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History in Photographs: Stalin, FDR & Churchill
« Reply #15 on: December 14, 2015, 11:00:55 AM »
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History in Photographs: Hemingway, Pound, Joyce, Eliot, Stein in Paris
« Reply #16 on: December 14, 2015, 11:16:04 AM »
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The Sun Between the Storms; Part III, Paris

 

Picasso and fellow artists“, Jean Cocteau

An Odyssey of the 1920’s: Les Années Folles

 

The romance of Paris, especially in that period between the two world wars, continues to resonate with many people around the globe. The city has seen many “golden ages” but probably none as famous as les Années Folles, or “the mad years” of the 1920s. Paris was at the center of it all, not only in terms of fashion and entertainment but in the domains of art and architecture.

Paris was the cultural center of Europe in the 1920s. The disillusioned came there, as did the unemployed, the artistic, the unusual. It was the headquarters of the Lost Generation and the avant-garde; Dada and the Surrealists, a new wave of expressionists and cubists.

In the opening of the year 1920 France was in a better political and economic position than she had seen for several generations. The Allied victory over Germany and the restoration of Alsace-Lorraine to France had returned the country to the position which she occupied during the 17th and 18th centuries: that of the strongest power on the European continent.
France had a self-sufficient economy; founded on small and medium-sized businesses rather than shares, the French put their confidence in gold. Investments abroad were numerous.
J’accuse“, Abel Gance

The German reparations decided by the Treaty of Versailles in 1919
 brought in large amounts of money which served principally to repay war
 loans to the United States. Full employment meant that public confidence
 in the government was high. But although France had come out of World
 War I a victor, she was
 exhausted. The Eastern parts of the country were devastated: her
 casualties in the war had also been higher than those of the other
 Allied nations. France had 1,322,000 killed and three million wounded in
 the war, with a quarter of her dead being young men under 24.

Yet this intense personal loss coupled with an economic boon unparalleled in Europe at the time undoubtedly played a part in creating the unique situation in which the arts were able to flourish. Anyone could afford to live in Paris, and almost anyone could make some kind of money there. It became a magnet for the displaced, ragtag youth of that era.

Moulin Rouge, Montmarte district, 1900

 

Since the end of the 19th century the northern, right bank district of Montmartre in Paris (18th arrondissement) had been the intellectual and creative center for the “Bohemian culture”. Montmarte was outside the city limits; free of Paris taxes the neighborhood featured cheap rents and cheap booze, and became famous for its cabarets such as the Moulin Rouge and Le Chat Noir. In an earlier generation Montmarte had been home to Vincent van Gogh, Henri Matisse, Pierre-Auguste Renoir, Edgar Degas, Édouard Manet and Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec among others. Pablo Picasso, Amedeo Modigliani, and other impoverished artists had lived and worked in the commune Le Bateau-Lavoir prior to the war.

That earlier Montmartre circle represented a group assembled more on the basis of status affinity than artistic tastes; the new post-war intellectuals were in much the same economic and social spectrum. But Paris and its landscape had changed in the early 20s; Montmartre was now a famous tourist destination and the city fathers intended to redevelop the old neighborhoods in order to cash in on that. The quaint wooden houses, the windmills and the green spaces were being replaced with modern concrete apartment buildings, skyscrapers and shopping centers designed to take full advantage of the burgeoning economy. As rents and taxes rose the remains of the artist community staged protests, but to little avail. A victim of  its own popularity, the art scene had to move.

Left bank, Montparnasse district

Although some of the more affluent artists of Paris remained in Montmartre, the left bank district of Montparnasse (14th arrondissement) became famous in the 1920s as the new heart of intellectual and artistic life in Paris. Montparnasse was a place for the gritty, die-hard emigrant artist; virtually penniless painters, sculptors, writers, poets and composers began to drift in from around the world, drawn by the creative atmosphere and the cheap rent in artist communes. Living without running water, in damp, unheated “studios” usually shared with rats, most of them sold their work just to buy food. Although Jean Cocteau once said that poverty was a luxury in Montparnasse, Fernand Léger wrote of that period: “ man…relaxes and recaptures his taste for life, his frenzy to dance, to spend money…an explosion of life-force fills the world.

