
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Offline RE

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😲 Large Asteroid Packing 50 Megatons Of Force Might Come Crashing Down On Earth
« Reply #1402 on: November 26, 2018, 01:29:09 AM »
Another one for AZ.  :icon_sunny:

RE

https://www.yahoo.com/news/large-asteroid-packing-50-megatons-214202306.html

Large Asteroid Packing 50 Megatons Of Force Might Come Crashing Down On Earth In 2023 ó And Thatís Not All

Alexandra Lozovschi
,InquisitrēNovember 25, 2018


Artist's impression of an asteroid colliding with Earth.

A large asteroid could be headed toward us in the near future ó barreling through space on a risk trajectory that might cause it to collide with Earth.

The news comes from the Express, which cites NASA sources revealing that the space rock could end up engaged in not one, but a staggering 62 different potential impact trajectories with our planet ó each of them waiting to sling the asteroid toward Earth over the next 100 years.

Known as asteroid 2018 LF16, the space rock was last observed by our astronomers on June 16 ó notes NASAís Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) ó who calculated its orbit and its potential to become a threat to our planet. The calculations showed asteroid 2018 LF16 could collide with our planet on 62 different dates between now and 2117.

The first of these unnerving opportunities arises just five years from now ó occurring on August 8, 2023. Other potential impact dates in the near future fall on August 3, 2024, and on August 1, 2025.
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Offline azozeo

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Physicist Report 478: Planet X has reached Earth (jus' sayin')
« Reply #1403 on: December 09, 2018, 02:32:29 PM »
<a href="http://www.youtube.com/v/67lXg0DboTA&fs=1" target="_blank" class="new_win">http://www.youtube.com/v/67lXg0DboTA&fs=1</a>
I know exactly what you mean. Let me tell you why youíre here. Youíre here because you know something. What you know you canít explain, but you feel it. Youíve felt it your entire life, that thereís something wrong with the world.
You donít know what it is but its there, like a splinter in your mind

Offline azozeo

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In the last several decades, astronomers have confirmed a few thousand exoplanets, while there are still thousands more that are considered candidates. Astronomers discovered more of these planets that are orbiting distant stars, and on December 3, 2018, 104 more exoplanets were confirmed. And of those 104, at least 18 of them are less than two times bigger than Earth (but smaller than Neptune) and itís believed that they have rocky compositions with atmospheres which are comparable to what we have right here on our planet.

Those eighteen planets have little to no atmosphere which means that they donít have thick or deep atmospheres like the ice or gas planets in our solar system. This means that they would have thinner atmospheres very much like Earth as well as other rocky planets, such as Mercury.



https://mysteriousuniverse.org/2018/12/more-than-a-hundred-new-exoplanets-discovered/
I know exactly what you mean. Let me tell you why youíre here. Youíre here because you know something. What you know you canít explain, but you feel it. Youíve felt it your entire life, that thereís something wrong with the world.
You donít know what it is but its there, like a splinter in your mind

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Our Milky Way to Face Double-KO Punch in Two Galactic Collisions
« Reply #1405 on: January 06, 2019, 12:04:18 PM »



A team of researchers at UKís Durham University predict that another galaxy will collide with the Milky Way much sooner than expected, sending our Solar System hurling into space.

ďThere is a small chance that we might not escape unscathed from the collision between the two galaxies which could knock us out of the Milky Way and into interstellar space,Ē Marius Cautun, a postdoctoral fellow at Durhamís Institute for Computational Cosmology, said in a recent statement obtained by Business Insider.


https://sputniknews.com/environment/201901061071249027-our-milky-way-to-face-galactic-collisions/
I know exactly what you mean. Let me tell you why youíre here. Youíre here because you know something. What you know you canít explain, but you feel it. Youíve felt it your entire life, that thereís something wrong with the world.
You donít know what it is but its there, like a splinter in your mind

Offline RE

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🌑 The Earth has been experiencing more frequent asteroid strikes
« Reply #1406 on: January 19, 2019, 12:47:08 AM »
https://arstechnica.com/science/2019/01/the-earth-has-been-experiencing-more-frequent-asteroid-strikes/

The Earth has been experiencing more frequent asteroid strikes
We're not sure why, and it could already be over, but more stuff's hit the planet.

John Timmer - 1/18/2019, 6:54 AM


Enlarge / The craters used for this analysis and their locations.

