AuthorTopic: The Toba Memorial Volcano Thread  (Read 17954 times)

Offline RE

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Up to 50,000 residents flee from Bali volcano amid fears it is about to erupt
« Reply #135 on: September 25, 2017, 01:43:50 AM »
Now up to 50,000 evacuated!

Good thing we have Sports Stadiums.

RE

http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-4916682/50-000-flee-Mount-Agung-Bali-fears-erupt.html

BREAKING NEWS: Up to 50,000 residents flee from Bali volcano amid fears it is about to erupt


    The numbers from disaster officials are more than triple previous estimates
    Authorities told those living in 9-12 km zone around the volcano to leave
    Thousands are now living in temporary shelters, sport centers and village halls

By Matilda Rudd and Khaleda Rahman For Daily Mail Australia

Published: 03:55 EDT, 25 September 2017 | Updated: 04:33 EDT, 25 September 2017

Up to 50,000 people have fled the largest volcano on the Indonesian island of Bali, fearing it will erupt at any moment.

A natural disaster has been declared in parts of Bali as authorities imposed an exclusion zone around Mount Agung following increasing volcanic activity on Sunday.

Strong tremors rippled through areas in the eastern part of one of the world's most popular tourist destinations, packed with Australian families enjoying the school holidays, sparking authorities to order people to leave a 12 kilometre (8 mile) zone around the mountain.
The last eruption of Mount Agung (pictured) at Klungkung in Bali, in 1963 killed 1,100 people

The last eruption of Mount Agung (pictured) at Klungkung in Bali, in 1963 killed 1,100 people

The numbers from disaster officials on Sunday are more than double previous estimates and are continuing to rise, they say.

It includes people who left voluntarily as well as those told to evacuate from the exclusion zone as increasing tremors rattle the region. 

Authorities raised the volcano's alert status to the highest level on Friday following a 'tremendous increase' in seismic activity. Its last eruption in 1963 killed 1,100 people.
More than 35,000 people have fled a menacing volcano on the Indonesian island of Bali

More than 35,000 people have fled a menacing volcano on the Indonesian island of Bali

Luhut Binsar Panjaitan, a senior Cabinet minister, said Sunday that the districts surrounding the volcano 'must be prepared for the worst.'

The National Disaster Mitigation Agency has praised the welcoming response of local communities on Bali to the flood of evacuees.

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The agency has sent food and logistical supplies to the area, while also calling for public donations.

Thousands are living in temporary shelters, sport centers, village halls and with relatives or friends. Some return to the danger zone during the day to tend to livestock.
Thousands are living in temporary shelters, sport centers, village halls. Above, evacuees in a temporary shelter

Thousands are living in temporary shelters, sport centers, village halls. Above, evacuees in a temporary shelter
Children play in an evacuation shelter after authorities raised the volcano's alert status to the highest level on Friday

Children play in an evacuation shelter after authorities raised the volcano's alert status to the highest level on Friday
Some evacuees return to the danger zone around the volcano in the day to tend to livestock

Some evacuees return to the danger zone around the volcano in the day to tend to livestock
The National Disaster Mitigation Agency has praised the welcoming response of local communities on Bali to the flood of evacuees

The National Disaster Mitigation Agency has praised the welcoming response of local communities on Bali to the flood of evacuees
Authorities imposed the exclusion zone around the crater as increasing volcanic activity on Sunday sent strong tremors through areas in the eastern part of the island

Authorities imposed the exclusion zone around the crater as increasing volcanic activity on Sunday sent strong tremors through areas in the eastern part of the island

National Disaster Mitigation Agency spokesman Sutopo Purwo Nugroho said 14 tons of aid has been sent, including tents, blankets, mattresses and portable communications equipment.

Truck driver Wayan Suparta said he and his family left their village 5 kilometres (3 miles) from the mountain several days ago, bringing just clothes and blankets to a temporary camp in Rendang.

The 35-year-old said he sold the family's cow because they don't know when they'll be able to return.

Officials have said there is no current danger to people in other parts of Bali, a popular tourist island famous for its surfing, beaches and elegant Hindu culture.

Hoaxes have proliferated online, with videos of previous eruptions in Indonesia circulated as current events at Mount Agung.

Officials urged the public to remain calm amid false reports and videos circulating online of an eruption.
The National Disaster Mitigation Agency has sent food and logistical supplies to the area, while also calling for public donations

The National Disaster Mitigation Agency has sent food and logistical supplies to the area, while also calling for public donations
Women and children are seen taking refuge in an evacuation shelter after authorities imposed an exclusion zone around the volcano

Women and children are seen taking refuge in an evacuation shelter after authorities imposed an exclusion zone around the volcano

'The latest analysis indicates that Mount Agung's seismic energy is increasing and has the potential to erupt,' the National Vulcanology Center said in a statement.

'However, no one can predict exactly when there will be an eruption,' it added.

Flights at Bali's international airport were operating normally on Sunday as were tourist spots across the rest of the island.

Meanwhile, Australian flights to Bali continued as scheduled on Sunday.

Virgin Australia, Jetstar and Qantas flights to Denpasar International Airport remained unaffected but the airlines said they were monitoring warnings.

Virgin Australia warned of possible flight delays and said some Bali bound flights would be making fuel stops in Darwin as a precautionary measure.

