AuthorTopic: This Device Can Pull Three Liters Of Water Out Of Thin Air  (Read 973 times)

Offline RE

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This Device Can Pull Three Liters Of Water Out Of Thin Air
« on: April 13, 2017, 03:06:21 PM »
https://www.forbes.com/sites/samlemonick/2017/04/13/this-device-can-pull-three-liters-of-water-out-of-thin-air/#7c253b6f5611

Apr 13, 2017 @ 04:36 PM
This Device Can Pull Three Liters Of Water Out Of Thin Air

Sam Lemonick , 

There are 13,000 trillion liters of water in Earth’s atmosphere, but that doesn’t mean much for places like the Sahara desert. A new device aims to help harvest some of that fresh water from the air using only the Sun's energy.


If it can be scaled up and commercialized, the technology could be a boon to people living in arid regions or places where there is extreme drought. Other water-harvesting devices require high humidity, like fog, or need electricity to power condensers. This one will work off the grid and and in very dry conditions, according to its creators.

The new device has three parts: a highly porous layer to capture water from ambient air, a solar collector to heat that layer and release the water, and a condenser to turn that vapor into liquid water. Lead researchers Omar Yaghi at the University of California, Berkeley, and Evelyn Wang, at MIT, report in Science that the harvester can draw almost 3 liters of water per kilogram of adsorbent. And that’s at just 20 percent relative humidity, low enough to make your eyes feel like they’re drying out.

The key is the adsorbent, made from a spongy material called a metal-organic framework. MOFs are pretty much what they sound like, a metal atom or atoms with organic (i.e., carbon-based molecules) attached, creating an open structure with a repeating pattern. Yaghi is the king of MOFs, having designed thousands of them since the 1990s. They’re particularly useful because they can be designed to have specific physical and chemical properties depending on what you want them to adsorb. MOFs have been made to trap and store natural gas, capture methane from car exhaust or scrub carbon dioxide from smokestacks.

This MOF is made to adsorb water and easily let it go. It has clusters of zirconium atoms in a cage of carbon and oxygen, connected by short fumaric acid molecules. Fumaric acid, by the way, is sometimes used to give salt and vinegar chips their vinegar flavor. That architecture leaves big pockets for water molecules to gather in. And Yaghi says the chemical properties of this MOF encourage water molecules to pack in more tightly, increasing the amount of water it can adsorb from air.

Yaghi says his group first discovered this MOF while working on a different project with Yang, to utilize MOFs for car air conditioners. That program had ended when he realized this MOF would release its water without much energy input—little enough that the Sun could do it.

“We made this specific discovery, and I rushed to MIT and said to Evelyn, ‘We have to get this out,’” Yaghi recalls.
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Offline agelbert

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Re: This Device Can Pull Three Liters Of Water Out Of Thin Air
« Reply #1 on: April 13, 2017, 04:50:38 PM »
https://www.forbes.com/sites/samlemonick/2017/04/13/this-device-can-pull-three-liters-of-water-out-of-thin-air/#7c253b6f5611

Apr 13, 2017 @ 04:36 PM
This Device Can Pull Three Liters Of Water Out Of Thin Air

Sam Lemonick , 

There are 13,000 trillion liters of water in Earth’s atmosphere, but that doesn’t mean much for places like the Sahara desert. A new device aims to help harvest some of that fresh water from the air using only the Sun's energy.


If it can be scaled up and commercialized, the technology could be a boon to people living in arid regions or places where there is extreme drought. Other water-harvesting devices require high humidity, like fog, or need electricity to power condensers. This one will work off the grid and and in very dry conditions, according to its creators.

The new device has three parts: a highly porous layer to capture water from ambient air, a solar collector to heat that layer and release the water, and a condenser to turn that vapor into liquid water. Lead researchers Omar Yaghi at the University of California, Berkeley, and Evelyn Wang, at MIT, report in Science that the harvester can draw almost 3 liters of water per kilogram of adsorbent. And that’s at just 20 percent relative humidity, low enough to make your eyes feel like they’re drying out.

The key is the adsorbent, made from a spongy material called a metal-organic framework. MOFs are pretty much what they sound like, a metal atom or atoms with organic (i.e., carbon-based molecules) attached, creating an open structure with a repeating pattern. Yaghi is the king of MOFs, having designed thousands of them since the 1990s. They’re particularly useful because they can be designed to have specific physical and chemical properties depending on what you want them to adsorb. MOFs have been made to trap and store natural gas, capture methane from car exhaust or scrub carbon dioxide from smokestacks.

