AuthorTopic: Killer Superbugs!  (Read 9033 times)

Offline Eddie

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Re: Killer Superbugs!
« Reply #30 on: August 02, 2018, 08:43:39 AM »
Fortunately, few monkeys can afford airfare. It won't go pandemic, I don't think. But something else will.

Think about how the world would deal with something like airborne HIV.

Ebola kills too many too fast. The hosts die before they can travel, most of the time. And it happens in a part of the world where most people use "their feet for their only carriage", as Bob Marley said. Ebola would have already gone pandemic if it was going that way.

Maybe if it mutates to something even worse at some point.

The worst part I see is that survivors can still shed virus. Eventually, that might mean that pockets of Ebola will be treated by genocide.

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How a Lick from a Dog Led to a Man's Leg and Arm Amputations
« Reply #31 on: August 02, 2018, 10:13:50 AM »
Just found this in my personal email, and knew it belonged as part of this thread. "Just chance."

How a Lick from a Dog Led to a Man's Leg and Arm Amputations

By |
How a Lick from a Dog Led to a Man's Leg and Arm Amputations
Credit: Shutterstock

A 48-year-old man from Wisconsin recently contracted a rare blood infection that led to the amputation of his legs and parts of his arms, according to news reports. And the most likely source of the devastating infection was his own dog.

Greg Manteufel went to the hospital with what he thought was the flu, local news outletFox 6 Nowreported yesterday (July 30). But within a week, the doctors had to amputate both of his legs and, later, portions of his hands and forearms. The amputations were necessary after the infection caused Manteufel's blood pressure to drop drastically, which severely reduced blood flow to his limbs and led to tissue death.

Blood tests revealed that Manteufel's infection was caused by abacterium calledCapnocytophaga, according to Fox 6 Now. [11 Ways Your Beloved Pet May Make You Sick]

These bacteria are found in the mouths of cats and dogs, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention(CDC). Up to 74 percent of dogs and 57 percent of cats have Capnocytophaga, but the bacteria don't cause illness in dogs and cats, the CDC says.

In humans, however, it's a different story. In very rare cases, the bacteria can spread to humans through bites, scratches or close contact with cats and dogs. The people most at risk for this infection are those with weakened immune systems, according to the CDC. (It's unclear if Manteufel had a weakened immune system).

If a person becomes infected withCapnocytophaga, the bacteria can spread to the bloodstream and cause infections in various parts of the body, including ablood infectionknown as sepsis. Sepsis occurs when the immune system responds overwhelmingly to an infection, triggering body-wide inflammation and, potentially, organ failure.

Most people who get sick with the bacteria typically start experiencing symptoms within three to five days of becoming infected, but symptoms may occur anywhere from one to 14 days after infection, according to the CDC. Symptoms include blisters, redness, swelling, pus or pain around the animal bite location (if a bite was involved), fever, diarrhea, headache, vomiting and muscle or joint pain.

As in Manteufel's case, the infection can sometimes lead to gangrene, ortissue death, and require amputations to save the rest of the body.

Dr. Silvia Munoz-Price, an infectious-disease specialist with Froedtert & the Medical College of Wisconsin told Fox 6 Now that the case is extremely rare. "More than 99 percent of the people that have dogs will never have this issue. It's just chance," she said.

Originally published onLive Science.


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Yasemin Saplakoglu
Yasemin Saplakoglu, Staff Writer

Yasemin is a staff writer at Live Science, writing about biology and neuroscience, among other science topics. Yasemin has a biomedical engineering bachelors from the University of Connecticut and a science communication graduate certificate from the University of California, Santa Cruz. When she's not writing, she's probably taking photos or sitting upside-down on her couch thinking about thinking and wondering if anyone else is thinking about thinking at the exact same time.

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Offline Eddie

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Re: Killer Superbugs!
« Reply #32 on: August 02, 2018, 10:45:30 AM »
I've heard anecdotal accounts from respectable colleagues that point to weird occasional dental disease situations that seem to only happen to cat fanciers.  There is enough there to make me believe stuff like that does happen.