'This ensures that if an eruption occurs while the aircraft is en route, we will be able to get guests back to their originating port safely and quickly,' the airline said in a statement.
National Disaster Mitigation Agency spokesman Sutopo Purwo Nugroho said 14 tons of aid has been sent, including tents, blankets, mattresses and portable communications equipment

National Disaster Mitigation Agency spokesman Sutopo Purwo Nugroho said 14 tons of aid has been sent, including tents, blankets, mattresses and portable communications equipment
Indonesia, made up of thousands of islands, is prone to seismic upheaval due to its location on the Pacific 'Ring of Fire'

Indonesia, made up of thousands of islands, is prone to seismic upheaval due to its location on the Pacific 'Ring of Fire'

All Jetstar flights were operating as scheduled and passengers would be notified individually if changes occurred, the company said in a statement on Sunday.

'Our pilots and meteorologists will continue to monitor the latest information from the Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre,' the statement said.

Qantas flights were also operating as scheduled, a spokeswoman told AAP on Sunday.

The government's Smart Traveller website urges visitors to monitor local media reports and follow instructions of local authorities.

Australians are also advised to exercise a high degree of caution in Indonesia and to contact their tour operators to confirm travel plans.

In 1963, the 3,031-meter (9,944-foot) Agung hurled ash as high as 20 kilometres (12 miles), according to volcanologists, and remained active for about a year.

Lava traveled 7.5 kilometres (4.7 miles) and ash reached Indonesia's capital, Jakarta, about 1,000 kilometres (620 miles) away.

The mountain, 72 kilometres (45 miles) to the northeast of the tourist hotspot of Kuta, is among more than 120 active volcanoes in Indonesia.

The country of thousands of islands is prone to seismic upheaval due to its location on the Pacific 'Ring of Fire,' an arc of volcanoes and fault lines encircling the Pacific Basin.
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Indonesian official: More than 120,000 flee Bali volcano
« Reply #136 on: September 28, 2017, 03:00:57 AM »
We have more than doubled now the evacuees on Bali to 120K!

RE

http://abcnews.go.com/Technology/wireStory/indonesian-official-120000-flee-bali-volcano-50147437

Indonesian official: More than 120,000 flee Bali volcano

    By The Associated Press

BALI, Indonesia — Sep 28, 2017, 3:20 AM ET


Villagers watch Mount Agung from an observation point which is about 12 kilometer (7.4 miles) away from the volcano in Karangasem, Bali, Indonesia, Thursday, Sept. 28, 2017. The exodus from the menacing volcano on the Indonesian tourist island is nearing 100,000 people, a disaster official said Wednesday, as hundreds of tremors from the mountain are recorded daily. (AP Photo/Firdia Lisnawati)
more +


More than 120,000 people have fled the region around the Mount Agung volcano on the Indonesian tourist island of Bali, fearing it will soon erupt, an official said Thursday.

Nyoman Parwata, an official at the disaster mitigation agency's command post in Bali, said the number of evacuees has swelled to about 122,500.

They are scattered in more than 500 locations across the island famed for its beaches, lush green interior and elegant Hindu culture, taking shelter in temporary camps, sports centers and other public buildings.

The volcano has been at its highest alert level since Friday, sparking the massive exodus of villagers. Thousands of cows are also being evacuated.

An exclusion zone around the mountain extends as far as 12 kilometers (7.5 miles) from the crater in places but officials say people farther from the volcano are leaving too.

Agung, which dominates the landscape in the northeast of the island, last erupted in 1963, killing more than 1,100 people. It remained active for about a year.

Volcanologists say the recent dramatic escalation in tremors indicates an eruption is more likely than not, but they can't say with certainty when it will happen.

"I would definitely be following the advice to stay outside the exclusion zone," said Heather Handley, an assistant earth sciences professor at Sydney's Macquarie University. The increase in tremors suggests an eruption is "imminent," she said.

Its eruptions in 1963 produced deadly clouds of searing hot ash, gases and rock fragments that traveled down its slopes at great speed. Lava spread for several kilometers and people were also killed by lahars — rivers of water and volcanic debris.

The mountain, about 70 kilometers (45 miles) to the northeast of the tourist hotspot of Kuta, is among more than 120 active volcanoes in Indonesia.

Another volcano, Mount Sinabung on Sumatra, has been erupting sporadically since 2010, sometimes blasting volcanic ash several kilometers (miles) into the air and forcing more than 30,000 to evacuate their villages.

Indonesia, an archipelago of thousands of islands, is prone to seismic upheaval due to its location on the Pacific "Ring of Fire," an arc of volcanoes and fault lines encircling the Pacific Basin.
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Offline RE

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Lucky 13 Super Volcanos Waking Up
« Reply #137 on: October 07, 2017, 01:13:11 AM »
https://www.reddit.com/r/StormComing/comments/74svyh/stunningly_13_of_the_worlds_supercalderas_have/

Stunningly, 13 of the worlds SuperCalderas have become active in the past 2 months (self.StormComing)


submitted 3 hours ago * by TheKolbrinMod/Watcher

13 Mega-Volcanos or SuperCalderas with a VEI of 7 or 8 have all become active over the past 2 months.

VEI is 'Volcano Explosivity Index'. This Index caps out at 8.

The eruption of Mt. Tambora in 1815 is one of the most recent Mega Volcanos to erupt. At a VEI of 7, one of the most powerful eruptions in recorded history.

