Show Posts

This section allows you to view all posts made by this member. Note that you can only see posts made in areas you currently have access to.


Topics - agelbert

Pages: [1] 2 3 ... 6
1
Capitalist Demonization and Violent Abuse of Communists/Socialists/Anarchists in the US before 1947

Capitalist Demonization and Violent Abuse of Communists/Socialists/Anarchists in the US began in earnest, not after 1947, but in the 1880's. The post WWII Red Scare was a more polished repeat of past nefarious activities against labor for the purpose of destroying labor's ability to successfully demand decent wages and safe working conditions.   

Quote
The US labor movement had emerged as a national force in 1877, the same year Reconstruction came to its anti-climactic end. That year, more than one hundred thousand workers went out on strike in the Great Uprising. Spurred by wage cuts for railroad workers, the wildcat strike announced the working class’ presence as a force in American society.

For capital, it brought flashbacks to the Paris Commune, which had briefly terrorized the entire Atlantic ruling class. In St. Louis, the uprising developed into a general strike that united black and white workers.

The wealthy moved quickly to protect 🦍 their privileges. Militias and private armies battled with strikers across the country, and eventually the National Guard was deployed to put down the strike city by city. Over one hundred workers ultimately died in the fighting, and the strike was crushed.

The Uprising of 1877 set the general pattern for American labor history for much of the rest of the century
. Compared with the rest of the capitalist world, the American union movement remained small and defensive, constantly subject to the threat of violence both legal and extralegal.
https://www.jacobinmag.com/2017/02/rise-and-fall-socialist-party-of-america


The other general pattern set from that crushed strike was the use of Capitalist owned newspapers to demonize Socialists. Xenophobia was stoked then, as it was in the Haymarket Affair and the First Red Scare and the Second Red Scare by demonizing "foreigner"Socialists/Anarchists/Reds/Communists. Before the infamous McCarthy (the post 1947 Anti-Socialist tool of J. Edgar Hoover) was even born, Anti-Socialst Newspaper Propaganda and the use of the police and the government to physically attack socialists was common.

The Haymarket Affair established the Capitalist PATTERN for the Red Scare, as an excuse to destroy the Socialist inspired labor movement that threatened Capitalist Routine Cruelty.

As the Industrial Revolution's horrendous working conditions and massive accident and death rate increased, labor fought harder to be treated with dignity.

The Capitalist elite in the USA already had the police harassing or even killing who they identified as leaders, but that was not effective enough. They needed a sort of "9/11" to demonize the Socialst movement. The Haymarket Affair began as a protest of the killing and wounding of several workers by the Chicago police the day before. The very LAST THING the workers wanted was to kill police! They were protesting wanton killing by the police!

The Capitalists saw this protest as an opportunity to demonize the Socialist protesters while portraying the police as "martyrs".

For those who think this is a conspiracy theory without merit, ask yourself HOW a person who HAD to have been known, either by the police or by the protesters in order be able to walk casually among them just before he threw the bomb, could NEVER be identified. TPTB DID NOT want that person to EVER be identified because he was an agent provocateur working FOR TPTB, PERIOD.

Quote

 
U.S. LABOR IN THE 1800S

Strikes by industrial workers were increasingly common in the United States in the 1880s, a time when working conditions often were dismal and dangerous, and wages were low.

The American labor movement during this time also included a radical faction of socialists, communists and anarchists who believed the capitalist system should be dismantled because it exploited workers. A number of these labor radicals were immigrants, many of them from Germany.

HAYMARKET RIOT BEGINS

The May 4, 1886, rally at Haymarket Square was organized by labor radicals to protest the killing and wounding of several workers by the Chicago police during a strike the day before at the McCormick Reaper Works.



Toward the end of the Haymarket Square rally, a group of policemen arrived to disperse the crowd. As the police advanced, an individual who was never identified threw a bomb 💣 at them. The police and possibly some members of the crowd opened fire and chaos ensued. Seven police officers and at least one civilian died as a result of the violence that day, and an untold number of other people were injured.


AFTERMATH OF THE HAYMARKET RIOT

The Haymarket Riot set off a national wave of xenophobia, as scores of foreign-born radicals and labor organizers were rounded up by the police in Chicago and elsewhere. In August 1886, eight men, labeled as anarchists, were convicted in a sensational and controversial trial in which the jury was considered to be biased and no solid evidence was presented linking the defendants to the bombing.

Judge Joseph E. Gary imposed the death sentence on seven of the men, and the eighth was sentenced to 15 years in prison. On November 11, 1887, four of the men were hanged.

Of the additional three who were sentenced to death, one committed suicide on the eve of his execution and the other two had their death sentences commuted to life in prison by Illinois Governor Richard J. Oglesby. The governor was reacting to widespread public questioning of their guilt, which later led his successor, Governor John P. Altgeld, to pardon the three activists still living in 1893.

In the aftermath of the Haymarket Riot and subsequent trial and executions, public opinion was divided. For some people, the events led to a heightened anti-labor sentiment, while others (including labor organizers around the world) believed the men had been convicted unfairly and viewed them as martyrs.

https://www.history.com/topics/haymarket-riot


Quote
The Contested Haymarket Affair: 130 Years Later

Chicago in the post-Civil War decades became a major railroad hub, center of industrial production and heartland engine of unrestrained capitalist development. That rapid expansion was built on the exploitation of a primarily immigrant working class subjected to incredibly long hours, poor pay, and horrific working and living conditions.

The city, through the mid-1870s, was convulsed by a severe economic depression resulting in mass unemployment and wage cuts, working class upheaval and attempts to organize that were met, in turn, with “industrial titan” countermeasures often involving violence and state repression.

By the early 1880s, a loose coalition of local labor organizations led by the reformist Knights of Labor but including the forerunner of the American Federation of Labor and more radical anarcho-communists joined in a call for a nationwide general strike on May 1, 1886 to demand an eight hour day.

Some 80,000 Chicago workers marched through the downtown that day and strikes continued afterward. On May 3rd, police fired upon strikers killing three at the city’s McCormick Reaper Plant. In response, local anarchist federation leaders called for the emergency protest at the Haymarket, at which the bombing occurred.

The “Haymarket Affair” — the bombing, subsequent repression, trial and execution of the “Haymarket martyrs” — had huge ramifications. It influenced the thinking of generations of labor and left activists of every persuasion, and directly shaped the contours of radical and reform strategy and tactics in regard to political action and labor organization for decades.

https://solidarity-us.org/atc/182/p4654/

Capitalism and socialism were sworn enemies WAY BEFORE the 20th century began. The newspapers were almost totally owned by the Capitalists, so they provided the demonizing propaganda against the "evil foreigner" Socialists/Anarchist/Communists. 


The anti-Socialst attacks in England were based on exactly the same Capitalist ideology as they were, and still are, in the USA.

Quote
The thesis, "Anti-Socialism in British Politics, 1900-1922," is an attempt to combine the approaches of intellectual and political history in explaining the development of Conservative Party politics at a crucial period of social and political change.