I have dogs and a cat, and my own dog is attracted to, and wants to lick, any tiny scratch or scab that has the tiniest bit of bleeding. I am at risk, I'm sure.
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🦠 Typhus reaches 'epidemic levels' in parts of Los Angeles area
« Reply #33 on: October 06, 2018, 07:40:43 AM »

Typhus reaches 'epidemic levels' in parts of Los Angeles area
by Dennis Romero and Andrew Blankstein / Oct.05.2018 / 4:25 PM AKDT

LOS ANGELES — Health officials on Friday reported a typhus outbreak in Los Angeles County and say it has reached "epidemic levels" in the city of Pasadena.

Twenty cases have been reported in Pasadena, most in the last two months, health officials told NBC News, noting that a normal year would typically only see five infections. The city of Long Beach, California, has 12 cases so far in 2018 — double the normal annual number, said Emily Holman, the city's infectious disease response coordinator.

The number of cases in the rest of the county since July is nine, which counts as an "outbreak," Los Angeles County Department of Public Health officials said in a statement. Pasadena and Long Beach have their own health departments even though they exist within the county.

“The Pasadena Public Health Department is reporting epidemic levels of typhus fever this year," read a statement from that city on Friday.

The official source of the outbreak is said to be fleas from domestic and wild animals.

"Infection happens when the feces from infected fleas are rubbed into cuts or scrapes in the skin or rubbed into the eyes," the county health department states on its website.

Some experts, however, say the true culprit is the inhumane conditions the county's expanding homeless population lives in.

"All of the cases have a history of living or working in the downtown Los Angeles area," a county health spokeswoman said via email.

Andy Bales, the CEO of the Union Rescue Mission, which has nearly 1,400 beds for those fleeing or avoiding downtown's Dickensian streets, said, "The conditions on Skid Row are ripe for even more serious issues than this."
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In 2014, Bales had a leg amputated after he was exposed to flesh-eating bacteria downtown.

The office of Mayor Eric Garcetti said it's on the case.

"We're deploying every available resource to help control and stop this outbreak," mayoral spokesman Alex Comisar said via email. "The City and County have formed a dedicated task force through our Unified Homelessness Response Center to keep Angelenos safe, and ensure everyone gets the treatment they need as quickly as possible."
Image: Dog flea {Ctenocephalides canis} UK
A dog flea.Kim Taylor / Nature Picture Library/Getty Images

Typhus or typhus fever is a flea-borne infectious disease that can cause high fever, headache, chills, and body aches, rashes and in rare cases, meningitis and death.

Health officials in Pasadena are blaming the outbreak on a warm summer and fall and human interaction with animals in neighborhoods that have an "interface" with wildlife in canyons and the Angeles National Forest. They say the disease has nothing to do with homelessness in their high-income city.

The Los Angeles County Department of Public Health spokeswoman said via email that officials are investigating the source of the typhus in downtown L.A. by searching specifically for "high concentrations of infected fleas and/or infected rats, feral cats and opossums."

Bales noted, "There are lots of rats on Skid Row, and there are lots of dogs that belong to homeless people."

In September the nonprofit research organization Economic Roundtable released an analysis that concluded the county has 102,955 homeless people — nearly double what government officials had previously reported.

"The numbers on the sidewalk have increased dramatically," said Alice Callaghan, founder of the Skid Row services organization Las Familias del Pueblo. "They're like refugee camps."
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Asian ticks have arrived in the United States, and they’ve brought disease with them
Mike Wehner @MikeWehner
November 29th, 2018 at 6:43 PM

Outdoor adventurers in the United States have plenty of tick problems of their own, and anyone who ventures into the woods in many areas of the country needs to be on the lookout for the tiny parasites and make sure none have latched on. Now, a new invasive tick species is getting a foothold in the country, posing a danger to humans and animals.

The ticks are a nuisance in their native Asia where they have been blamed for spreading disease to humans as well as affecting livestock. As the Washington Post reports, the ticks are capable of carrying many diseases and drink enough blood to affect the output of dairy cattle production by up to 25 percent.

A new report by the CDC highlights the dangers posed by the ticks. According to the organization, the tick species has been spotted in the United States in 2017 and 2018, located in a number of states including Arkansas Connecticut, Maryland, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Pennsylvania, Virginia and West Virginia.

The species, called the Asian longhorned tick (Haemaphysalis longicornis), has a knack for spreading. Females of the species can lay eggs without mating, making it fairly easy for the parasites to bolster their numbers in short order.