This MOF is made to adsorb water and easily let it go. It has clusters of zirconium atoms in a cage of carbon and oxygen, connected by short fumaric acid molecules. Fumaric acid, by the way, is sometimes used to give salt and vinegar chips their vinegar flavor. That architecture leaves big pockets for water molecules to gather in. And Yaghi says the chemical properties of this MOF encourage water molecules to pack in more tightly, increasing the amount of water it can adsorb from air.

Yaghi says his group first discovered this MOF while working on a different project with Yang, to utilize MOFs for car air conditioners. That program had ended when he realized this MOF would release its water without much energy input—little enough that the Sun could do it.

“We made this specific discovery, and I rushed to MIT and said to Evelyn, ‘We have to get this out,’” Yaghi recalls.
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Offline agelbert

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Inconvenient Technology (for the Fossil Fuel Industry)       


Device patented last year makes fuel from sea water
 
RE,
You may want to check this out. This thing ACTUALLY WORKS in the real world. All you need is a bunch of solar panels on a ship (in this case, it's a US Navy aircraft carrier).

I'm sure the fossil fuel industry is NOT interested in this being given to the public. It was patented by NREL. Consequently, the government can keep us from using it FOREVER (national security is one of those convenient excuses that makes it legal to keep an invention out of public hands  :evil4:).

But the point is, IT WORKS. There is NO DISCUSSION as to whether it works or not, even if somebody will probably will show up here and poo poo it with some bullshit about the "superior" ERoEI of fossil fuels. ::) That doesn't fly here because solar energy is plentiful in the ocean AND the RATE of production on a ship does not require refinery rapidity. This can END all use of fuel requirements for ships now met by the petroleum industry.  :icon_mrgreen: So, I'm sure the fossil fuelers are going out of their way to make sure the public never gets its hands on this.   

I've read about it and the excuse given for not going whole hog with this is that it's sort of an energy quandary. The process requires more energy than they get out of it from the fuel (mostly for jet fuel but ANY hydrocarbon can be synthetically produced with it). Since dissolved Carbonates from CO2 in sea water are used to make the fuel, it's carbon neutral jet fuel that is produced! The CATCH is that, if you use bunker fuel to run a diesel generator that produces the electricity to make the jet fuel, you use MORE bunker fuel that the jet fuel you get out of it. The OBVIOUS solution, that they don't seem to want to talk about for some reason  ;), is getting the electricity from the sun to run the Electrolytic Cation Exchange Module.

YES, the amount of electricity this process requires can EASILY be met and exceeding by ship board solar power (ESPECIALLY on an aircraft Carrier!).

And NO, they don't need to get it from the nuclear reactor, boys and girls.  ;D

So, if they GET the electricity (which does the work) from the sun, it DOESN'T MATTER that it uses a lot of energy to make the fuel.

And, anyway, if they ran the energy numbers of transporting fossil fuels to the ships (as long as Palloy, K-Dog or MKing aren't doing that "math"  :evil4:), it would ACTUALLY require a whole lot less energy to get that fuel made on the ship than a full cycle ERoEI of fossil fuel based fuels from the well to the refinery to the ship. 

RE,
THIS s the final NAIL in the fossil fuel coffin. 

NOW the only recourse they have that can keep their polluting business model going is in-your-face government corruption and the deep sixing of this invention by cynically, fraudulently and mendaciously claiming it can't be released (or even used on military ships!) because of "national security". 

IT'S NOW OVER for the "high energy density" makes fossil fuel better" argument BECAUSE these are carbon neutral HYDROCARBON FUELS of FAR SUPERIOR QUALITY. WHY? Because they DO NOT have high sulfur or other crude oil contaminants to strip out in the production. This is TOP GRADE JP-"place a number here for different jet fuel grades" (e.g. JP-4). They can make TOP GRADE GASOLINE (they made gasoline for a P-51 Mustang engine) from it too! 


NRL patents process for turning seawater into fuel 

By Kevin McCaney

Jun 08, 2016

The Naval Research Laboratory has been working on finding a nearly unlimited source of fuel—the sea—and now has the validation of a patent to show for it.