Montparnasse was a community where creativity was embraced with all its oddities, each new arrival welcomed unreservedly by its existing members.

 

“I aspired to see with my own eyes what I had heard of from so far away: this revolution of the eye, this rotation of colours, which spontaneously and astutely merge with one another in a flow of conceived lines. That could not be seen in my town. The sun of Art then shone only on Paris.” -Marc Chagall

Above: La Ruche commune, photographs from 1910’s – modern.

 

Located in the “Passage Dantzig,” La Ruche(the Beehive) was an old three-story circular structure that was originally designed by Gustave Eiffel for use as a wine rotunda at the Great Exposition of 1900. It was dismantled and re-erected as low-cost studios for artists by Alfred Boucher in 1902 in an attempt to provide young artists with dirt-cheap housing, shared models and exhibition space. La Ruche also became a home to the usual array of drunks, misfits, and almost every penniless soul needing a roof over their head.

The Russian painter Pinchus Kremegne reportedly got off the train at the Gare de l’Est with three rubles in his pocket; the only words in French he knew was the phrase “Passage Dantzig”; but that was all he needed to get him there. Few places have ever housed such artistic talent as could be found at La Ruche.

Female Nude“, Salvadore Dali 1926

Many of those painters and sculptors went on from their humble roots in Montparnasse to achieve international fame; Pablo Picasso, Joan Miró, Marc Chagall, and Salvador Dalí among others have names instantly recognizable today. Yet there were many others who, despite being equally talented, failed to garner such attention.

                                  “Side of Beef“, Chaim Soutine                                       “La bohemia Hurbana“, Federico Cantú Garza

 

                                Constantin Brâncuși: “Princess X“,                                                                     “Bird in Space

 

Self Portrait with Cat“, Federico Cantú

The Russian painter Chaim Soutine had lived at La Ruche during the war. In 1923 a prominent American collector bought 60 of his paintings on the spot. Soutine had been virtually penniless throughout his years in Paris; he immediately took the money and hailed a taxi, ordering the driver to take him to Nice more than 400 miles away. Another story about Soutine tells how he horrified his neighbours by keeping an animal carcass he was painting. The stench drove them to send for the police, who were sharply lectured on the relative importance of art over hygiene. Marc Chagall reportedly saw the blood from the carcass leaking into the corridor outside Soutine’s studio, and rushed out into the street screaming, “Someone has killed Soutine!”

The Mexican painter, engraver and sculptor Federico Cantú Garza went to live in Paris on Rue Delambre in Montparnasse at the age of sixteen and created chests full of drawings which were later lost; although he gained fame as a muralist after returning to Mexico in the ’30s, most of his work from the Montparnasse years is forgotten.

Romanian sculptor Constantin Brâncuși was invited to enter the workshop of Auguste Rodin, but left the studio after only two months saying “…nothing can grow under big trees.” In 1920 he developed a notorious reputation with the entry of “Princess X” in the Salon; the phallic shape of the piece was deemed scandalous, and despite Brâncuși’s explanation that it was an anonymous portrait it was removed from the exhibition. He later began a group of sculptures known as “Bird in Space”, simple shapes representing a bird in flight. The works are based on his earlier “Măiastra” series; in Romanian folklore the Măiastra is a beautiful golden bird who foretells the future and cures the blind. Over the following 20 years, Brâncuși would produce some 20 versions in marble or bronze.

 

 

Julio Gonzalez; “Daphne”, “Cactus Woman”, “Petite sculpture d’espace abstraite” 

Spanish sculptor Julio Gonzalez associated with the Spanish circle of artists in Montmartre, including Pablo Gargallo, Juan Gris and Max Jacob. In 1918 he developed an interest in the artistic possibilities of welding, after learning the technique in the Renault factory at Boulogne-Billancourt. This technique would subsequently become his principal contribution to sculpture, though he also painted and created jewellery. In 1920 he provided technical assistance in executing Picasso’s sculptures in steel: he also forged the infrastructures of Constantin Brâncuși’s plasters. In the winter of 1927-28, Gonzalez taught Picasso oxy-acytelene welding and cutting techniques and from October 1928 until 1932 both men worked together. By 1932, González was the only artist with whom Picasso shared his personal studio.