It pays particular attention to the relationship between political thought and action through the
medium of 'ideology.' It attempts to illuminate this process with an extended case-study of the ideological opposition to 'Socialism' between 1880s and 1920s; it then traces the impact of these ideas to the strategic calculations and policy programmes of the Conservative party.

It concludes by arguing that the ideological character of inter-war Conservatism can be best understood by reference to its resistance to Socialism, and it is through this doctrinal prism that the transformation of the Party into one dedicated to protecting the interests of industrialists and the middle-class, suburban salariat can be best understood.

The thesis examines the processes of ideological innovation and operationalisation by which these interests were appealed to, and also reveals the political constraints which prevented Conservatives making too overt an appeal to the propertyowning classes.

The first half of the thesis is concerned with various intellectual and ideological responses to 'Socialism'; the contents of these critiques are treated as interesting in their own right, but are also related to the demands of a wider political culture, particularly as they were constructed with political needs in mind.

The second half examines the political impact of Anti-Socialism in British politics at local and national level after 1906. It concludes by arguing that the relationship between Conservatism and the free market, limited government ideal of 'liberal' Individualism was closer than sometimes argued, that 'Anti-Socialism' brought the two creeds together, but in the end it was the 'common sense' Conservative modification of the Individualist creed which dominated political rhetoric and helped overcome many of the hidden tensions present in creating a Party for the 'property-owning democracy.

https://ora.ox.ac.uk/objects/uuid:9c80bc93-3fe6-4fa8-a43c-2536084f48f4/download_file?file_format=application/pdf&safe_filename=602325174.pdf&type_of_work=Thesis

Socialism was NEVER about "revolution". In fact, Marx himself claimed they did not have to DO anything to destroy Capitalism, because Capitalist was self-destructive. Marx made it clear (see video at the end of this post) that the actual Revolutionary Force was, and still is, Capitalism, which requires constant upheaval to profit from worker insecurity through unbridled exploitation. Most reading this, like myself, were brainwashed to think that Capitalism wants peace and Socialism/Communism wants war. The exact reverse is true.

The Capitalists Newspapers in the USA had to portray Socialists as evil bomb throwing, violence loving goons in order to successfully demonize them in the eyes of the American public. That massive propaganda effort, laced with Red Scares, began in the 1880's and has not stopped to this day.


Quote
Socialism in the United States began with utopian communities in the early 19th century such as the Shakers, the activist visionary Josiah Warren and intentional communities inspired by Charles Fourier.

Labor activists—usually British, German, or Jewish immigrants—founded the Socialist Labor Party in 1877. The Socialist Party of America was established in 1901.

By that time, anarchism also established itself around the country while socialists of different tendencies were involved in early American labor organizations and struggles which reached a high point in the Haymarket affair in Chicago which started International Workers' Day as the main workers holiday around the world (except in the United States, which celebrates Labor Day on the first Monday of September) and making the 8-hour day a worldwide objective by workers organizations and socialist parties worldwide.[1]

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_the_socialist_movement_in_the_United_States

Newspapers wasted no time jacking up their negative propaganda effots shortly after the 20th Century began.


J. Edgar Hoover came into the picture after the turn of the century. He was actively fabricating trumped up charges against Socialists/Anarchists on behalf of Capitalists. J. Edgar Hoover's skills reached a fever pitch when Woodrow Wilson needed to demonize as "un-patriotic and treasonous" the principled Socialist resistance to the US entering WWI.



This factoid misses the fact that Hoover was rabidly Anti-Socialist well over a decade before 1917.   

Quote
Shaped by the anticommunist hysteria in the aftermath of the successful Russian Revolution of 1917, Hoover took part in the Palmer Raids against radicals and spent the rest of his life in the service of espionage and undermining suspected “subversives” of every sort.
http://www.isreview.org/issues/49/cointelpro.shtml

Hoover's carefullly developed malevolent plethora of tools to attack "subversives", which later provided the COINTELPRO mens rea modus operandi pattern had EVERYTHING to do with defending Capitalism and ZIP to do with his homosexuality and racism, despite the rather convenient historical narrative about Hoover's "motives".

Quote
Contemporary histories tend to focus on Hoover's maniacal egotism and closeted homosexuality to explain his lifelong fixation on repressing minorities who fought discrimination and reds who challenged the status quo.
http://www.isreview.org/issues/49/cointelpro.shtml

The "status quo" Hoover was actually tasked to defend was the Capitalist System, PERIOD.

Hoover was up to his eyeballs in skullduggery for at least a decade before the First Red Scare in 1919. He was routinely fabricating evidence to bring trumped up charges against Anarchists and other Socialists during this period.

When the military draft was instituted by Woodrow wilson Hoover helped round up Pacifists, most of whom were Socialists or Anarchists who, true to Socialist ideology did NOT want war. The Capitalists WANTED the US to enter that war. Do you see how upside down the propagnda against socialists is? THEY are PACIFISTS by ideology. Capitalist are violent warmongers by ideology. Hoover continued to serve loyally the Capitalist System.

The common thread from the 1880's to the present running through ALL this brutallity and mendacious demonizing propaganda against workers who strike and/or are pacifists that did not want to go to war is the Capitalist PROFIT motive.

In 1919, Hoover officially begins practicing this (later called COINTELPRO) style of heinous skullduggery on "subversives", trotting out the First Red Scare for Woodrow Wilson.

What was REALLY behind this Red Scare was the fact that the business community DID NOT want to pay decent wages in the slow period after WWI. The workers weren't having any of that. So, the Capitalists had to divide and conquer them with some hysterical scaremongering pretext. Again, continuing the war against Socialst Ideology while keeping the workers harassed was killing two birds with one Hoover stone for the Capitalists 😈. They laughed all the way to the bank.

And you thought it was about the "Evil Red Russians", didn't you?

Here's one of these to remind you of what Capitalists think of you:

J. Edgar Hoover engaged in Eavesdropping, Bogus mail, Black propaganda, Disinformation, Harassment arrests, Infiltrators or agent provocateurs, Bad-jacketing, Fabrication of evidence and Assassinations. Hoover was a career destroyer, jailer, and when he thought it expedient, a killer for Capitalism.

But Hoover's agenda was embraced by every president he served, including Democrats Harry Truman, John F. Kennedy, and Lyndon B. Johnson.

Here is the sanitized version of history:

Quote
A special division of the Bureau of Investigation—precursor to the FBI—charged with collating all information on leftist radicals was created by Palmer in 1919 in response to the bombs.

J. Edgar Hoover, a Justice Department lawyer at the time, was put in charge of the group. Hoover coordinated intelligence from various sources to identify those radicals believed most prone to violence.

https://www.history.com/topics/palmer-raids

Hello? Socialists and Anarchists were, and still are, PACIFISTS! Hoover invented that "various sources to identify radicals believed most prone to violence" BULLSHIT out of thin air, with no legal grounds whatsoever!