“The presence of H. longicornis in the United States represents a new and emerging disease threat,” the CDC says. “Characterization of the tick’s biology and ecology are needed, and surveillance efforts should include testing for potential indigenous and exotic pathogens.”

If you believe you’ve found one of these ticks there’s a few things you should do, according to the CDC. For starters, if you find it on your body or pet or animal, remove it immediately. Then place the tick in a jar or vial of rubbing alcohol and seal it. Contact your state’s agriculture department for information on tick identification and, if necessary, follow up with your veterinarian (if the tick was found on a pet).
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😷 Second-largest Ebola outbreak in history spreads to major Congo city
« Reply #35 on: December 07, 2018, 04:01:27 AM »

Second-largest Ebola outbreak in history spreads to major Congo city

By Associated Press

December 7, 2018 | 4:32am

A health worker puts on his personal protective equipment before entering the red zone AP

More On:
Congo ministry says Ebola outbreak worst in country's history
Congo rebels kill 13, abduct children at Ebola treatment center
WHO calls emergency meeting on Congo’s Ebola outbreak
Ebola’s spread from Congo growing as WHO calls risk ‘very high'

DAKAR, Senegal — The second-largest Ebola outbreak in history has spread to a major city in eastern Congo, as health experts worry whether the stock of an experimental vaccine will stand up to the demands of an epidemic with no end in sight.

Butembo, with more than 1 million residents, is now reporting cases of the deadly hemorrhagic fever. That complicates Ebola containment work already challenged by rebel attacks elsewhere that have made tracking the virus almost impossible in some isolated villages.

“We are very concerned by the epidemiological situation in the Butembo area,” said John Johnson, project coordinator with Medecins Sans Frontieres in the city. New cases are increasing quickly in the eastern suburbs and outlying, isolated districts, the medical charity said.

The outbreak declared on Aug. 1 is now second only to the devastating West Africa outbreak that killed more than 11,300 people a few years ago. There are currently 471 Ebola cases, of which 423 are confirmed, including 225 confirmed deaths, Congo’s health ministry said late Thursday.

Without the teams that have vaccinated more than 41,000 people so far, this outbreak could have already seen more than 10,000 Ebola cases, the health ministry said .

This is by far the largest deployment of the promising but still experimental Ebola vaccine, which is owned by Merck. The company keeps a stockpile of 300,000 doses, and preparing them takes months.

“We are extremely concerned about the size of the vaccine stockpile,” WHO’s emergencies director, Dr. Peter Salama, told the STAT media outlet in an interview this week, saying 300,000 doses is not sufficient as urban Ebola outbreaks become more common.

Health workers, contacts of Ebola victims and their contacts have received the vaccine in a “ring vaccination” approach, but in some cases all residents of hard-to-reach communities have been offered it. The prospect of a mass vaccination in a major city like Butembo has raised concerns. Salama called the approach “extremely impractical.”

A WHO spokesman said shipments of doses arrive almost every week to ensure a sufficient supply for the ring vaccination. “No interruptions of vaccine supply have occurred to date,” Tarik Jasarevic said in an email to The Associated Press. “Merck is actively working to ensure sufficient number of doses continue to be available to meet the potential demand.”
see also
7 ways to stop a plague before it spreads
7 ways to stop a plague before it spreads

This Ebola outbreak is like no other, with deadly attacks by rebel groups forcing containment work to pause for days at a time. Some wary locals have resisted vaccinations or safe burials of Ebola victims as health workers battle misinformation in a region that has never encountered the virus before.

A “fringe population” has regularly destroyed medical equipment and attacked workers, Health Minister Dr. Oly Ilunga Kalenga told reporters on Wednesday.

The Ebola virus is spread via bodily fluids of those infected, including the dead.

The outbreak “remains serious and unpredictable,” the World Health Organization said in an assessment released Wednesday. Nine health zones have reported new cases in the last week, and some have been unrelated to known victims, meaning that gaps in tracking remain in a region with a dense, highly mobile population.

Thousands of people have been organized by Red Cross societies and others to go house-to-house dispelling rumors and checking on possible contacts of victims.

Dr. Fatoumata Nafo-Traore, Africa regional director for the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies, joined one awareness campaign in the outbreak’s epicenter, Beni, this week.