Alberto Giacometti
 
Marie Vassilieff: “La tasse de thé”                                                                            “Nudo” 
Nudo con due Maschere“, Marie Vassilieff
Autoportrait“, Tsuguharu Foujita
                                 Tsuguharu Foujita: “Rue de Paris”                                                                              “Cafe
Cat Fight“, Tsuguharu Foujita
“Leonard” Tsuguharu Foujita

In 1922 Swiss sculptor Alberto Giacometti moved to Paris to study under the sculptor Antoine Bourdelle, an associate of Auguste Rodin. It was there that Giacometti experimented with cubism and surrealism and came to be regarded as one of the leading surrealist sculptors.

Hilaire Hiler, an American expatriate living in Paris in the 1920s, occupied himself painting interior murals and performing jazz piano with his pet monkey.

The Japanese printmaker and painter Tsuguharu Foujita arrived in 1913 and was one of the few Montparnasse artists who made any real money in his early years; by 1925 Foujita had received the Belgian Order of Leopold and the French Legion of Honor.

Russian born Marie Vassilieff had moved to Paris in 1907 at the age of twenty-three and became an integral part of the artistic community of Montparnasse; Vassilieff is most remembered for her canteen that provided a full meal and a glass of wine for only a few centimes. After Georges Braque had been wounded in the war and was released from service in 1917, Vassilieff and Max Jacob decided to organize a welcoming dinner. Among the guests was Beatrice Hastings, Amedeo Modigliani’s ex girlfriend, with her new boyfriend Alfredo Pina. Modigliani had a bad temper, especially when he was drinking, and Vassilieff specifically didn’t invite him to
 Braque’s party. He showed up anyway, uninvited and very drunk,
 looking for a fight. A scuffle ensued; a pistol
 appeared, and Marie Vassilieff, all five feet of her, pushed Modigliani
 down the stairs while Picasso and Manuel Ortiz de Zarate locked the door behind him.

                                Jules Pascin: “Claudine Resting”                                                               “Two Reclining Nudes

Nude Reading“, Jules Pascin
Siesta“, Jules Pascin

Jules Pascin was a painter born in Bulgaria. To avoid service in the Bulgarian army Pascin had traveled for a time in the United States, and became the symbol of the Montparnasse artistic community after moving there in 1920. During the 1920s Pascin mostly painted fragile petites filles, prostitutes waiting for clients, or models waiting for the sitting to end. His fleetingly rendered paintings sold readily but the money he made was quickly spent. Famous as the host of numerous large parties in his flat, whenever he was invited elsewhere for dinner he arrived with as many bottles of wine as he could carry.

Ernest Hemingway’s chapter “With Pascin At the Dôme” in A Moveable Feast recounted a night in 1923 when he had stopped off at Le Dôme and met Pascin escorted by two models: Hemingway’s portrayal of the evening is considered one of the defining images of Montparnasse at the time.

It should be noted that many of these artists had moved to Paris in the decades before Les Années Folles, and many of them produced their more remarkable works in the decades afterwards. But they were all nonetheless in and around the city throughout the 1920s, and they all contributed to the cultural atmosphere of the time.

“… if you want books written by ladies, here is a book written by a
 woman who has never been at any time a lady writer; for ten years she
 was, insofar as our time allows, called a queen. That is very different
 of course than being a Lady.”

-Ernest Hemingway, on Kiki’s Memoirs

Alice Prin was born in 1901 in Châtillon-sur-Seine, Côte d’Or; an illegitimate child, she was raised by her grandmother in abject poverty. At age twelve she was sent to live with her mother in Paris in order to find work. She began working in shops and bakeries, but was posing nude for sculptors by the age of fourteen.

By the time she reached her twenties she was beautiful and street-smart. She had entered and left several abusive relationships, but around
 this time Montparnasse became her spiritual and physical home. She adopted the
 moniker “Kiki”, and remade herself as a model, muse, lover, cabaret
 performer, and denizen of the legendary cafes and nightclubs of
 Montparnasse.  As she was to write later, “I
 had found my true milieu!  The painters adopted me.  End of sadnesses.
 I still often went hungry, but the good fun made me forget all that.” 

Adopting the single name “Kiki”, she became a fixture in the Montparnasse social scene and a popular artist’s model, posing for dozens of artists in the 1920’s. Soon she was simply “Kiki de Montparnasse”.