The Capitalist owned newspapers, of course, did their, by now well polished, demonization of all things Communist/Socalist.




Those bombs were NOT the work of pacifists! Hoover was up to his eyeballs in that agent provocateur/fabrication of evidence for at least a decade BEFORE the 1919 Palmer "response" to the bombs.

Quote


Are anarchists socialists?

Yes. All branches of anarchism are opposed to capitalism. This is because capitalism is based upon oppression and exploitation (see sections B and C). Anarchists reject the “notion that men cannot work together unless they have a driving-master to take a percentage of their product” and think that in an anarchist society “the real workmen will make their own regulations, decide when and where and how things shall be done.” By so doing workers would free themselves “from the terrible bondage of capitalism.” [Voltairine de Cleyre, “Anarchism”, Exquisite Rebel, p. 75 and p. 79]

(We must stress here that anarchists are opposed to all economic forms which are based on domination and exploitation, including feudalism, Soviet-style “socialism” — better called “state capitalism” — , slavery and so on. We concentrate on capitalism because that is what is dominating the world just now).

Individualists like Benjamin Tucker along with social anarchists like Proudhon and Bakunin proclaimed themselves “socialists.” They did so because, as Kropotkin put it in his classic essay “Modern Science and Anarchism,” “{s})o long as Socialism was understood in its wide, generic, and true sense — as an effort to abolish the exploitation of Labour by Capital — the Anarchists were marching hand-in-hands with the Socialists of that time.” [Evolution and Environment, p. 81] Or, in Tucker’s words, “the bottom claim of Socialism [is] that labour should be put in possession of its own,” a claim that both “the two schools of Socialistic thought . . . State Socialism and Anarchism” agreed upon. [The Anarchist Reader, p. 144] Hence the word “socialist” was originally defined to include “all those who believed in the individual’s right to possess what he or she produced.” [Lance Klafta, “Ayn Rand and the Perversion of Libertarianism,” in Anarchy: A Journal of Desire Armed, no. 34] This opposition to exploitation (or usury) is shared by all true anarchists and places them under the socialist banner.

For most socialists, “the only guarantee not to be robbed of the fruits of your labour is to possess the instruments of labour.” [Pyotr Kropotkin , The Conquest of Bread, p. 145] For this reason Proudhon, for example, supported workers’ co-operatives, where “every individual employed in the association . . . has an undivided share in the property of the company” because by “participation in losses and gains . . . the collective force [i.e. surplus] ceases to be a source of profits for a small number of managers: it becomes the property of all workers.” [General Idea of the Revolution, p. 222 and p. 223] Thus, in addition to desiring the end of exploitation of labour by capital, true socialists also desire a society within which the producers own and control the means of production (including, it should be stressed, those workplaces which supply services). The means by which the producers will do this is a moot point in anarchist and other socialist circles, but the desire remains a common one. Anarchists favour direct workers’ control and either ownership by workers’ associations or by the commune (see section A.3 on the different types of anarchists).

Moreover, anarchists also reject capitalism for being authoritarian as well as exploitative. Under capitalism, workers do not govern themselves during the production process nor have control over the product of their labour. Such a situation is hardly based on equal freedom for all, nor can it be non-exploitative, and is so opposed by anarchists. This perspective can best be found in the work of Proudhon’s (who inspired both Tucker and Bakunin) where he argues that anarchism would see “[c]apitalistic and proprietary exploitation stopped everywhere [and] the wage system abolished” for “either the workman. . . will be simply the employee of the proprietor-capitalist-promoter; or he will participate . . . In the first case the workman is subordinated, exploited: his permanent condition is one of obedience. . . In the second case he resumes his dignity as a man and citizen. . . he forms part of the producing organisation, of which he was before but the slave . . . we need not hesitate, for we have no choice. . . it is necessary to form an ASSOCIATION among workers . . . because without that, they would remain related as subordinates and superiors, and there would ensue two. . . castes of masters and wage-workers, which is repugnant to a free and democratic society.” [Op. Cit., p. 233 and pp. 215–216]

Therefore all anarchists are anti-capitalist (“If labour owned the wealth it produced, there would be no capitalism” [Alexander Berkman, What is Anarchism?, p. 44]). Benjamin Tucker, for example — the anarchist most influenced by liberalism (as we will discuss later) — called his ideas “Anarchistic-Socialism” and denounced capitalism as a system based upon “the usurer, the receiver of interest, rent and profit.” Tucker held that in an anarchist, non-capitalist, free-market society, capitalists will become redundant and exploitation of labour by capital would cease, since “labour. . . will. . . secure its natural wage, its entire product.” [The Individualist Anarchists, p. 82 and p. 85] Such an economy will be based on mutual banking and the free exchange of products between co-operatives, artisans and peasants. For Tucker, and other Individualist anarchists, capitalism is not a true free market, being marked by various laws and monopolies which ensure that capitalists have the advantage over working people, so ensuring the latter’s exploitation via profit, interest and rent (see section G for a fuller discussion). Even Max Stirner, the arch-egoist, had nothing but scorn for capitalist society and its various “spooks,” which for him meant ideas that are treated as sacred or religious, such as private property, competition, division of labour, and so forth.

https://medium.com/anarchist-faq/a-1-4-83ba7fe75e15

One must never forget that, as the 20th Century begins, the efforts of the Capitalists to keep Socialism weak and defeated intensify.

Quote
The United States thus emerged as a world power with the dynamism of England, the most advanced capitalist power, and the labor relations of Russia, the historical laggard in the economic race.

This combination goes a long way to explaining the supine position of American labor. While theories of “American exceptionalism” often focus on the working class, a more profitable route is to look at the power of the US ruling class, and to look at labor’s various strategies as attempts to deal with it. In this light, the history of the American working class looks a good deal less exceptional.

https://www.jacobinmag.com/2017/02/rise-and-fall-socialist-party-of-america


Quote
Red Scare and Anti-Radical Violence

One important aftermath of the failed strike wave of 1919, however, was a powerful reaction by government and business against radicals in labor and politics.



Quote
Ascribing the unions' postwar militancy to communist intrigue, Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer encouraged J. Edgar Hoover, an aggressive young agent of the Bureau of Investigation (today's FBI), to arrest thousands of radicals around the country.


These police actions, combined with private vigilante attacks such as the deadly 1919 raid of American Legionnaires against the Industrial Workers of the World hall in Centralia, Washington, decimated America's radical groups and made the decade safe for free-market capitalism.

https://www.shmoop.com/1920s/economy.html

Socialists were being ACTIVELY and CONTINUOUSLY attacked by Capitalist Oligarchs at the turn of the 20th Century.

Marx put out his Communist Manifesto in 1848. The Capitalists began planning  their attack against all things Socialist in the USA (and England and France and Germany, etc) THEN. The appeal of Socialism is ethical, as Columbia University history professor Eric Foner makes clear in the Video at the end of this post.