The ash from Tamboras eruption column dispersed around the world and lowered global temperatures, leading to worldwide harvest failures in an event sometimes known as the Year Without a Summer in 1816.

The current activity is pretty unusual. It's not just the SuperCaldera Volcanos that are waking up, we have 8 'ring of fire' region volcanos that have become active just in the past several weeks. Search Volcano on StormComing to see the details on these.

"In the case of a supervolcano you could have complete collapse of civilization around the world in the very worst case scenario. "Eruptions That Shook The World" - Dr Clive Oppenheimer"
Island Park Caldera 8 North-America USA State of Idaho 2.1 million years ago September 26 2017 03:01 PM
Lake Taupo 8 Australia - New-Zealand New Zealand ~26,500 years ago October 07 2017 02:50 AM
Lake Toba 8 Indonesian Archipelago Indonesia ~74,000 years ago August 28 2017 10:59 PM
Whakamaru 8 Australia - New-Zealand New Zealand ~254,000 years ago October 07 2017 02:50 AM
Yellowstone Caldera 8 North-America USA State of Wyoming 640,000 years ago September 26 2017 03:01 PM
Aira Caldera 7 Asia Japan Island of Kyushu ~22,000 years ago September 24 2017 11:31 PM
Campi Flegrei 7 Europe Italy Naples ~39,280 years ago September 30 2017 11:58 PM
Kikai Caldera 7 Asia Japan Osumi Islands, ~6,300 years ago October 01 2017 07:20 PM
Laacher See 7 Europe Germany Rhineland-Palatinate ~12,900 years ago September 29 2017 12:36 AM
Long Valley Caldera 7 North-America USA State of California ~760,000 years ago October 07 2017 03:01 AM
Mount Tambora 7 Indonesian Archipelago Sumbawa Island 1815 October 04 2017 01:41 PM
Reporoa Caldera 7 Australia - New-Zealand New Zealand Taupo 230,000 years ago October 07 2017 01:42 AM
Santorini Volcano 7 Europe Greece Island of Thera 1927 October 06 2017 05:08 PM
« Last Edit: October 07, 2017, 01:14:48 AM by RE »
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Wave Of Eruptions Along Pacific 'Ring Of Fire' Leave 10,000s Displaced
« Reply #138 on: October 14, 2017, 03:00:54 AM »
So far, Mt.Redoubt is quiet and no Shakers yet tonight.

RE

http://www.zerohedge.com/news/2017-10-13/wave-eruptions-along-pacific-ring-fire-leave-10000s-displaced

Wave Of Eruptions Along Pacific 'Ring Of Fire' Leave 10,000s Displaced

by Tyler Durden
Oct 13, 2017 10:40 PM



The Pacific “Ring of Fire” is living up to its name.

The 450 or so volcanoes that make up the ring outline have been unusually active this year, sparking evacuations on the Indonesian island of Bali and on the tiny island nation of Vanuatu. Parts of southwestern Japan, meanwhile, have been shaken by a series of earthquakes, unsettling the local population, in an area where the massive Pacific Plate grinds against other plates that form the Earth’s crust, creating a 25,000-mile zone where earthquakes and volcanic eruptions are unusually common.

Three volcanos have either erupted, or are showing signs of an imminent eruption, across the region, according to a roundup published by the Associated Press.

Japan:
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    The Shinmoedake volcano in southwestern Japan started erupting Wednesday for the first time in about six years. An ash plume rose 1,700 meters (5,580 feet) from the crater Thursday and ash fell on cities and towns in Miyazaki prefecture. Japanese broadcaster TBS showed students wearing helmets and masks on their way to school at the foot of Shinmoedake. The Japan Meteorological Agency is warning that hot ash and gas clouds known as pyroclastic flows could reach 2 kilometers (1 mile) from the crater, and ash and volcanic rocks are a risk over a wider area depending on wind and elevation. It raised the volcanic alert level from 2 to 3 on a scale of 5. Level 3 warns people to not approach the volcano.

Bali:

    More than 140,000 people fled Mount Agung on the Indonesian resort island of Bali after its alert status was raised to the highest level on Sept. 22. Hundreds of tremors daily from the mountain indicate magma is rising inside it, prompting authorities to warn a powerful eruption is possible. The volcano spewed lava and deadly fast-moving clouds of boiling hot ash, gas and rocks when it last erupted in 1963, killing more than 1,100 people. A new eruption is likely to kill fewer people because officials have imposed a large no-go zone around the crater but it could paralyze tourism, which many Balinese rely on for their livelihoods. Indonesia has more than one tenth of the world’s active volcanoes and another two are currently erupting. Sinabung in northern Sumatra is shooting plumes of ash high into the atmosphere nearly daily, and Dukono in the Maluku island chain is also periodically erupting.

Vanuatu:

    The entire population of a Pacific island was evacuated in the space of a few days in late September and early October to escape the belching Manaro volcano. The 11,000 residents of Ambae island were moved by every boat available to other islands in Vanuatu, a Pacific archipelago nation, where they’re living in schools, churches and tents. Officials have since downgraded the volcano’s danger level but say the population must wait at least two more weeks to return. The island’s water supply and crops have been affected by volcanic ash and acid rain but most villages were spared major damage. Previous eruptions of the volcano have lasted a month to six weeks.