The head of one family thanked her for the face-to-face contact, saying he didn’t even have a radio and didn’t understand what was happening. “Ignorance is the enemy,” another resident said.

Given the years of conflict in eastern Congo, it’s essential that households trust why the health workers are there, Nafo-Traore told the AP.

While she called the insecurity “very worrying,” she said that with new tools at hand, including vaccines, “there is great hope.”
Filed under africa ,  ebola ,  vaccines ,  viruses ,  world health organization
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Offline RE

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😷 Marcia is mad anti-vaxxers are using 'Brady Bunch' measles show
« Reply #36 on: April 29, 2019, 12:10:10 PM »
Marcia, Martia, Martia...


Marcia is mad anti-vaxxers are using 'Brady Bunch' measles show: 'My daughter was vaccinated'

Sonja Haller, USA TODAY Published 8:05 p.m. ET April 28, 2019 | Updated 8:07 p.m. ET April 28, 2019

Maureen McCormick (bottom right), who played Marcia on "The Brady Bunch," is furious her image was used to promote an anti-vaxxer massage.

Maureen McCormick (bottom right), who played Marcia on "The Brady Bunch," is furious her image was used to promote an anti-vaxxer massage. (Photo: Capital Cities/ABC)

Marcia, Marcia, Marcia is wayyyy miffed at anti-vaxxers.

Maureen McCormick, who played the eldest fair-haired daughter on "The Brady Bunch," discovered that a Facebook anti-vaccination group has been using her image from the 1969 episode "Is There a Doctor in the House?" In it, the Brady kids catch measles.

The group was using the image and referencing the episode in which Marcia says, "If you have to get sick, sure can't beat the measles."

The episode is used as "evidence" that measles really are no big deal, against a backdrop that measles are now at their highest rates in the 21st century.
Maureen McCormick was furious to learn that her image was used on Facebook by anti-vaxxers to show that contracting measles is no big deal.

Maureen McCormick was furious to learn that her image was used on Facebook by anti-vaxxers to show that contracting measles is no big deal. (Photo: Getty Images)

More: Anti-vaxxers open door for measles, mumps, other old-time diseases back from near extinction

All six children eventually come down with the measles, which TV mom Carol Brady, played by Florence Henderson, describes as "a slight temperature, a lot of dots and a great big smile."
McCormick: Measles aren't like 'Brady Bunch'

McCormick told NPR when she learned she was a Facebook meme a few months ago, she was furious.
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    "I was really concerned with that and wanted to get to the bottom of that, because I was never contacted," she said. "I think it's really wrong when people use people's images today to promote whatever they want to promote and the person's image they're using they haven't asked or they have no idea where they stand on the issue."

She's upset with becoming a literal social-media poster child for the anti-vax movement because she believes in vaccinations.

"As a mother, my daughter was vaccinated," she said.

McCormick added that she got measles as a child and it wasn't like the "The Brady Bunch" episode where the older kids were sitting on one of the sick kids' beds playing Monopoly.

"Having the measles was not a fun thing," she said. "I remember it spread through my family."
A doctor still cites the 50-year-old show today

The episode is still being referenced today by people like Toni Bark, a doctor who testifies against vaccination in courts and public hearings, NPR reported. 

    "You stayed home like the 'Brady Bunch' show. You stayed home," Bark said. "You didn't go to the doctor. We never said, 'Oh, my God, your kid could die. Oh, my God, this is a deadly disease.' It's become that."

Physician and activist Toni Bark speaks at a rally held in opposition to a proposed bill that would remove parents' ability to claim a philosophical exemption to opt their school-age children out of the combined measles, mumps and rubella vaccine, on Feb. 8, at the Capitol in Olympia, Wash.

Physician and activist Toni Bark speaks at a rally held in opposition to a proposed bill that would remove parents' ability to claim a philosophical exemption to opt their school-age children out of the combined measles, mumps and rubella vaccine, on Feb. 8, at the Capitol in Olympia, Wash. (Photo: Ted S. Warren, AP)

The son of "The Brady Bunch" creator Sherwood Schwartz told NPR his father would not be happy that his show was being used to spread a message of anti-vaccination.

"Dad would be sorry, because he believed in vaccination, had all of his kids vaccinated," said Lloyd J. Schwartz.
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Offline RE

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10M a year?  Chump Change!

Watch out for Super Measles though.  Marcia sez "Get Vaxxed!"