Capitalists do not DO "ethical". The only "ethics" that Capitalists practice are "situational ethics", otherwise known as Orwellian ethics. An economic system based on ethical behavior is a threat to Capitalism, which is based on greed, euphemistically defined as "enlightened self interest" 

Consequently, Capitalists have pulled every murderous dirty trick they could think of, from the start, to demonize Socialism. It has never stopped.

The so-called "friendly period" towards Communism and Socialism during the 1930's where many small Socialist and Communist newspapers did okay, though they never came close the New York Time level of circulation, was a lull caused by Capitalists having their Fascist hands full trying to keep FDR from exposing their dirty tricks. Capitalists cause "things to hapen" by BUYING people to commit crimes. Money was very tight during the 1930's, though they did manage to demonize Cannabis for the paper oligarchs and burn down a Chermurgy refinery that made all sorts of things from plant fiber, including plastics. The Big Oil Capitalists did their thing to crush that.

But yeah, the money was too tight go around jailing or shooting Socialists then. Socialists did have a sort of friend in the White House, after all. That probably made anti-Communist routine skullduggery less cost effective. However, it is just wrong to categorize the 1930's as a period "friendly" to Communism. A J. Edgar Hoover Bulldog on a leash might not bite you, but it is a stretch to claim that bulldog is friendly. And YES, friends, Hoover had his finger in every pie you can imagine DURING the 1930's. The Supreme Court loved that bastard.

Had a group of Socialists/Communists entered into a conspiracy to overthrow the US Government, as Campbell's Soup Capitalist Oligarch and a few others DID, said Socialists would have been shot on sight! NONE of those CAPITALIST TRAITORS even went to jail! Hoover didn't do ZIP about it BECAUSE he was ALWAYS a murderous TOOL of Capitalism, PERIOD.

The Depression temporarily weakened the brutal power of Capitalists to wreak havoc with working people who wanted a Socialist System, but Capitalists NEVER respected Communists/Socialists.

The Capitalists, and Hoover right there with them, bided their time to return to the Business as Usual of Demonizing Reds after FDR was out of the picture.

Durng the 1930's there was a LULL in Capitalist anti-Communist activity, NOT a "friendly to Communists/Socialists" activity. 

After WWII, a similar "few jobs and angry workers wanting decent pay" situation, like that which existed after WWI, materialized. So, the Busness Community remembered exactly what good old Hoover did for them back in 1919. It was rinse and repeat time.

In 1947, with 100% approval from Truman, they turned Hoover loose to provide McCarthy with all the fabricated evidence he needed to, once again, keep labor at bay.

McCarthy was not stupid. He knew EXACTLY what he was doing and who (i.e. the business community) he was doing it for . It's ALWAYS BEEN about protecting Capitalist Business profits by Hook AND by Crook.

The following video is innocuous and not inflammatory in the least. Nevertheless, the Erudite Prof says some important things that Brainwashed Capitalist Ideologues do not get about Socialism in general and Marx in particular.

Too bad they won't watch it.

Quote
FEBRUARY 29, 2012

Socialism in Early 20th Century America

Columbia University history professor Eric Foner examines the rise of socialism in America in the early 20th century. He talks about the Socialist Party in New York City and Milwaukee, and looks at the Socialist Party of America presidential campaigns of Eugene Debs ( VIDEO).
https://www.c-span.org/video/?304569-1/discussion-socialism-early-20th-century-america

Have a nice day.

2

Army Discharges West Point Grad Who Promoted Communism

by Tyler Durden

Wed, 06/20/2018 - 12:33

Authored by Commie Bishop via Campus Reform,

The West Point graduate who promoted communism in social media posts last year has officially been discharged from the U.S. Army.

According to Fox News, Spenser Rapone’s resignation was accepted Monday, and he will be leaving the military with an other-than-honorable discharge.


Rapone’s social media posts, including a picture of him wearing a Che Guevara shirt under his military attire, sparked outrage last year, with officials blasting the West Point graduate for his radical political activism.

"The U.S. Military Academy strives to develop leaders who internalize the academy's motto of Duty, Honor, Country, and who live the Army values,” the military academy said in a statement at the time.

“Second Lieutenant Rapone's actions in no way reflect the values of the U.S. Military Academy or the U.S. Army.

“As figures of public trust, members of the military must exhibit exemplary conduct, and are prohibited from engaging in certain expressions of political speech in uniform,” West Point continued.

“Second Lieutenant Rapone's chain of command is aware of his actions and is looking into the matter. The academy is prepared to assist the officer's chain of command as required.”

According to The Daily Caller 🦕, former Democratic congressman from Pennsylvania, Jason Altmire, who nominated Rapone for the elite military institution, also disavowed the former cadet’s actions, calling them “abhorrent.”

“While I strongly support the rights of American citizens to express their opinions, the actions of 2nd Lieutenant Rapone are abhorrent and appear to be in clear violation of the Uniform Code of Military Justice, in addition to being inconsistent with the values of the United States Military Academy,” the former lawmaker said last year.

“I have no doubt that the U.S. Army will take appropriate action.”

Sen. Marco Rubio (R-FL) welcomed the decision to discharge the West Point graduate, noting that Rapone’s pictures suggest that he supported U.S. enemies.

“While in uniform, Spenser Rapone advocated for communism and political violence, and expressed support and sympathy for enemies of the United States,” Rubio said, as reported by Fox News.

I’m glad  to see that they have given him an ‘other-than-honorable’ discharge.”

According to the news network, Rapone said that he “knew there could be repercussions,” to his actions and that his “military career is dead in the water.”

“On the other hand, many people reached out and showed me support,” he said.

“There are a lot of veterans both active duty and not that feel like I do.”


Quote
"I would encourage all soldiers who have a conscience to lay down their arms and join me and so many others who are willing to stop serving the agents of imperialism and join us in a revolutionary movement," Rapone added.   

Rapone also posted a picture on Twitter Monday showing him giving the middle finger to the sign outside Fort Drum, along with the caption, “One final salute.”


https://www.zerohedge.com/news/2018-06-20/army-discharges-west-point-grad-who-promoted-communism


This took me back to the days when I wore those uniforms. Shining that tiny breast plate (a token symbol of an ancient large breastplate) was always a chore. You also had to be very careful when you attached it to the white canvas straps that attach to the dummy powder box (a token symbol from the Revolutionary War) because the Brasso polish you used on the breastplate, which comes in contact with the 4 bent metal clasps underneath the breastplate, might stain the white straps (a lot of cadets got demerits for that when we had to wear the full dress gray uniform for parades) :P . You put everything on and THEN carefully positioned the breastplate. Full dress gray is the one with that ridiculous three lines of round gold colored fake buttons in the front. The military just LOVES shiny objects.

I admire the this brave man of conscience, Spenser Rapone 🌟, for realizing the ethical and moral value of Communism and its vast superiority over our ethically and morally bankrupt Capitalist System Cruelty.

I salute him.  

But, I ain't done yet.