As if the Ring of Fire wasn’t doing enough to inspire febrile visions of an apocalyptic calamity, scientists are warning that supervolcanos in Italy and the US could be headed for eruptions that would register as by far the most destructive in modern human history.

Earlier this week, scientists from Arizona State University presented research showing that when the Yellowstone caldera super volcano last erupted more than 600,000 years ago, it took barely a decade for magma flowing into the volcano’s chamber to reach a critical mass.

Volcanos, hurricanes, wildfires, earthquakes – natural disasters are seemingly happening everywhere at once. 

Perhaps the ultimate irony is that while the Trump administration is focusing its energy on foreign enemies like Iran and North Korea, the greatest threat to the American population lies within a cherished domestic landmark and symbol of national pride.
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Iceland's Biggest Volcano Is "Ready To Erupt" As Europe Faces A Disaster
« Reply #139 on: November 01, 2017, 03:08:43 AM »
http://www.zerohedge.com/news/2017-10-31/icelands-biggest-volcano-ready-erupt-europe-faces-disaster

Iceland's Biggest Volcano Is "Ready To Erupt" As Europe Faces A Disaster


by Tyler Durden
Nov 1, 2017 1:00 AM

Authored by Mac Slavo via SHTFplan.com,

Iceland’s biggest volcano has been rocked by the strongest earthquake since it last erupted in 2014.

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With swarms of earthquakes occurring in the French Alps too, Europe is facing what could be one of the largest natural disasters in history.

Last week, the 6,591-foot tall Bardarbunga, a “powerful and versatile” volcano, was rattled by the four largest earthquakes since it last erupted in 2014.  The earthquakes, measuring in magnitudes of 3.9, 3.2, 4.7, and 4.7 on the Richter scale, struck the caldera region over several days last weekend. Another magnitude 4.1 earthquake hit the 200km long and 25km wide volcanic system earlier last week and several tremors struck in September.

Páll Einarsson, a volcanology expert at the University of Iceland, said the latest quakes are part of a series that have been “in progress for two years”. Speaking exclusively to Daily Star Online, he said the volcano is “clearly preparing for its next eruption” within the next few years.

Fears are spiking even higher when considering the earthquake swarm that has been rocking the French Alps recently.

The 10,000-year-old volcano spewed out large volumes of sulfur dioxide during its last seven-month eruption which took place between August of 2014 and February of 2015. Although the eruption did not disrupt any flights, the emissions harshly impacted the air quality in Iceland, leading to health consequences across the country.

In spite of describing the volcanoes activity as “high”, the Icelandic Met Office has yet to issue any warnings about the possibility of Bardarbunga’s eruption. In fact, the warning code remains green; meaning the volcano is in a normal, non-eruptive state, according to the volcano monitor.

Seven years ago Iceland’s massive Eyjafjallajökull volcano erupted, spewing a choking veil of ash across Europe. Residents worry as memories of the 2014 eruption and the flight chaos caused by the 2010 eruption of the Eyjafjallajökull volcano resurface.


The deadly volcanic dust wiped out skies and grounded 100,000 flights, resulting in the economy losing £4 billion.



Should an eruption of Bardarbunga take place, it’s highly possible that there would be another even more drastic air travel restriction and poorer air quality.
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Antarctica Being Cooked From BELOW!
« Reply #140 on: November 08, 2017, 10:24:02 AM »
Geotectonic Global Cooking, Baby!  :icon_sunny:

RE

http://www.newsweek.com/antarctica-melting-below-mantle-plume-almost-hot-yellowstone-supervolcano-705086

NASA Discovers Mantle Plume Almost as Hot as Yellowstone Supervolcano That's Melting Antarctica From Below
By Hannah Osborne On 11/8/17 at 8:30 AM


West_Antarctica_by_NASA Marie Byrd Land. NASA/Michael Studinger

Tech & Science
yellowstone
Antarctica
volcano

A mantle plume producing almost as much heat as Yellowstone supervolcano appears to be melting part of West Antarctica from beneath.

Researchers at NASA have discovered a huge upwelling of hot rock under Marie Byrd Land, which lies between the Ross Ice Shelf and the Ross Sea, is creating vast lakes and rivers under the ice sheet. The presence of a huge mantle plume could explain why the region is so unstable today, and why it collapsed so quickly at the end of the last Ice Age, 11,000 years ago.

Mantle plumes are thought to be part of the plumbing systems that brings hot material up from Earth’s interior. Once it gets through the mantle, it spreads out under the crust, providing magma for volcanic eruptions. The area above a plume is known as a hotspot.

For 30 years, scientists have suggested that a mantle plume may exist under Marie Byrd Land. Its presence would explain the regional volcanic activity seen in the area, as well as a dome feature that exists there. However, there was no evidence to support this idea.

Now, scientists from NASA’s et Propulsion Laboratory have created advanced numerical models to show how much heat would need to exist beneath the ice to account for their observations—including the dome and the giant subsurface rivers and lakes we know are present on Antarctica’s bedrock. As lakes fill and drain, the ice thousands of feet above rises and falls, sometimes by as much as 20 feet.

Study author Hélène Seroussi, from JPL, said when she first heard that a mantle plume might be heating Marie Byrd Land she thought the idea was “crazy.”