Common Dreams
'Superbugs' Could Kill 10 Million Annually Without Urgent Action, Warns New Report

"Unless the world acts urgently, antimicrobial resistance will have disastrous impact within a generation," says new publication.
by Andrea Germanos, staff writer

The bacteria E. coli. (Photo: U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)

A new report on antimicrobial resistance calls for greater action by stakeholders at all levels lest so-called "superbugs" claim 10 million lives a year.

"There is no time to wait," says the report, released Monday by the U.N. Interagency Coordination Group (IACG) on Antimicrobial Resistance.

"Unless the world acts urgently, antimicrobial resistance will have disastrous impact within a generation," IACG says.

The threat of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is already deadly, with 700,000 people dying each year as a result of drug-resistant diseases.

There is also problem of inequity and lack of affordable access, which the report links to the deaths of "nearly 6 million people annually, including a million children who die of preventable sepsis and pneumonia."

Fast forward to 2050, the report adds, and AMR could cause as many as 10 million deaths each year under a worst case scenario.

Beyond claiming lives, says IACG, unchecked AMR would also unleash economic damage on the order of "the shocks experienced during the 2008-2009 global financial crisis as a result of dramatically increased healthcare expenditures; impact on food and feed production, trade and livelihoods; and increased poverty and inequality."

The problem is not limited to low- and middle-income counties; it is global in its reach.

"Alarming levels of resistance have been reported in countries of all income levels, with the result that common diseases are becoming untreatable, and lifesaving medical procedures riskier to perform," the report says.

"Antimicrobial resistance is one of the greatest threats we face as a global community," said Amina Mohammed, U.N. deputy secretary-general and co-chair of the IACG, in a statement.

"This report reflects the depth and scope of the response needed to curb its rise and protect a century of progress in health," she said.

Driving the threat of AMR are a number of factors, including misuse and overuse of existing antimicrobials in humans, animals, and plants; lack of sanitation and clean water; transmition of resistant pathogens along the food system; and poor waste management by healthcare, pharmaceutical, and agricultural facilities.

To tackle the multifaceted threat, the report recommends a "One Health approach" on a scale on par with the threats.

Among the recommendations are ending the use of antimicrobials for growth promotion in healthy animals; increased investment in new antimicrobials; improved waste manage tools; and the development of alternatives to antimicrobials.

José Graziano da Silva, director-general of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the U.N.(FAO), commented on the food system's role in addressing AMR.

"The report's recommendations recognize that antimicrobials are critical to safeguard food production, safety and trade, as well as human and animal health, and it clearly promotes responsible use across sectors," said da Silva. "Countries can foster sustainable food systems and farming practices that reduce the risk of antimicrobial resistance by working together to promote viable alternatives to antimicrobial use, as laid out in the report's recommendations."

According to IACG's Mohammed, the report “rightly emphasizes that there is no time to wait."

"I urge all stakeholders to act on its recommendations," she said, "and work urgently to protect our people and planet and secure a sustainable future for all."
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😷 WHO declares Ebola outbreak an international emergency
« Reply #38 on: July 18, 2019, 01:58:06 AM »

WHO declares Ebola outbreak an international emergency
"It is time for the world to take notice and redouble our efforts."

Beth Mole - 7/17/2019, 1:14 PM

Health workers communicate information about Ebola at an Ebola screening station on the road between Butembo and Goma on July 16, 2019, in Goma, DRC..
Getty | John Wessels

The World Health Organization on Wednesday declared the nearly year-long Ebola outbreak in the Democratic Republic of the Congo a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC).

Further Reading
Massive Ebola outbreak spreads across DRC border, infected 5-year-old in Uganda
The declaration could boost funding and support for outbreak-response efforts, which have been hampered by violence and community distrust in the affected areas. Since January, officials have reported 198 attacks on health responders, which left seven dead and 58 healthcare workers and patients injured.

“It is time for the world to take notice and redouble our efforts. We need to work together in solidarity with the DRC to end this outbreak and build a better health system,” WHO Director-General Dr. Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus said today in a statement. “Extraordinary work has been done for almost a year under the most difficult circumstances. We all owe it to these responders—coming from not just WHO but also government, partners, and communities—to shoulder more of the burden.”