This is MY CONSTANT SALUTE to anyone who thinks Capitalism is "the best system".

 
Have a nice Brainwashed Capitalist day.

3
Far-Right 🦀 Wins Presidency in Colombia: ‘A Frightening Result’ 😨

June 18, 2018

Ivan Duque, who is the candidate of former president Alvaro Uribe, won a solid victory for Colombia’s presidency and will probably take Colombia back towards civil war and internal repression, with the help of the US and other conservative governments, argues Manuel Rozental, of PueblosEnCamino.org

Quote
Manuel Rozental

Emmanuel Rozental is a Colombian activist, physician, and practicing surgeon with more than 40 years’ involvement in grassroots political organizing with youth, indigenous peoples, and urban and rural movements. He has been exiled several times to Canada for political activities. Academic in social and political sciences, strategist with social movements throughout the Americas and beyond.


<a href="http://www.youtube.com/v/REr-kwtr-AQ&fs=1" target="_blank" class="new_win">http://www.youtube.com/v/REr-kwtr-AQ&fs=1</a>

SNIPPET from video interview:

Quote
So our fear is now that Colombia is the spearhead of the U.S. policy for this continent. And the U.S. policy for this continent in economic terms is this: war actually is not a means to an end. The resources and territories that are needed are not only a means to an end. War is the end in itself.

The Middle Eastern wars have activated the economy and have improved the economy in the U.S. [Inaudible] that Colombia’s role is one of the Israel of Latin America. And what comes here is a model and a new phase, neoliberalism is left behind.

The new phase such as Colombia and Mexico for capital from the U.S., and pushed by, promoted by U.S. corporations and the Pentagon, is actually a, let’s call it a mafia-type capitalism which is, on the one hand, drug trafficking and drug mafias together with governments and corporations, and launching all types of wars constantly.

I am not trying to generate fear. I’m just showing the type of movements we’re seeing developing here.

https://therealnews.com/stories/far-right-wins-presidency-in-colombia-a-frightening-result

4
The following sea level rise is baked in. Absolutely nothing that is done, no matter how gigantic the effort, will stop this from happening.

That does not mean we should not try, but any Climate Change mitigating  effort must be based on preserving the biosphere for future generations. It's too late to stop this and the next TWO generations from experiencing massive, worldwide Catastrophic Climate Change.

The timing of this sea level rise is still in question, but its inevitability, due to the PRESENT amount of CO2 in the atmosphere, is not. 👨‍🔬


The Fossil Fuel Industry, and those who presently profit from using fossil fuels, do not care.

Tomorrow is Yesterday...

Short term profit is ALL the Fossil Fuel Industry, and those who presently profit from using fossil fuels, care about, period.


Full Fledged 5 Alarm Climate Emergency In Antarctica

June 16th, 2018 by Steve Hanley

Using the Earth as a community toilet is finally having the effects scientists have been warning us about for decades. But as the Earth burns, our leaders have fiddled, frittering away nearly every chance to rein in the destruction before it is too late. Now the point of no return may be upon us.


The latest report — known as the “Ice Sheet Mass Balance Inter-Comparison Exercise” — was published in the journal Nature on June 13. It collects input from 84 climate scientists at 44 institutions around the world. The researchers used three different ways of measuring ice loss on the world’s southernmost continent.


Three Measurements, One Result

First, according to The Atlantic, they measured the gravity field of the Antarctic ice sheet. We rarely think of ice as having a gravitational effect but it does, just like the moon. Satellites like those used in the NASA’s GRACE program can measure that gravitational field from space.

Second, researchers aimed radar and lasers at the surface of Antarctica to detect its surface altitude, which they can then combine with knowledge of ice physics and topography to compute its balance. Third, by measuring the velocity of moving glaciers (often with GPS), researchers can calculate how much snow is being added to a glacier and how much is disappearing into the sea.

Antarctica ice loss

“These are completely independent data sets,” Beata Csatho, a geophysics professor at the University of Buffalo, tells The Atlantic. “We didn’t know until a few weeks ago where our results would sit relative to each other. It was a very nice surprise to see our results sitting right where they should be.”

“This is the gold standard in terms of demonstrating that ice sheets are changing,” adds Robin Bell, a professor of geophysics at Columbia University, who was not involved in the paper. “You have three measurements, three approaches, from three different instruments, and they all show pretty much the same thing.

Rate Of Ice Loss Is Accelerating

What they show is that the rate of ice loss in Antarctica has tripled in the past 5 years. Rob DeConto, a professor of climatology at the University of Massachusetts, refers to a chart showing the amount of ice lost over time. “If you look at the figure — it’s not a straight line going down, it’s like a downward-bending banana,” he tells The Atlantic. “That’s acceleration. You don’t have to be a statistician to see the pace of mass loss is increasing.”

The pace of change in Antarctica is not uniform across the continent. The fastest losses are appearing in two glaciers in western Antarctica known as Thwaites and Pine Island. If the pace of melting continues unabated, a phenomenon known as marine ice cliff instability may occur, sending the ice in those areas tumbling into the sea. The result could be as much as a 4.5 foot rise in global sea levels by 2100, putting more than 150 million US homes underwater. That got Bill McKibben’s attention.

Quote
Bill McKibben ✔ @billmckibben

 Truly truly distressing news from the Antarctic today, where a new study finds ice loss has tripled over the last decade.

That's a strong sign that things are coming unglued, and that we need to act very fast to go fossil-freehttps://www.washingtonpost.com/news/energy-environment/wp/2018/06/13/antarctic-ice-loss-has-tripled-in-a-decade-if-that-continues-we-are-in-serious-trouble/?utm_term=.db5177bdfc52 …

1:34 PM - Jun 13, 2018

Antarctic ice loss has tripled in a decade. If that continues we are in serious trouble. washingtonpost.com
1,968
2,273 people are talking about this
Twitter Ads info and privacy

The east coast of the United States is particularly vulnerable because of gravity. We don’t normally think of ice and gravity together, but the volume of ice in the Thwaites and Pine Island glaciers is so huge, it exerts a gravitational tug on the waters of the Atlantic Ocean, drawing some to that area just as the moon affects the tides. If those glaciers melt, the effect on the east coast will be amplified by 25%.

Rob DeConto, a professor of climatology at the University of Massachusetts, Amherst, tells The Atlantic, “This should get people’s attention, especially here in North America. This little hook where the ice is going into the ocean, it’s at the worst possible place in terms of its impacts on North America. For every centimeter [of sea-level rise] from West Antarctica, Boston feels one and a quarter centimeters. And that extends down the East Coast.”

An Anomaly Exploited

The professional climate deniers funded by the Koch brothers  and the fossil fuel industry 🐉🦕 🦖 have seized on an anomaly in the data to claim all this melting ice emergency is just a bunch of hooey cooked up by climate scientists eager to keep the research funding flowing. In East Antarctica, there has actually been an uptick in the thickness of the ice this century — proof, these charlatans proclaim, that the whole climate change thing is giant hoax.