NRL’s Material Science and Technology Division has received a patent for its Electrolytic Cation Exchange Module (E-CEM), which separates carbon dioxide and hydrogen from seawater and then producing  hydrocarbons to be used as fuel.


Tests of the process have to date been conducted on a small scale—in April 2014, E-CEM was used to create fuel of a scale model of the P-51 Mustang—but the process has the potential to scale up to practical applications, NRL said in a release. 

“A ship's ability to produce a significant fraction of the battle group's fuel for operations at sea could reduce the mean time between refueling, and increase the operational flexibility and time on station,” said Cmdr. Felice DiMascio of the Naval Reserve, one of five contributors and inventors named on the patent. “Reducing the logistics tail on fuel delivery with the potential to increase the Navy's energy security and independence, with minimal impact on the environment, were key factors in the development of this program.”

NRL currently is scaling up its process to create larger amounts of fuel, although it’s still a long way from being able to power, say, a boat or a plane. “Building on the success of the first exchange module, we have scaled-up the carbon capture process to improve efficiency and substantially increase feedstock production,” said Dr. Heather Willauer, NRL research chemist. “Using a scaled-up, second generation E-CEM prototype, we will substantially increase CO2 and H2 production capable of producing up to one gallon of fuel per day, an increase nearly 40 times greater than with the earlier generation E-CEM.”


Researchers at NRL's Marine Corrosion Facility in Key West, Fla., are working to optimize the two processes involved in fuel production—the recovery of hydrogen and CO2, and their synthesis into hydrocarbons.
Quote
NRL said it recently partnered with a commercial entity to test its catalyst as it switches from its initial small plug flow chemical reactor to a large-scale chemical reactor, and hopes to have the two processes working at Key West by the end of the year.

In addition to DiMascio and Willauer, the other researchers named on the patent are Dennis Hardy and Frederick Williams of NRL and Kathleen Lewis of the Office of Naval Research.
 

About the Author

 Kevin McCaney is a former editor of Defense Systems and GCN.

https://defensesystems.com/articles/2016/06/08/nrl-e-cem-seawater-into-fuel.aspx

Agelbert NOTE: The "end of the year" was 4 months ago. Sure, Trump's wrecking crew is going to squelch this thing on behalf of the fossil fuel industry.  :evil4: BUT, ANYBODY (Hi Palloy  ;)) that jumps on the low production rate or some other bit of hair splitting, straw grasping bullshit to claim "it won't work" or "it's not ready for prime time" is making a baseless argument simply BECAUSE, if this did not WORK, they could NEVER HAVE PATENTED IT!

THE INSTANT the fossil fuel industry learned of that patent, THIS WAS THEIR REACTION. 

THEN they went into overdrive to kill this fantastic invention. I hope your realize that this also represents a method of keeping the oceans from destructive acidification, as well as rapid CO2 sequestration if scaled up.  :o  ;D

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Offline Nearingsfault

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Re: Inconvenient technology
« Reply #3 on: April 14, 2017, 04:43:28 AM »
Hi Agelbert,
The first part is quite ingenious I'll give them that. How much energy it uses to force the gases through the membrane is the question though.
The second part is usually referred to as a gas to liquids device or a Fischer Tropsch process.  The technology is pretty old and extremely energy intensive.  The germans used something similar during the second world war to turn coal and steam into diesel for their tanks.  You might say:"thats a fossil fuel its not the same". They would break it down to CO and H and recombine it at high pressure through a catalyst and extract any "C" and "H" combination they wanted. The process is gaining popularity today using Natural gas as its base material, its called "Synfuel";I use it in my chainsaw funnily enough. The Navy is using seawater as their source of Hydrogen and C (you start with CO2 but you want C) so that takes a lot of extractive energy then they recombine exactly as the germans did 75 years ago.  The catalysts are probably better the process is similar. I see this ones potential as allowing the navy to turn one fuel (nuclear reactor electricity) into another (jet fuel). That would keep them flying jets longer at sea.  You could maybe argue it would be a good way to store renewable energy into a form that we need (gasoline or Diesel) without extra extraction. Batteries in cars would probably be more efficient.  When they scale up to quantities necessary for aircraft they will have to use the nukes. As a final note here is a group of woodgas enthusiasts in San Francisco Making a gas to liquids reactor using wood as the base material.  They eventually moved on but their units are cool...
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KFtrhz47K3Y

their company overview video
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LkfMis1yCpE
this is the future...
Best regards,  David B.
« Last Edit: April 14, 2017, 11:35:39 AM by David B. »
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Offline RE

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Solar-powered device turns air into drinkable water (with pics!)
« Reply #4 on: April 14, 2017, 02:18:47 PM »
Got some pics of the device in this article!  This one is FOR REAL!  :icon_sunny:

Unlike the bogus Cold Fusion nonsense by the Italians a while back, they have a prototype that WORKS!