The outbreak was declared on August 1, 2018 and has tallied 2,512 cases and 1,676 deaths. So far, it’s centered in the DRC’s North Kivu and Ituri provinces, which are on the eastern side of the country bordering South Sudan, Uganda, and Rwanda.

The declaration Wednesday follows the spread of Ebola to Goma, a DRC city of nearly 2 million people at the border with Rwanda that acts as hub of regional transportation. On Sunday, health workers there confirmed the city’s first case in a 47-year-old pastor who had just arrived from Butembo, a DRC city that has struggled with the outbreak since last December.

The pastor has since died, and health workers identified and vaccinated 75 contacts. His family and co-travelers are now being monitored.

Further Reading
Measles is killing more people in the DRC than Ebola—and faster
The health ministry said the speed with which the case was caught made the risk of Ebola’s spread in Goma low. But experts are nervous over the amount of movement through the city. Around 15,000 people cross the border from Goma to Rwanda every day, the WHO noted. And the city is a provincial capital with an airport and international flights.

The Emergency Committee of experts convened to assess the state of the outbreak today ultimately determined that the risk of Ebola’s spread “remains very high at national and regional levels but still low at global level.” The experts also urged responders to continue immunizing at-risk individuals with an experimental Ebola vaccine, which has shown to be 97.5 percent effective.

The meeting today was the fourth time the experts mulled declaring a PHEIC.
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😷 Ebola Outbreak Spreads to 3rd Province in Eastern Congo
« Reply #39 on: August 17, 2019, 12:13:31 AM »

Ebola Outbreak Spreads to 3rd Province in Eastern Congo

A motor taxi driver getting his hands washed at an Ebola screening station on the road between Butembo and Goma, Democratic Republic of Congo, in July.CreditCreditJohn Wessels/Agence France-Presse — Getty Images

By The Associated Press

    Aug. 16, 2019

KINSHASA, Democratic Republic of Congo — Congo said on Friday that its yearlong Ebola outbreak had spread to a third province, with two new cases confirmed in the current outbreak, the second-largest in recorded history.

The country’s Health Ministry said two patients had tested positive this week in the Mwenga area of the province of South Kivu, more than 430 miles south of where the outbreak was first detected, in North Kivu and Ituri provinces.

The cases have opened a new front in the fight against an outbreak in the Democratic Republic of Congo that has affected 2,765 people, of whom 1,808 have died, according to the new report.

The current outbreak started on Aug. 1 last year, and the spread of the disease to a third province has occurred as health workers have struggled to contain it, despite the use of a vaccine.
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Efforts to control the outbreak have been hampered by militia violence and some local resistance to outside help. Many people in eastern Congo do not trust doctors and other medical professionals, which along with fear of the virus has presented major hurdles to health workers combating Ebola’s spread.

The latest announcement came after scientists announced on Monday that two experimental treatments for the disease had worked so well that they would will be offered to all patients in Congo.

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The World Health Organization has declared the Ebola outbreak a global health emergency, and fears of the disease’s spread led the neighboring country of Rwanda to temporarily shut a border crossing this month.

Burundi has also started vaccinating its health workers against Ebola, beginning with those near the border with Congo, the World Health Organization said on Wednesday, although Burundi has had no reported cases of the deadly hemorrhagic fever.

The health organization said that Burundi’s Health Ministry had begun vaccinating health workers at the Gatumba border crossing point this week, according to Reuters.


“Although this vaccine is not yet approved and its commercial use is not yet authorized, it has been shown to be effective and safe during Ebola outbreaks in West Africa,” the agency said in a statement. “The vaccine is used for humanitarian purposes to protect people most at risk of an Ebola outbreak. It will be administered to health and front-line staff working in priority areas where there is a risk of transmission.”

The statement did not say how many doses of the vaccine would be available for the immunization campaign, which is receiving financial support from the vaccines alliance GAVI.

Neighboring Uganda has also been on high alert since two people, part of a family visiting from Congo, died of Ebola there. A third member of the family died after returning home.

Last week, Uganda started its largest trial of a second experimental Ebola vaccine that is being developed by the American drugmaker Johnson & Johnson in collaboration with the Danish biotech Bavarian Nordic.

An Ebola epidemic in West Africa from 2013 to 2016 became the world’s largest outbreak, spreading through Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone and killing more than 11,300 people.
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