"I didn't see how we could have that amount of heat and still have ice on top of it,” she said in a statement.


View of the Grand Prismatic hot spring in Yellowstone National Park. Mark Ralston/AFP/Getty Images

However, in a study published in the Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, Seroussi and colleagues looked at one of the most well studied magma plumes on Earth—the Yellowstone hotspot. The team developed a mantle plume model to look at how much geothermal heat would be needed to explain what is seen at Marie Byrd Land. They then used the Ice Sheet System Model (ISSM), which shows the physics of ice sheets, to look at the natural sources of heating and heat transport.

This model enabled researchers to place “powerful constraint” on how much melt rate was allowable, meaning they could test out different scenarios of how much heat was being produced deep beneath the ice.

Illustration of flowing water under the Antarctic ice sheet. Blue dots indicate lakes, lines show rivers. Marie Byrd Land is part of the bulging "elbow" leading to the Antarctic Peninsula. NSF/Zina Deretsky

Their findings showed that generally, the energy being generated by the mantle plume is no more than 150 milliwatts per square meter—any more would result in too much melting. The heat generated under Yellowstone National Park, on average, is 200 milliwatts per square meter.

Scientists also found one area where the heat flow must be at least 150-180 milliwatts per square meter—but data suggests mantle heat at this location comes from a rift—a fracture in the Earth’s crust where heat can rise up.

Concluding, the team say the Marie Byrd Land mantle plume formed 50-110 million years ago—long before the land above was hidden by ice. Heat from it, they say, has an “important local impact” on the ice sheet—and understanding these processes will allow researchers to work out what will happen to it in the future.
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Mount Agung: Bali volcano activity prompts 'red warning'
« Reply #141 on: November 26, 2017, 02:19:09 AM »
http://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-42126284

Mount Agung: Bali volcano activity prompts 'red warning'

    46 minutes ago
    From the section Asia


Image copyright AFP/getty
Image caption Large plumes of ash are spewing from Mount Agung

Airlines have been issued a "red warning" about the danger of volcanic ash in the skies close to Bali after Mount Agung emitted a thick plume of smoke reaching 4,000m (13,100 feet).

It is the second major emission from the Indonesian island volcano this week, and flights have been disrupted.

The red warning means an eruption is forecast to be imminent, with significant emission of ash likely.

Authorities have begun distributing masks in some areas as ash falls.

Bali is a major tourist destination, although the main resorts of Kuta and Seminyak are about 70km (43 miles) from the volcano.

The island's main airport is for now operating normally, but some airlines have cancelled flights. Volcanic ash can damage plane engines.


Image copyright Reuters
Image caption Ash from the eruption coated roads, cars and buildings near the volcano in the north-east of Bali and emergency officials said hundreds of thousands of masks had been distributed

However, the ash cloud is said to be moving eastward towards the island of Lombok, and the main international airport there has been closed entirely.

The information director of Indonesia's Disaster Mitigation Agency tweeted that volcanic ash rain had fallen on the Lombok city of Mataram.

    Bali volcano: What is it like waiting for an eruption?
    Indonesia: Volcano nation

"Tourism in Bali is still safe, except in the danger (zone) around Mount Agung," the agency said in a statement.

It told people within a 7.5km exclusion zone to "immediately evacuate" in an "orderly and calm manner".

Magma - molten rock - has now been detected close to the volcano's surface, said officials and volcanologists.


Image copyright Antara Foto/Wira Suryantala via REUTERS
Image caption Passengers waiting at Bali's Ngurah Rai airport on Saturday

About 25,000 people are thought to still be in temporary shelters after more than 140,000 people fled earlier this year. Increased volcanic activity had prompted fears a major eruption was imminent.

Most of the islanders outside the immediate exclusion zone were ordered to return home at the end of September, and the mountain has been intermittently rumbling since.
Media captionEvacuees from near Mount Agung brought their birds, chickens and dogs with them in September

According to official estimates, the holiday island lost at least $110m (£83m) in tourism and productivity during the major evacuation.

Indonesia sits on the Pacific "Ring of Fire" where tectonic plates collide, causing frequent seismic and volcanic activity.

It is home to more than 130 active volcanoes. The last time Mount Agung erupted, in 1963, more than 1,000 people died.
Media captionSurvivors of the 1963 eruption on the last time Mount Agung erupted

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Thousands evacuated as lava flows from Philippine volcano
« Reply #142 on: January 15, 2018, 02:41:27 AM »
https://www.nbcnews.com/news/world/thousands-evacuated-lava-flows-philippine-volcano-n837721

Thousands evacuated as lava flows from Philippine volcano


IMAGE: Mount Mayon
An orange glow lights the cloud-shrouded crater of Mayon volcano on Sunday in Albay province, Philippines. Earl Recamunda / AP

by Associated Press

MANILA, Philippines — The Philippines' most active volcano rumbled back to life Sunday with lava rising to its crater in a gentle eruption that has prompted authorities to evacuate thousands of villagers.

The Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology warned that a "hazardous eruption" of Mount Mayon, in Albay province in the northeastern Philippines, was possible within weeks or even days.

Renato Solidum, who heads the volcanology institute, said three steam explosions at the volcano since Saturday have spewed ash into nearby villages and may have breached solidified lava at the crater and caused lava to start to flow out of the 8,000-foot volcano.