If they can scale this up and the MOFs aren't fantastically expensive to make, this could really be a Game Changer for agriculture globally.  You wouldn't have to drain aquifers anymore or desalinate water or pump water over mountains to get it to Ag land.  Every farm at whatever altitude could have its own Atmospheric Water Grabber and not depend on rain to keep the crops watered.

It also solves the problem of polluted drinking water, since once up in the atmosphere as water vapor, the pollutants are removed.

Not solved of course by this are problems of depleted topsoil, FF based fertilizer and pesticides, and the tractors and trucks running on FFs, but most of that is solved through Permaculture and making food production local.

I wonder how long it will take them to get a commercial model into production?

RE

Solar-powered device turns air into drinkable water

By Lauren Tousignant

April 14, 2017 | 11:19am | Updated


Evelyn Wang/MIT

Scientists literally pulled this out of thin air.

Engineers at MIT and the University of California Berkeley have designed a system, powered by sunlight, that can turn air into liters of drinkable water.

This box has the potential to help drought-stricken communities, desert explorers or — someday — astronauts traveling to dry, dusty planets. The report was published April 13 in Science.

Evelyn Wang/MIT


“One vision for the future is to have water off-grid, where you have a device at home running on ambient solar for delivering water that satisfies the needs of a household,” Omar Yaghi, one of the senior authors of the study, told Berkeley News. He referred to this vision as “personalized water.”

To harvest the H20, the system uses a special material called a metal-organic framework, or MOF, which was provided by the scientists at UC Berkeley. This material resembles a really fine powder and its tiny pores can absorb and trap air. When sunlight is added, water molecules inside the trapped air get released and condensed.

Using just 2.2 pounds of MOF, the device can harvest 2.8 liters (about 3 quarts) of water out of the air over a 12-hour period.

“We wanted to demonstrate that if you are cut off somewhere in the desert, you could survive because of this device,” said Yaghi. “A person needs about a Coke can of water per day. That is something one could collect in less than an hour with this system.”
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Offline RE

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http://perfscience.com/content/2145484-water-harvesting-air-could-help-deal-water-crisis-some-regions-mit

Water Harvesting from Air Could Help Deal with Water Crisis in Some Regions: MIT
Submitted by Luis Georg on Sat, 04/15/2017 - 16:48
Water Harvesting from Air Could Help Deal with Water Crisis in Some Regions

Water Harvesting from air sounds like a difficult idea to implement but a research team from MIT and UC Berkeley has successfully developed a prototype water harvester which can collect water from air with as low at 20-30 percent humidity. The technique can help in dealing with water crisis in many regions across the world and research team added that water harvested with this technique is pure and drinkable. The research team has presented a device based on porous metal-organic framework-801 [Zr6O4(OH)4(fumarate)6] which is powered by natural sunlight.

The research team informed that their harvesting device can collect nearly 2.8 liters of water per kilogram of porous metal-organic framework (MOF) at low humidity level of 20 percent. MOFs are compounds created by combination of organic molecules and specific metals. Researchers have created nearly 20,000 different MOFs using different organic molecules and metals. MOFs find applications in many fields of science and have been helpful in carrying out innovative projects.

For the current project, UC Berkeley and MIT researchers created a specific MOF that binds to water. The research team created a water collecting device using this MOF. Mechanical engineer Evelyn Wang of MIT and his students have worked hard on creating water harvester that runs on solar power. It is quite difficult to collect water in case of dry air (with humidity of less than 40 percent) and the device created by researchers works well in 20-30 percent humidity as well.

Senior researcher associated with the project, Professor Omar Yaghi, said, “The research team envisions a future where water is supplied off-grid, where you have a device at home running on ambient solar for delivering water that satisfies the needs of a household."