The most recent data shows that trend had ended and a decrease in ice thickness had begun. “East Antarctica has begun to contribute to sea-level rise,” DeConto. “It’s actually become a source now. That’s where most of the ice is — it’s vastly bigger than West Antarctica.”

If West Antarctica ice melt can add over 4 feet to global ocean levels, what will the effect be if melting occurs in a part of Antarctica that is “vastly bigger?” The answer to that question seems painfully obvious. The video below makes the consequences clear.

<a href="http://www.youtube.com/v/VbiRNT_gWUQ" target="_blank" class="new_win">http://www.youtube.com/v/VbiRNT_gWUQ</a>

Try to imagine what will happen when all the people who live in areas of the United States where rising sea levels will inundate their homes are forced to move. Will the people in the rest of the country welcome them with open arms? Will the United States even survive as a nation when large chunks of its territory sink below the waves?

Will this new study spark action to stop burning fossil fuels? It didn’t seem to have had much impact on the leaders of the G6   1 in Canada last week, who issued a weasel-worded statement about trying really, really hard to meet the goals of the Paris climate accords. And it certainly won’t have any effect on Charles and David Koch or the people who perseverate on Hillary’s emails.

If the history of humanity is any guide, the chances of the world coming to its senses to combat global warming any time soon are somewhere between slim and none. The only thing that will save us from ourselves is if combating climate change becomes profitable. Then and only then will the world as we know it have a chance of surviving.

https://cleantechnica.com/2018/06/16/full-fledged-5-alarm-climate-emergency-in-antarctica/

5
Mexico: Bloodiest Presidential Campaign - about 100 candidates murdered so far! Dirty tricks abound!

Presidential Campaign in Mexico Gets Dirty

June 13, 2018

Anonymous phone calls are going out with messages warning that the leading candidate is a danger to the country. At the same time, political violence has claimed more than a hundred lives. Laura Carlsen reports from Mexico

<a href="http://www.youtube.com/v/28vlkHs-2SI" target="_blank" class="new_win">http://www.youtube.com/v/28vlkHs-2SI</a>

https://therealnews.com/stories/hecho-en-america-mexicos-presidential-campaign-gets-dirty

6


By Jake Johnson, Common Dreams

Published June 13, 2018

Human Rights • War & Peace

With Explicit US 🦀 Backing, Saudi 👹 Attack on Yemen’s Humanitarian Lifeline Begins ☠️ 😱

SNIPPET:

ith a “green light” from the Trump administration and essential military support from the US government, Saudi-led forces plowed ahead with an assault on the Yemeni port city of Hodeida on Wednesday, brushing aside dire warnings from international humanitarian organizations and a small group of American lawmakers that an attack on the key aid harbor could spark a full-blown famine and endanger millions of lives.

Responding to the early stages of the attack—which began with an estimated 30 Saudi airstrikes within half an hour, guided by US military intelligence—Win Without War wrote on Twitter that the attack is “a dark moment of shame for the United States. We could have stopped this.”

Hodeidah is currently home to around 600,000 civilians, and around 80 percent of all humanitarian aid that flows into Yemen arrives at the city’s port, which is currently controlled by Houthi rebels. International observers have warned that a military fight over the port city could halt life-saving food and medicine and cause the starvation of millions.

“Some civilians are entrapped, others forced from their homes,” Jolien Veldwijk—acting country director for the humanitarian group CARE, which is still operating in Yemen—told Reuters on Wednesday as the US-backed Saudi assault on Hodeida began. “We thought it could not get any worse, but unfortunately we were wrong.”


Full article:

https://truthout.org/articles/with-explicit-us-backing-saudi-attack-on-yemens-humanitarian-lifeline-begins/


7
Agelbert NOTE: This article covers subject matter often debated  in this forum. I think it is a valid intelectual thought experiment most here will enjoy reading about. I found it to be entertaining.  :icon_mrgreen:

You see, I'm pretty sure of how things are going to go here on Earth. However, other diners (e.g. Palloy and RE) may find some added arguments to defend their hopeful outlook for the future in this article. Perhaps they are right and I am too pessimistic. I don't think so but, at any rate, this article will probably generate a great deal of valuable discussion that MIGHT help all of us to prepare somewhat for the collapse and massive die-off in our future.   Enjoy!  :icon_sunny:

How Do Aliens Solve Climate Change?

Scientists recently modeled a range of interactions between energy-intensive civilizations and their planets. The results were sobering.

By ADAM FRANK  MAY 30, 2018   SCIENCE

ABOUT THE AUTHOR: ADAM FRANK is a professor of astrophysics at the University of Rochester. His work has appeared in Scientific American, The New York Times, and NPR. He is the author of Light of the Stars: Alien Worlds and the Fate of the Earth.

The universe does many things. It makes galaxies, comets, black holes, neutron stars, and a whole mess more. We’ve lately discovered that it makes a great deal of planets, but it’s not clear whether it regularly makes energy-hungry civilizations, nor is it clear whether such civilizations inevitably drive their planets into climate change. There’s lots of hope riding on our talk about building a sustainable civilization on Earth. But how do we know that’s even possible? Does anyone across the cosmos ever make it?

Remarkably, science has now advanced to point where we can take a first step at answering this question. I know this because my colleagues and I have just published a first study mapping out possible histories of alien planets, the civilizations they grow, and the climate change that follows. Our team was made up of astronomers, an earth scientist, and an urban ecologist.

It was only half-jokingly that we thought of our study as a “theoretical archaeology of exo-civilizations.” “Exo-civilizations” are what people really mean when they talk about aliens. Astronomers refer to the new worlds they’ve discovered as “exoplanets.” They’re now gearing up to use the James Webb Space Telescope and other instruments to search for life by looking for signs of “exo-biospheres” on those exoplanets. So if we have exoplanets and exo-biospheres, it’s time to switch out the snicker-inducing word “aliens” for the real focus of our concerns: exo-civilizations.

We’re interested in how exo-civilizations develop on their planets. Given that more than 10 billion trillion planets likely exist in the cosmos, unless nature is perversely biased against civilizations like ours, we’re not the first one to appear. That means each exo-civilization that evolved from its planet’s biosphere had a history: a story of emergence, rising capacities, and then maybe a slow fade or rapid collapse. And just as most species that have ever lived on Earth are now extinct, so too most civilizations that emerged (if they emerged) may have long since ended. So we’re exploring what may have happened to others to gain insights into what might happen to us.

Of course, we have no direct evidence relating to any exo-civilizations or their histories. What we do have, however, are the laws of planets. Our robot emissaries have already visited most of the worlds in the solar system. We’ve set up weather stations on Mars, watched the runaway greenhouse effect on Venus, and seen rain cascade across methane lakes on Titan. From these worlds we learned the generic physics and chemistry that make up what’s called climate. We can use these laws to predict the global response of any planet to something like an asteroid impact or perhaps the emergence of an energy-hungry industrial civilization.