 

Above: Three paintings of Kiki by Moïse Kisling
Reclining Nude” (Kiki) – Tsuguharu Foujita,

 

Kiki de Montparnasse“, Pablo Gargallo

Kiki became the muse of Man Ray, Kisling, Foujita, Calder, and most of the other important artists living in Paris in the 1920’s. Although all of the revolutionary writers, artists, and personalities that flourished on the Left Bank was inventing their own iconic style, Kiki was the thread connecting them. Besides modeling, Kiki was also a cabaret performer, actress, and sometimes painter.

At the end of 1920s Kiki had her own cabaret, Chez Kiki, and a table
 at Le Dome was permanently reserved for her. In 1929 she published her first memoir; in 1930 the book was translated by Samuel Putnam and published in
 Manhattan by Black Manikin Press, but it was immediately banned by the
 United States government.

But
 much like many of todays celebrities, Kiki was most famous simply for
 being famous. Gossip swilled around her and Kiki revelled in it, even
 when the stories were apocryphal. There was the story that she had no
 pubic hair, for instance; some women, however bohemian, might have found
 such speculation upsetting. Kiki didn’t.

When Man Ray’s friend and Dadaist Marcel Duchamp left for
 New York, Man Ray set up his first studio at l’Hôtel des Ecoles at no.
 15 rue Delambre. This is where his career as a photographer began, and
 where James Joyce, Gertrude Stein, Jean Cocteau and the others often posed (see Masters of Monochrome: Part II- Man Ray ).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Above: Photographs of Kiki by Man Ray

Kiki and Man Ray were lovers for six years, during which time he took
 hundreds of photographs of her and was hugely influential in the
 creation of her persona. Kay Boyle, a Paris-based American novelist and
 contemporary of Kiki’s, wrote that, “Man Ray had designed Kiki’s face
 for her and painted it on with his own hand. He would begin by
 shaving her eyebrows off, and then putting other eyebrows back, in
 any color he might have selected for her mask that day … Her heavy
 eyelids might be done in copper one day and in royal blue another, or
 else in silver or jade.”

But despite their intense connection, Kiki ultimately went too far for Man Ray. When a cafe-owner in Nice called her a whore she got into a fight and was thrown into jail: Man Ray’s lawyer could only secure her release by producing a doctor’s certificate stating that she had a nervous disorder. Soon afterwards, Man Ray left Kiki for his photographic protege, Lee Miller. He broke the news to Kiki at one of their regular cafe haunts, and was forced to duck under a table while she hurled plates at his head.

 

Above: Works by Kiki, clockwise from top;  “Flower Shop“, “Maternity“, “Tightrope Walker

In 1927 Kiki had a sold-out exhibition of her paintings at the Galerie au Sacre du Printemps in Paris. Her work was composed in an uneven expressionist style that some consider a reflection of her “easy-going manner and boundless optimism”. But generally speaking, Kiki was never considered to be a serious artist; her paintings were mostly crude and amateurish. Their popularity was based not on technique or composition, but rather the name affixed to them.

Her reign ended along with the decade. She seemed unable to function outside Paris – an attempt to break into the American film industry of the 1930s failed – but Paris was no longer hers. In her last years, Kiki slipped into self-parody, singing for tourists in the Montparnasse cafes to fund her voracious cocaine and alcohol habits. In 1953, at the age of 52, she collapsed and died. Her funeral was paid for by the cafe-owners of the 6th arrondissement.

Café, Avenue de la Grande-Armée“, Eugène Atget 1924-25

 

La Conciergerie et la Seine“, Eugène Atget 1923

 

 Rue Asseline” 1924-25                                                                                                          “Prostitute“,1921

 

Boulevard de Strasbourg“, Eugène Atget 1921

The French photographer Eugène Atget had begun his career in the late 1880’s, but beginning with the renovations in Montmartre in 1897 his interest shifted from landscapes and portraiture to a determination for documenting all of the architecture and street scenes of Paris before their disappearance. An inspiration for the surrealists
 and other artists, his genius was only recognized by a handful of contemporaries in the last two years of his life.