There are other compounds that can suck water from the air, zeolites for example, but Wang says it takes a significant amount of energy to get these materials to release the water.

Wang and her colleagues tested the prototype of their MOF-based device on the roof of a building at MIT, and it worked great.

Nearly 4 billion people across the world face acute water scarcity for at least once in a month. Water scarcity problem is even worse in some developing countries with hot climate. Such devices that require no energy source, can be very effective in dealing with water scarcity.
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Offline roamer

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Re: This Device Can Pull Three Liters Of Water Out Of Thin Air
« Reply #6 on: April 15, 2017, 06:11:28 PM »
A simper, cheaper though less effective method is to siphon air underground where it hits dewpoint and drips into a cistern.  The ciphoning is done by concentrated solar energy on a chimney to create a strong draft.  I ran some numbers on the idea and realized for areas with low thermal gradients or areas below 30% dewpoint it would be pretty ineffective.  However there are still many arid areas where it would work.

Offline Eddie

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Re: This Device Can Pull Three Liters Of Water Out Of Thin Air
« Reply #7 on: April 16, 2017, 08:34:13 AM »
That's an interesting idea. That would work here, even though it almost never dews above ground. Most of the time the relative humidity IS well above 30%.
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Offline Nearingsfault

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Re: This Device Can Pull Three Liters Of Water Out Of Thin Air
« Reply #8 on: April 16, 2017, 10:00:02 AM »
What I would like more details on is how the water is later released from the MOF and it's lifespan. It's a great idea though.  20 percent relative humidity is really low. Every ship every survival kit, distributed collector spots; truly amazing.
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Offline RE

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Re: This Device Can Pull Three Liters Of Water Out Of Thin Air
« Reply #9 on: April 16, 2017, 01:05:10 PM »
What I would like more details on is how the water is later released from the MOF and it's lifespan. It's a great idea though.  20 percent relative humidity is really low. Every ship every survival kit, distributed collector spots; truly amazing.

I did find out one catch.  In order to get it to release the water, it needs to be put under a vacuum of 5 Pascals.  However, you could achieve that with a hand operated pump.  They think the compounds will regenerate for a long time, but only tested them through 5 cycles.  So I am told anyhow by an engineer over on r/collapse who claims to have read the original paper.
« Last Edit: April 17, 2017, 01:11:26 AM by RE »
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Offline Palloy2

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Re: This Device Can Pull Three Liters Of Water Out Of Thin Air
« Reply #10 on: April 16, 2017, 10:37:05 PM »
On the fuel from water and dissolved CO2, yes it can be done, and its energy requirements can be calculated by Hess's Law.  But if you start from the same stuff as burnt fuel (H2O and CO2) and try to re-make the same fuel, it will take as much energy as the fuel has in it, and more if your process is inefficient, which it will be.

OK, supply the energy by solar panels, says AG.  But the amount of energy you can get from covering an aircraft carrier's deck with solar panels is pretty small, so the amount of fuel you can make is pretty small, and then you can't land planes on it which makes it pointless.

It's the same with getting fresh water out of the air.  Of course it will work, but SOME step in the process, be it putting the MOF under vacuum pressure or whatever, is incredibly energy-intensive to do.  That means lots of solar panels to drive the process for not much output.

Solar energy is free but very dilute, 1 kW / m2 at its very best, and MUCH less in practical terms, with panel efficiencies about 16%, and insolation efficencies about 22% averaged over a year.  Whereas solar panels are very energy-intensive to gather the raw materials, make, distribute and install.

I wish you guys would get a grip on Entropy.  A mixture of anything, freshwater and salt, air and water vapour, seawater and CO2, has more Entropy than those things when separated.  To reverse that Entropy takes Energy.  While Energy is everywhere, it needs to be concentrated to do Work at anything like the rate we FF people are used to.  So NONE of it is practical in the real world.
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Offline RE

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Re: This Device Can Pull Three Liters Of Water Out Of Thin Air
« Reply #11 on: April 17, 2017, 03:33:22 AM »
On the fuel from water and dissolved CO2, yes it can be done, and its energy requirements can be calculated by Hess's Law.  But if you start from the same stuff as burnt fuel (H2O and CO2) and try to re-make the same fuel, it will take as much energy as the fuel has in it, and more if your process is inefficient, which it will be.