To launch our science of exo-civilizations we started with those laws of planets, building the right equations to capture the intertwined evolution of a planet and its young civilization. But planetary laws of physics and chemistry only tell part of the story. If we want to know the possible fates of other civilizations on other worlds, we had to bring some biology to bear too.


Science fiction has given us enduring images of alien races. Not surprisingly, most of them look a lot like us but with different kinds of foreheads or ears, or a different number of fingers on their hands. In developing our first cut at a science of exo-civilizations, my collaborators and I weren’t interested in what aliens might look like or what kind of sex they have. To do our job we had to avoid the specifics of both their individual biology and their sociology because science provides us little to work with on those fronts. There was, however, one place where biology was up to the task.

Population biology was a radical new field back in the early 20th century. Rather than just collecting statistics to describe animal populations, a few ambitious researchers like Alfred Lotka wanted to create basic mathematical models of things like predators and prey to predict the evolution of their linked populations. Predators (like wolves) eat prey (like bunnies) so they can make more wolf babies, thereby increasing the wolf population. Bunnies do a fine job of reproducing on their own, but if too many are eaten, their population numbers suffer. Today, population biologists, ecologists, and their compatriots use mathematical models to study everything from the spread of disease to the propagation of invasive species. The approach has even found its way to the study of human civilizations, including their collapse in places like Easter Island.

We used these tools to build a simple model for the evolution of a civilization with its planet. In our approach, the exo-civilization’s population and the planetary environment are braided together by energy use and its consequences. The planet gives the civilization energy resources. The civilization consumes them to do the work of civilization building. As a civilization harvests more power from the planet, its capacities soar. That includes the ability to make and feed more babies. This link between available energy (in the form of food for simple organisms) and rising birth rates is fundamental to population biology. And for human civilization the steep rise we’ve seen in population is closely tied to fertilizer involving fossil-fuel use. So greater energy will, in the beginning, mean bigger populations. But there’s no free lunch from a planetary perspective. Using all that energy has to result in feedback on the planet. That’s what we earthlings are just starting to see with climate change. If global warming gets really nasty, everything from energy harvesting to food production is going to get severely stressed and our large human population won’t be sustainable. That’s why our exo-civilization models linked rising planetary impacts with population declines. It was all pretty straightforward, requiring no assumptions about alien economics, sociology, or any other science-fiction ideas.


But to allow for some choice on the part of the exo-civilization we also included a basic switch describing how the civilization could respond to changing planetary conditions. For the sake of simplicity, we imagined that the planet had just two kinds of energy resources. One had a high planetary impact (like fossil fuels). The other had low impact (like solar energy). In some models we allowed the civilization to switch from to one to the other as things got bad.

So, what did the model tell us? We saw three distinct kinds of civilizational histories. The first—and, alarmingly, most common—was what we called “the die-off.” As the civilization used energy, its numbers grew rapidly, but the use of the resource also pushed the planet away from the conditions the civilization grew up with. As the evolution of the civilization and planet continued, the population skyrocketed, blowing past the planet’s limits. The population, in other words, overshot the planet’s carrying capacity. Then came a big reduction in the civilization’s population until both the planet and the civilization reached a steady state. After that the population and the planet stopped changing. A sustainable planetary civilization was achieved, but at a high cost. In many of the models, we saw as much as 70 percent of the population perish before a steady state was reached. In reality, it’s not clear that a complex technological civilization like ours could survive such a catastrophe.



In many ways we were seeing a kind of cosmic Easter Island play out. There may have been as many as 10,000 people living on Easter Island at the peak of its stone-head-making heyday. But by cutting down all the trees to roll the stone heads around, that civilization seems to have mucked up its ecosystem and sealed its own fate. When the Dutch arrived in 1722 only a few thousand folks, living greatly reduced lives, were left.

The second kind of trajectory held the good news. We called it the “soft landing.” The population grew and the planet changed but together they made a smooth transition to new, balanced equilibrium. The civilization had changed the planet but without triggering a massive die-off.

The final class of trajectory was the most worrisome: full-blown collapse. As in the die-off histories, the population blew up. But these planets just couldn’t handle the avalanche of the civilization’s impact. The host worlds were too sensitive to change, like a houseplant that withers when it’s moved. Conditions on these planets deteriorated so fast the civilization’s population nose-dived all the way to extinction.

You might think switching from the high-impact energy source to the low-impact source would make things better. But for some trajectories, it didn’t matter. If the civilization used only the high-impact resource, the population reached a peak and then quickly dropped to zero. But if we allowed the civilization to switch to the low-impact energy resource, the collapse still happened in certain cases, even if it was delayed. The population would start to fall, then happily stabilize. But then, finally and suddenly, it rushed downward to extinction.

RELATED STORIES
 A person holds a globe against a background of Earths hit by meteors, crumbling, and colliding with rockets.
Why Earth's History Appears So Miraculous
Was There a Civilization On Earth Before Humans?
A Crucial Ingredient for Life on Saturn's Largest Moon
The collapses that occurred even when the civilization did the smart thing demonstrated an essential point about the modeling process. Because the equations capture some of the real world’s complexity, they can surprise you. In some of the “delayed collapse” histories, the planet’s own internal machinery was the culprit. Push a planet too hard, and it won’t return to where it began. We know this can happen, even without a civilization present, because we see it on Venus. That world should be a kind of sister to our own. But long ago Venus’s greenhouse effect slipped into a runaway mode, driving its surface temperatures to a hellish 800 degrees Fahrenheit. Our models were showing, in generic terms, how a civilization could push a planet down the hill into a different kind of runaway through its own activity.



The model we created was, however, just a first stab at a science of exo-civilizations. We made the equations a simple as possible while still capturing the essence of planet-civilization “coevolution.” That means it’s too early to answer the question, “Does anyone make it?” Still, our work provides the basic contours of what might happen.

We need to put in more detailed and realistic climate physics. We also need to include the full range of energy sources a young civilization might find on its home world—the list is limited by physics: combustion, solar, wind, geothermal, tides, nuclear, and a few others. Even though our initial models were simple, they still revealed a radical truth about the challenge we face as we push the Earth into its human-dominated era. Unless the universe is deeply biased against it, there have been other civilizations across space and time that faced these challenges. Anthropocenes may be common.