"Lava has flowed out of the volcano's crater already, but it's just starting. It's a non-explosive eruption," Solidum told The Associated Press. "We have to verify tomorrow if it will flow continuously."

Disaster response officials said nearly 1,000 families have been moved to emergency shelters, including some from a permanent danger zone around Mayon, since the volcano started spewing steam and ash on Saturday.

Mayon, a popular tourist attraction because of its near-perfect cone, lies in coconut-producing Albay province, about 200 miles southeast of Manila.

The volcano has erupted about 50 times in the last 500 years, sometimes violently, endangering thousands of poor villagers who insist on living or farming in the danger zone.

Villagers living near the volcano, which last erupted four years ago, have erected huge white crosses at the entrance of their neighborhoods, hoping they will protect them from harm.

On May 7, 2013, the volcano suddenly spewed ash, killing five climbers, including three Germans, who had ventured near the summit despite warnings of possible danger.
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Mount Mayon volcano: Philippines fears violent eruption
« Reply #143 on: January 22, 2018, 05:18:50 AM »
http://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-42772764

Mount Mayon volcano: Philippines fears violent eruption


    37 minutes ago
 

Media captionFootage from last week when Mount Mayon began spewing lava

The Philippines raised the alert level at its most active volcano, Mount Mayon, on Monday after fresh activity.

Mayon has been spewing lava and a cloud of ash since 13 January, forcing more than 40,000 residents to flee their homes in the central province of Albay.

Authorities raised the alert level to four on a scale of five because a hazardous and violent eruption is expected within days.

An 8km (five mile) exclusion zone has been put in place around the volcano.
Image copyright AFP
Image caption Mayon, a near-perfect cone, rises 2,460 metres
Image copyright EPA
Image caption Albay province has run out of emergency funds, according to the provincial governor

Authorities have shut schools and urged residents to remain indoors, as the volcano's huge plume of smoke now reaches 10km into the sky.

Albay province has run out of emergency funds, said provincial governor Al Francis Bichara, and more people would be evacuated once federal financial help arrived.
Image copyright Reuters
Image caption Authorities have shut schools and urged residents to remain indoors

"In some areas... it's already zero visibility, especially along the foot of the volcano," he told CNN Philippines, adding that strong winds could carry ash to distant towns.

    BBC Science: Volcanoes

Fine ash and sand fell on Legazpi, a city of about 200,000 people, and nearby areas after a recent explosion turned day into darkness, forcing motorists to switch on their lights and use windscreen wipers, Agence France-Presse reported.

"I had to stop because my helmet had filled up with ash," Girlie Panesa, 39, told AFP as she parked her motorcycle by the roadside in the nearby town of Ligao.
Image copyright AFP
Image caption Mount Mayon is the country's most volatile volcano, with 51 eruptions in recorded history

The Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology, which monitors the island nation's 22 active volcanoes, expects the explosions to continue.

"There is a possibility of a dangerous eruption, the start of which we are already witnessing," the institute's director, Renato Solidum, told a news conference in the nation's capital Manila.

Mayon, a near-perfect cone, is 2,460m (8,070ft ) high and last erupted in 2014. In 1814 it covered the town of Cagsawa, killing more than 1,000 people.
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🌋 Mayon getting ready to BLOW!
« Reply #144 on: January 22, 2018, 05:46:13 PM »
Now this looks like a Volcanic Eruption is supposed to look!  :o

RE

https://www.usnews.com/news/world/articles/2018-01-22/philippine-volcano-explodes-authorities-raise-alert-level

Philippine Volcano Spews Fountains of Lava, Big Ash Plumes
The Philippines' most active volcano has spewed fountains of lava and massive ash plumes overnight after authorities warned a violent eruption may be imminent.

Jan. 22, 2018, at 8:24 p.m.


The Associated Press

Mayon volcano erupts for the second straight day Tuesday, Jan. 23, 2018 as seen from Legazpi city, Albay province, southeast of Manila, Philippines. The Philippines' most active volcano ejected a huge column of lava fragments, ash and smoke in another thunderous explosion at dawn Tuesday, sending thousands of villagers back to evacuation centers and prompting a warning that a violent eruption may be imminent. (AP Photo/Bullit Marquez) The Associated Press

MANILA, Philippines (AP) — The Philippines' most active volcano spewed fountains of lava and massive ash plumes overnight and Tuesday morning after authorities warned a violent eruption may be imminent.

Lava fountains reached up to 700 meters (2,300 feet) above Mount Mayon's crater and ash plumes rose up to 3 kilometers (1.9 miles) during the night and before daybreak, according to the Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology. An explosive eruption Monday was the most powerful since the volcano started acting up more than a week ago.

Disaster officials in Albay province, where Mayon lies, say more than 30,000 people are staying in evacuation centers.

Officials raised Mayon's alert level to four on a scale of five, meaning a violent eruption is possible within hours or days. The danger zone expanded to 8 kilometers (5 miles) from the crater, affecting thousands more residents.

The eruptions have shrouded nearby villages in darkness and sent lava, rocks and debris cascading down Mayon's slopes toward the no-entry danger zone. There have no reports of deaths and injuries. Airplanes have been ordered to stay away from the crater and ash-laden winds and several flights have been canceled.
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Volcanic ash fell in about a dozen towns in coconut-growing Albay province and nearby Camarines Sur province, with visibility being heavily obscured in a few towns because of the thick gray ash fall, Jukes Nunez, an Albay provincial disaster response officer, said by telephone.