OK, supply the energy by solar panels, says AG.  But the amount of energy you can get from covering an aircraft carrier's deck with solar panels is pretty small, so the amount of fuel you can make is pretty small, and then you can't land planes on it which makes it pointless.

It's the same with getting fresh water out of the air.  Of course it will work, but SOME step in the process, be it putting the MOF under vacuum pressure or whatever, is incredibly energy-intensive to do.  That means lots of solar panels to drive the process for not much output.

Solar energy is free but very dilute, 1 kW / m2 at its very best, and MUCH less in practical terms, with panel efficiencies about 16%, and insolation efficencies about 22% averaged over a year.  Whereas solar panels are very energy-intensive to gather the raw materials, make, distribute and install.

I wish you guys would get a grip on Entropy.  A mixture of anything, freshwater and salt, air and water vapour, seawater and CO2, has more Entropy than those things when separated.  To reverse that Entropy takes Energy.  While Energy is everywhere, it needs to be concentrated to do Work at anything like the rate we FF people are used to.  So NONE of it is practical in the real world.

I can see a couple of ways this could work.

If you were trying to do it with Solar & Wind, you wouldn't deploy the solar cells on the deck of the ship, not enough surface area.  So instead the solar cells are on mylar sheets which can be rolled out and float on top of inflatable buoys for 1000s of yards surrounding the ship.  They deliver the energy to the ship, which functions as a processing plant to extract the necessary ingredients from the seawater.  You also could deploy Wind Turbines in a similar manner, although they would need to be secured to the seabed in some fashion to have stability and not get knocked down all the time.

The other possibility requires the use of Nukes, which I know AG would not be in favor of, but it could be done IMHO safer than land based Nukes.

In this one, you have a Nuke reactor aboard the ship which provides the energy for doing the extraction and conversion of substrates from the seawater to create your liquid fuels.  You park you floating fuel manufacturing plant over the Marianas Trench.  If/When the reactor goes south and melts down or needs to be decommissioned, you have a Fail-Safe to eject the reactor core and scuttle it, sinking it to the bottom of the trench where it will then drill itself into the crust in a subduction zone and be subsumed into the mantle, where the heavy metal radioactive elements will then migrate to the core to join the Uranium down there.

In both cases though, the energy you take either from the Sun or from Nukes is converted to carbon based fuels, and when those fuels are burned later, will contribute CO2 to the atmosphere, unless you stick strictly to creating Liquid Hydrogen to use as fuel.

RE
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Offline Nearingsfault

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Re: This Device Can Pull Three Liters Of Water Out Of Thin Air
« Reply #12 on: April 17, 2017, 05:10:44 AM »
As mentioned before Fischer Tropsch is an energy pig.  The Navy is doing this for tactical flexibility it's doubtful they will want to burden themselves defending islands or dragging solar rafts around.  I would imagine the next nuke ships that sail will oversize the nuke plant to compensate. The solar panels made for good press for the initial experiments nothing else.  Entropy is a bitch to reverse...
The water extractor is another animal.  The desired endproduct is available dissolved in the air.  Charging the mof just involves running air over it.  Discharging the mof is a mystery. I looked in the original paper but could not find it.  I think palloy is right it probably involved vacuum boiling which is where the huge power usage comes from.  It must use significantly less energy then reverse osmosis or else it would not have made the news...  Interesting times though...
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Offline RE

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Re: This Device Can Pull Three Liters Of Water Out Of Thin Air
« Reply #13 on: April 17, 2017, 05:24:21 AM »
As mentioned before Fischer Tropsch is an energy pig.  The Navy is doing this for tactical flexibility it's doubtful they will want to burden themselves defending islands or dragging solar rafts around.  I would imagine the next nuke ships that sail will oversize the nuke plant to compensate. The solar panels made for good press for the initial experiments nothing else.  Entropy is a bitch to reverse...
The water extractor is another animal.  The desired endproduct is available dissolved in the air.  Charging the mof just involves running air over it.  Discharging the mof is a mystery. I looked in the original paper but could not find it.  I think palloy is right it probably involved vacuum boiling which is where the huge power usage comes from.  It must use significantly less energy then reverse osmosis or else it would not have made the news...  Interesting times though...

As I said, discharge is done by reducing pressure to 5 Pascals.

RE
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