The Bibliothèque historique de la ville de Paris began purchasing his photographs in 1898, and by 1906 had commissioned him to
 systematically photograph old buildings in Paris. In 1899 he moved to Montparnasse where he lived until his death in 1927. Man Ray -a neighbor of Atget – not only purchased a number of Atget’s photographs but used During the Eclipse for the cover of his surrealist magazine la Révolution surréaliste.
 When he asked Atget if he could use his photo Atget said: “Don’t put my
 name on it. These are simply documents I make.” Despite being documentary in intent, Atget’s pictures of staircases, doorways, ragpickers, and especially
 those with window reflections and mannequins had a Dada or Surrealist
 quality about them. Man Ray offered to lend him his modern compact cameras but Atget refused, preferring to use the older equipment which he hauled around the streets.

Anita Baker, Lucien Walery
Advertisement for Moulin Rouge, Lucien Walery

 

The mysterious but prolific Lucien “Julien” Waléry was another renowned Parisian photographer during the 1910’s and twenties; he became famous for his portraits of artists and cabaret-dancers from the Paris music halls, especially the Folies Bergère and demi-monde society. Among his best known portraits are Mata Hari and Josephine Baker. His photos were often signed “Walery, Paris”. It is said that he also used the anagrams “Yrélaw” or “Laryew”.

 

 

 A young Kiki de Montparnasse, J. Mandell

 

There has been some controversy involved over a studio photographer of the period which specialized in erotic “postcards”, known as “Julian Mandel”. Signature photography bearing that name was published in Paris throughout the same time frame by firms specializing on risque imagery such as Alfred Noyer, Les Studios, P.C. Paris and the Neue Photographische Gesellschaft, a few of them featuring a young Kiki. Waléry did a lot of erotic nude photographs, and it may well be that he used the name “Mandel” when selling work to publishers: the use of the name “Julian” and the similarity of the imagery is too great to write off as mere coincidence. Another controversy revolves over the possibility that Waléry’s actual identity was Stanislaw Julian Ignacy Count Ostroróg (1863-1935), a British photographer from London with Polish ancestors, providing a possible explanation for his subterfuge.

Carrefour Vavin

“The cafe is not only a place to enjoy a cup of coffee, it is also a space – distinct from its urban environment – in which to reflect and take part in intellectual debate. Since the eighteenth century in Europe, intellectuals and artists have gathered in cafes to exchange ideas, inspirations and information that has driven the cultural agenda for Europe and the world. Without the café, would there have been a Karl Marx or a Jean-Paul Sartre?” – Leona Rittner, The Café as a Cultural Institution in Paris, Italy and Vienna

 

The cafés at the centre of Montparnasse’s social life were in the
 Carrefour Vavin, now known as Place Pablo-Picasso. During les Années Folles, Le Dôme, La Closerie des Lilas, La
 Rotonde
, Le Select and La Coupole (all still in operation)
 were popular among the artists and writers who could occupy a table all evening
 for a few centimes. If they fell asleep waiters were usually instructed no

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Offline Eddie

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Re: History in Photographs
« Reply #17 on: December 14, 2015, 01:34:45 PM »
Of the three books Hemingway wrote during those years, only one, The Sun also Rises was published during his lifetime.

A Moveable Feast and The Garden of Eden were published posthumously. I would guess he didn't publish Feast because it painted some of those literary and art characters in a less than a favorable light...and Eden because it had to do with Hadley and the first marriage, and was probably pure autobiography.
What makes the desert beautiful is that somewhere it hides a well.

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History in Photographs: Tearing Down the Berlin Wall
« Reply #18 on: December 14, 2015, 01:36:38 PM »
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History in Photographs: 9-11 WTC Collapse
« Reply #19 on: December 14, 2015, 01:42:41 PM »
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Offline Eddie

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Re: History in Photographs
« Reply #20 on: December 14, 2015, 01:54:45 PM »


Okay, I know it shouldn't be so hard, but I've got Hemingway identified no problem, and Stein, of course...but the others aren't so easy. Is that T.S. Eliot in the visor, more in the background?

Pound on Hemingway's left, with the moustache, next to the woman you cropped out, the one wearing the apron (cafe proprietor?) ?

Joyce cleanshaven next to Stein?

I can't be sure. Wasn't Pound much older than the rest?

What makes the desert beautiful is that somewhere it hides a well.