"It was like night time at noon, there was zero visibility in some areas because the ash fall was so thick," Nunez said.

More than 30,000 ash masks and about 5,000 sacks of rice, along with medicine, water and other supplies, were being sent to evacuation centers, Office of Civil Defense regional director Claudio Yucot said.

Mayon lies about 340 kilometers (210 miles) southeast of Manila. With its near-perfect cone, it is popular with climbers and tourists but has erupted about 50 times in the last 500 years, sometimes violently.

In 2013, an ash eruption killed five climbers who had ventured near the summit despite warnings. Its most destructive eruption, in 1814, killed more than 1,200 people and buried the town of Cagsawa in volcanic mud. The belfry of Cagsawa's stone church still juts from the ground in an eerie reminder of Mayon's fury.

The Philippines lies in the "Ring of Fire," a line of seismic faults surrounding the Pacific Ocean where earthquakes and volcanic activity are common.

In 1991, Mount Pinatubo in the northern Philippines exploded in one of the biggest volcanic eruptions of the 20th century, killing about 800 people.

Copyright 2018 The Associated Press. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed.
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🌋 Volcano, avalanche hit Japan ski resort as Philippines volcano spews anew
« Reply #145 on: January 23, 2018, 01:20:04 AM »
Another Volcano!  Japan joins the action!

RE

https://www.cbsnews.com/news/mount-kusatsu-shirane-mayon-volcano-avalanche-japan-ski-resort-philippines-volcano-spews-anew/

January 23, 2018, 2:42 AM
Volcano, avalanche hit Japan ski resort as Philippines volcano spews anew


Photo taken from Kyodo News helicopter on January 23, 2018 shows area surrounding Mt. Kusatsu-Shirane (top, left) in Gunma Prefecture, where volcano erupted
KYODO / REUTERS

TOKYO -- A volcanic eruption Tuesday injured at least 16 people at a ski resort in central Japan, including six soldiers hit by a post-eruption avalanche during ski training, officials said. Nine civilians were injured by volcanic rocks, while seven people - six soldiers and one civilian skier - were hit by the avalanche, according to fire department and defense officials.

The BBC reports one of the soldiers was killed.

Meanwhile, the Philippines' most active volcano continued to spew fountains of red-hot lava and massive ash plumes Tuesday in a dazzling but increasingly dangerous eruption that has sent 40,000 villagers to shelter in evacuation centers.

Five of the civilian skiers in Japan suffered serious injuries such as broken bones, but none of the injuries were life-threatening, said a regional fire department official, Hayato Tobe.

Defense Minister Itsunori Onodera told reporters that the seven people trapped by the avalanche near a ski resort were all rescued, but some of the six soldiers suffered broken bones. Defense officials said six soldiers, who were among 30 conducting ski training, were buried by the avalanche about half an hour after the eruption, but they and the seventh skier had all been pulled out of the snow.

About 80 skiers are taking refuge at a gondola station at the top of the ski slope, where the gondola has been suspended since the eruption, according to Tobe, the fire department official.

He said rescuers are considering using snowmobiles to bring down the stranded skiers, but it may take time to figure out how safely they can operate on snowy slopes filled with volcanic ash and rocks.

Earlier, there were unconfirmed information that one or two of the injured were on a gondola when the window was shattered by volcanic rocks, and the others were believed to have been hit by rocks while on the slopes, Makoto Shinohara, an official in Kusatsu town.

The Japan Meteorological Agency said Mount Kusatsu-Shirane erupted around 10 a.m. Agency officials said the eruption and the avalanche could not be linked immediately.

A rest house at the resort was hit by volcanic rocks, but the extent of damage was not known, resort official Yasuaki Morita said.

Aerial photographs showed a large swath of the snowy volcano covered by dark gray ash.

In the Philippines, lava fountains gushed up 2,300 feet above Mount Mayon's crater and ash plumes rose up to 1.9 miles at night and before daybreak, according to the Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology. An explosive eruption at noon Monday was the most powerful since the volcano started acting up more than a week ago.
Students passes through the rice paddy as they run away from cascading volcanic materials from the slopes of Mayon Volcano in Guinobatan, Albay province, south of Metro Manila

Students pass through rice paddy as they run from cascading volcanic materials from slopes of Mayon Volcano in  Philippines on January 22, 2018
STRINGER / REUTERS

Authorities warned a violent eruption may occur in hours or days, characterized by more rumblings and pyroclastic flows - superheated gas and volcanic debris that race down the slopes at high speeds, vaporizing everything in their path.

After Monday's huge explosion, officials raised Mayon's alert level to four on a scale of five, and the danger zone was expanded to 5 miles from the crater, requiring thousands more residents to be evacuated, including at least 12,000 who left their homes and then returned during gentler eruptions.

Authorities struggled to prevent villagers from sneaking back to check on their homes and farms and to watch a cockfight in an arena in Albay's Santo Domingo town despite the risks and police patrols and checkpoints, said Cedric Daep, a provincial disaster-response official.

In a sign of desperation, Daep told a news conference that he has recommended electricity and water supply be cut in communities within the no-go zones to discourage residents from returning.