Dr. A. Parker, Southwest Research Institute
82 with 50 posters participating

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How often does a big rock drop on our planet from space? As we've gotten a better understanding of the impact that did-in the dinosaurs, that knowledge has compelled people to take a serious look at how we might detect and divert asteroids that pose a similar threat of planetary extinction. But something even a tenth of the size of the dinosaur-killer could cause catastrophic damage, as you could easily determine by placing a 15km circle over your favorite metropolitan center.

So, what's the risk of having a collision of that nature? It's actually hard to tell. The easiest way to tell is to look for past impact craters and try to figure out the frequency of these impacts, but the Earth has a habit of erasing evidence. So, instead, a group of scientists figured out a clever way of looking at the Moon, which should have a similar level of risk. They found that the rate of impacts went up about 300 million years ago.
Erasing history

Some impact craters on Earth are pretty obvious, but erosion and infilling with sediments make others much harder to find. We wouldn't have noticed Chicxulub or the Chesapeake Bay Crater were there if we hadn't stumbled across them for other reasons. As we go back in time, plate tectonics can erase evidence of impacts from the sea floor, as the rock they reside in gets subducted back into the mantle. And then, about 550 million years ago, the Great Unconformity wipes off any evidence of impacts that might have been left on land.
Further Reading
What could have wiped 3km of rock off the entire Earth?

So, while we've come up with some rough estimates of impact rates on Earth, we don't have a ton of confidence in them.

But there's a nearby object without all the messy issues of plate tectonics, sediment deposits, and erosion. The Moon obviously preserves a clearer record of its impacts and is close enough that it should have a similar impact history to Earth's. That's in part because whatever it is that knocks an object out of a stable orbit and sends it toward Earth tends to break it up, creating a collection of fragments that gradually find their way to the Earth-Moon system. It may take millions of years for them all to hit, but the hits on both bodies should show a similar increased risk of impacts.

So how do you identify when impacts on the Moon happened? This is where the research gets very clever. The Moon's surface is covered with a carpet of dust called regolith, formed as rocks are broken down by small impacts and charged particles. But a large enough impact will blast away the regolith and spray out chunks of solid rock, essentially resetting the process. Over time, this rock will gradually decay to regolith, and the extent of the decay should be proportional to the time since the impact.
Reading the heat

Unfortunately, we probably can't convince China to send rovers to every crater to figure out how much regolith is there. So the researchers figured out how to do it remotely, using an instrument on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter. It turns out that, during the lunar day, both rock and regolith get heated up by the Sun. Once the Sun sets, though, that heat starts to escape back out into space, where it can be detected as infrared radiation by the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter. But it escapes much more quickly from regolith than solid rock, meaning that, in the deep of lunar night, there's still heat escaping from rocky features, while it has mostly gone from regolith-filled ones.

Starting with nine craters with known ages, the researchers confirmed that this is what we see on the Moon and calibrated the timing of the rocks' decay. They then used this scale to estimate the ages of craters over 10 kilometers. This, incidentally, indicated that the thermal emissions of a crater dropped to the regolith background in about a billion years. So, while we can't get a complete history of the impact rate, we can cover the Great Unconformity, as well as any recent changes.

One thing that was clear is that the size of things hitting the Moon hasn't changed. The authors found that there was "no correlation between crater sizes and crater ages, meaning differently sized craters are randomly distributed in time." But the rate of impacts did show a shift at about 400 million years ago, at which point the rate roughly doubled. In other words, we face a much higher risk (though still extremely low) of seeing an impact than the trilobites did.

Unfortunately, the uncertainty range was really large. The increase could be anywhere from 1.4x up to 20x, and its timing was similarly broad. So, the researchers turned to the Earth, performing a similar analysis using the age of craters 20km across and above. As expected, the Earth also saw a change in rate, and it was of similar magnitude to the one seen on the Moon. When the two rates are combined to a single measure, the uncertainties go down: the most likely date is about 290 million years ago, and the rate probably went up by 2.6x.

The authors suggest that the increase could be the product of one or more large asteroids in the main belt, which could send smaller bodies out that create a small "wave" of arrivals lasting hundreds of millions of years. If that's the case, then there may only be a small population of bodies left in an orbit that puts Earth at risk of collision.

Again, the risks are small, and doubling a near-zero risk still leaves it at near zero. But the results make it clear that our Solar System is an active place even billions of years after its formation.

Science, 2019. DOI: 10.1126/science.aar4058 (About DOIs).
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