Offline Golden Oxen

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Re: History in Photographs
« Reply #21 on: December 14, 2015, 02:01:00 PM »
Eliot is in front with the legs crossed and shoes showing.

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Re: History in Photographs
« Reply #22 on: December 14, 2015, 02:05:52 PM »
Okay, I know it shouldn't be so hard, but I've got Hemingway identified no problem, and Stein, of course...but the others aren't so easy. Is that T.S. Eliot in the visor, more in the background?

Pound on Hemingway's left, with the moustache, next to the woman you cropped out, the one wearing the apron (cafe proprietor?) ?

Joyce cleanshaven next to Stein?

I can't be sure. Wasn't Pound much older than the rest?

I can only identify Hemingway, Stein and Eliot for sure.  I am not sure about the other two.

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Re: History in Photographs
« Reply #23 on: December 14, 2015, 02:13:06 PM »
Eliot is in front with the legs crossed and shoes showing.

 He was the smartest of the group by far, and best writer as well, but Hemingway was far more popular, a Hollywood type romantic and adventurer.

Offline Eddie

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Re: History in Photographs
« Reply #24 on: December 14, 2015, 02:13:45 PM »
Eliot is in front with the legs crossed and shoes showing.

If that's Eliot, then which one is Gertrude Stein?
What makes the desert beautiful is that somewhere it hides a well.

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Re: History in Photographs
« Reply #25 on: December 14, 2015, 02:20:04 PM »
This one was shot in Ezra Pound's studio.

RE

http://stompingontheterra.com/2015/02/07/t-s-eliot-ezra-pound-james-joyce-and-ernest-hemingway-discuss-the-weather-and-war-in-pounds-studio/



http://videos.videopress.com/7cYp91Vv/modernist-round-table-salon-sessions-1_hd.mp4
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Offline Eddie

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Re: History in Photographs
« Reply #26 on: December 14, 2015, 02:21:56 PM »
Eliot is in front with the legs crossed and shoes showing.

 He was the smartest of the group by far, and best writer as well, but Hemingway was far more popular, a Hollywood type romantic and adventurer.

I like to read books that compliment each other. A Moveable Feast pairs extremely well with Stein's Autobiography of Alice B. Toklas. They are excellent companion pieces.

I never got into Eliot, or Pound..or even Joyce, although I took a stab at each of them. I probably wouldn't have made it as an English Major.
What makes the desert beautiful is that somewhere it hides a well.

Offline Eddie

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Re: History in Photographs
« Reply #27 on: December 14, 2015, 02:27:13 PM »
This one was shot in Ezra Pound's studio.

RE

http://stompingontheterra.com/2015/02/07/t-s-eliot-ezra-pound-james-joyce-and-ernest-hemingway-discuss-the-weather-and-war-in-pounds-studio/



http://videos.videopress.com/7cYp91Vv/modernist-round-table-salon-sessions-1_hd.mp4


I got Eliot no problem there. And Joyce and Hemingway. That appears to be Ford Maddox Ford holding the rock. I don't recognize the standing man or the young one on the right.
What makes the desert beautiful is that somewhere it hides a well.

Offline Golden Oxen

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Re: History in Photographs
« Reply #28 on: December 14, 2015, 02:30:27 PM »
Eliot is in front with the legs crossed and shoes showing.

 He was the smartest of the group by far, and best writer as well, but Hemingway was far more popular, a Hollywood type romantic and adventurer.

I like to read books that compliment each other. A Moveable Feast pairs extremely well with Stein's Autobiography of Alice B. Toklas. They are excellent companion pieces.

I never got into Eliot, or Pound..or even Joyce, although I took a stab at each of them. I probably wouldn't have made it as an English Major.

Eliot and Hemingway are the two that interested me, the others works were glanced at for a very short while, and never sought after again.

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Re: History in Photographs
« Reply #29 on: December 14, 2015, 02:33:05 PM »
Eliot is in front with the legs crossed and shoes showing.

 He was the smartest of the group by far, and best writer as well, but Hemingway was far more popular, a Hollywood type romantic and adventurer.

Hemingway did a lot more than just write.  He fought.  Far as I know, none of the others did.




Which reminds me of Russell Bentley, the Donbass Hemingway...




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