"If pyroclastic flows hit people, there is no chance for life," Daep said. "Let us not violate the natural law, avoid the prohibited zone, because if you violate, the punishment is death penalty."

The daytime eruptions have plunged nearby villages in darkness and sent lava, rocks and debris cascading down Mayon's slopes toward the no-entry danger zone. There have been no reports of deaths and injuries. Airplanes have been ordered to stay away from the crater and ash-laden winds and several domestic flights have been canceled.

Volcanic ash fell Monday in more than a dozen towns in coconut-growing Albay and nearby Camarines Sur province, with visibility being heavily obscured in a few towns because of the thick gray ash fall, Jukes Nunez, another Albay provincial disaster response officer, said by telephone.

"It was like night time at noon, there was zero visibility in some areas because the ash fall was so thick," Nunez said.

More than 30,000 ash masks and about 5,000 sacks of rice, along with medicine, water and other supplies, were being sent to evacuation centers, Office of Civil Defense regional director Claudio Yucot said late Monday.

Food packs, water, medicine and other relief goods remain adequate but may run out by mid-February if the eruption continues and adequate supplies fail to come on time, officials said.

With its near-perfect cone, Mayon has long been popular with climbers and tourists but has erupted about 50 times in the last 500 years, sometimes violently. The 8,070-foot volcano has generated tourism revenues and jobs in Albay, which lies about 210 miles southeast of Manila.

In 2013, an ash eruption killed five climbers who had ventured near the summit despite warnings. Its most destructive eruption, in 1814, killed more than 1,200 people and buried the town of Cagsawa in volcanic mud. The belfry of Cagsawa's stone church still juts from the ground in an eerie reminder of Mayon's fury.

The Philippines, which has about 22 active volcanoes, lies in the "Ring of Fire," a line of seismic faults surrounding the Pacific Ocean where earthquakes and volcanic activity are common.

In 1991, Mount Pinatubo in the northern Philippines exploded in one of the biggest volcanic eruptions of the 20th century, killing about 800 people, covering entire towns and cities in ash and partly prompting the U.S. government to abandon its vast air and naval bases on the main northern Luzon island.
© 2018 CBS Interactive Inc. All Rights Reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten, or redistributed. The Associated Press contributed to this report.
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🌋 Can Volcanoes Help Cool The Earth? Scientists Are Preparing For The Big One
« Reply #146 on: February 04, 2018, 12:39:33 AM »
http://www.techtimes.com/articles/220300/20180203/can-volcanoes-help-cool-the-earth-scientists-are-preparing-for-the-next-big-eruption.htm

Can Volcanoes Help Cool The Earth? Scientists Are Preparing For The Next Big Eruption

3 February 2018, 11:55 pm EST By Athena Chan Tech Times

What To Know About The SpaceX Falcon Heavy Rocket, The Most Powerful Rocket In The World
The image shows Mount Pinatubo in June of 1991, days before its destructive eruption that resulted in a global temperature drop. Scientists want to learn more about volcanoes' cooling effect on the planet.  ( United States Geological Survey | Wikimedia Commons )

Solutions to climate change are often in the form of cumulative steps instead of giant leaps. This is perhaps because giant leaps sometimes come in artificial methods that could be pretty risky. However, in the past, natural events like volcanic eruptions have resulted in major steps toward cooling the planet- at least for a while. Scientists are now preparing for the next big eruption so they can study its potentially cooling effects.

Mount Tambora And Mount Pinatubo's Global Cooling Effect

In 1815, Mount Tambora in Indonesia caused a global volcanic winter which resulted in "the year without a summer." It is the biggest volcanic eruption in recorded history, and its effects were even felt as far as New York. More recently, in 1991, the major eruption of Mount Pinatubo in the Philippines was felt across the globe and caused a 1 degree Fahrenheit average global temperature drop in the following years.

Because of the past volcanic eruptions, scientists are now preparing to study the next major eruption in hopes of trying to understand the mechanism behind its cooling effects. Incidentally, Mount Agung in Bali has been erupting since November and could potentially result in a sizeable eruption that could cause a significant cooling effect.
Volcanic Eruptions And Geoengineering

What is geoengineering? Simply put, geoengineering is an attempt to reduce or mitigate the effects of climate change by directly altering certain parts of the Earth's natural systems. An example of this is the process of injecting the atmosphere with sulfate particles to mimic the cooling effects of a volcanic eruption.

Should scientists succeed in studying the cooling effects of a huge volcanic eruption, could it be possible for authorities to engage in new volcano-inspired geoengineering methods to combat climate change? It's possible, but the problem is that it may be too risky. It could potentially disrupt natural systems and even result in new natural disasters. What's more, even if NASA is preparing to study the next major eruption, the agency still does not see geoengineering as a cure to climate change.
Geoengineering: A 'Self-Inflicted Wound'

"Geoengineering is not a cure. At best, it's a Band-Aid or tourniquet; at worst, it could be a self-inflicted wound," said Erik Conway of the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory in 2014.

That said, even if the United Nations (UN) has a ban on climate engineering, in the previous COP23 in Germany, the organization stated that the method must still be explored to fully understand its potential risks, and well as to supplement greenhouse gas reduction methods, but not as a back-up plan.

For other scientists, even if the resulting data gathered from a volcanic eruption will not be used to advance geoengineering, it would still be useful in trying to understand volcanoes and their impacts on the climate.
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