As I explore in my new book, Light of the Stars: Alien Worlds and the Fate of the Earth, our dawning realization that we are profoundly shaping Earth’s future provides us with the impetus to stop acting like cosmic teenagers with power but little wisdom. From that perspective the true narrative of climate change isn’t some small, local drama of Democrats vs. Republications or business interests vs. environmentalists. Instead, it’s a cosmic test, one that gives us a chance to join those who successfully crossed this burning frontier—or the chance to be consigned to the scrap heap of civilizations too shortsighted to take care of their own planet.

https://www.theatlantic.com/science/archive/2018/05/how-do-aliens-solve-climate-change/561479/


8


youtube-Logo-4gc2reddit-logoOff the keyboard of A. G. Gelbert



Follow us on Twitter @doomstead666

Friend us on Facebook



Published on The Doomstead Diner on March 30, 2018



 






Discuss this article at the Environment Table inside the Diner




How to Survive When, NOT IF, Catastrophic Climate Change Makes Earth's Climate Unsuitable For Humans



By Anthony G. Gelbert



During many periods in human history, some were doing just fine and others lived on the edge of starvation in a constant state of collapse. Abrupt changes in climate, such as that caused in France by a massive Laki volcanic eruption in Iceland in 1783, have resulted in famine induced starvation. In that case, starvation was followed by social upheaval and revolution, instead of collapse. Civilization in Iceland was nearly wiped out with that eruption (over one third of the population was killed), but did not collapse.



For a collapse to occur, the society destroying pressure must last longer than a decade or so. For example, natural climate alterations that produced lengthy droughts caused some ancient starving civilizations to eventually collapse. 



SNIPPET From the March 21, 2016 article, "Ten Civilizations or Nations That Collapsed From Drought", by Jeff Masters:



Drought is the great enemy of human civilization. Drought deprives us of the two things necessary to sustain life–food and water. When the rains stop and the soil dries up, cities die and civilizations collapse, as people abandon lands no longer able to supply them with the food and water they need to live. While the fall of a great empire is usually due to a complex set of causes, drought has often been identified as the primary culprit or a significant contributing factor in a surprising number of such collapses. Drought experts Justin Sheffield and Eric Wood of Princeton, in their 2011 book, Drought, identify more than ten civilizations, cultures and nations that probably collapsed, in part, because of drought. As we mark World Water Day on March 22, we should not grow overconfident that our current global civilization is immune from our old nemesis–particularly in light of the fact that a hotter climate due to global warming will make droughts more intense and impacts more severe. So, presented here is a "top ten" list of drought's great power over some of the mightiest civilizations in world history–presented chronologically.



Collapse #1. The Akkadian Empire in Syria, 2334 BC – 2193 BC.

 

Collapse #2. The Old Kingdom of ancient Egypt, 4200 years ago.



Collapse #3. The Late Bronze Age (LBA) civilization in the Eastern Mediterranean. About 3200 years ago, the Eastern Mediterranean hosted some of the world’s most advanced civilizations.



Collapse #4. The Maya civilization of 250 – 900 AD in Mexico. Severe drought killed millions of Maya people due to famine and lack of water, and initiated a cascade of internal collapses that destroyed their civilization at the peak of their cultural development, between 750 – 900 AD.



Collapse #5. The Tang Dynasty in China, 700 – 907 AD. At the same time as the Mayan collapse, China was also experiencing the collapse of its ruling empire, the Tang Dynasty. Dynastic changes in China often occurred because of popular uprisings during crop failure and famine associated with drought.



Collapse #6. The Tiwanaku Empire of Bolivia's Lake Titicaca region, 300 – 1000 AD. The Tiwanaku Empire was one of the most important South American civilizations prior to the Inca Empire. After dominating the region for 500 years, the Tiwanaku Empire ended abruptly between 1000 – 1100 AD, following a drying of the region, as measured by ice accumulation in the Quelccaya Ice Cap, Peru.



Collapse #7. The Ancestral Puebloan (Anasazi) culture in the Southwest U.S. in the 11th – 12th centuries AD. Beginning in 1150 AD, North America experienced a 300-year drought called the Great Drought.



Collapse #8. The Khmer Empire based in Angkor, Cambodia, 802 – 1431 AD. The Khmer Empire ruled Southeast Asia for over 600 years, but was done in by a series of intense decades-long droughts interspersed with intense monsoons in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries that, in combination with other factors, contributed to the empire's demise.



Collapse #9. The Ming Dynasty in China, 1368 – 1644 AD. China's Ming Dynasty–one of the greatest eras of orderly government and social stability in human history–collapsed at a time when the most severe drought in the region in over 4000 years was occurring, according to sediments from Lake Huguang Maar analyzed in a 2007 article in Nature by Yancheva et al.





In this image, we see Kurdish Syrian girls among destroyed buildings in the Syrian Kurdish town of Kobane on March 22, 2015. Image credit: Yasin Akgul/AFP/Getty Images.



Collapse #10. Modern Syria. Syria's devastating civil war that began in March 2011 has killed over 300,000 people, displaced at least 7.6 million, and created an additional 4.2 million refugees. While the causes of the war are complex, a key contributing factor was the nation's devastating drought that began in 1998. The drought brought Syria's most severe set of crop failures in recorded history, which forced millions of people to migrate from rural areas into cities, where conflict erupted. This drought was almost certainly Syria's worst in the past 500 years (98% chance), and likely the worst for at least the past 900 years (89% chance), according to a 2016 tree ring study by Cook et al., "Spatiotemporal drought variability in the Mediterranean over the last 900 years." Human-caused emissions of greenhouse gases were "a key attributable factor" in the drying up of wintertime precipitation in the Mediterranean region, including Syria, in recent decades, as discussed in a NOAA press release that accompanied a 2011 paper by Hoerling et al., On the Increased Frequency of Mediterranean Drought.



A 2016 paper by drought expert Colin Kelley showed that the influence of human greenhouse gas emissions had made recent drought in the region 2 – 3 times more likely.



Full article with lots of great pictures: https://www.wunderground.com/blog/JeffMasters/ten-civilizations-or-nations-that-collapsed-from-drought.html



As Dr. Jeff Masters evidenced above, extended drought, sometimes alternating with other harsh climate conditions like intense rains, can lead to starvation. Long wars exacerbate the situation, leading directly to collapse.



In addition to the above, there is another climate change based collapse level attack on human civilization, one that is 100% unavoidable now, that has wreaked havoc in the past.



SNIPPET from the March 23, 2018 article, "Humanity has contended with rising seas before — and it didn’t go well for us", by Alxandru Micu:



The Neolithic revolution was the first major transformation humanity had paused — the transition foraging to farming. Spreading out from the Middle East, this wave of change took peoples used to hunt and forage wherever they pleased and tied them down, hoe in hand, to sedentary — but oh so lucrative — farms and fields.



Around 7,600 years ago, however, the revolution paused — no new agricultural settlements seemed to pop up in Southeastern Europe around the time, existing communities declined, and the progress of civilization as a whole came to a standstill. Up until now, we didn’t have any inkling as to why this happened, but new research from the Senckenberg Biodiversity and Climate Research Centre, the Goethe University in Frankfurt, and the University of Toronto sheds some light on this mysterious period.



According to their findings, this lull in progress was due to an abrupt rise in sea levels in the northern Aegean Sea. Evidence of this event was calcified in the fossils of tiny marine algae preserved in seafloor sediments.



The impact this event had on societal dynamics and overall development during the time highlights the potential economic and social threats posed by sea level rise in the future, the team says. Given that climate-change-associated changes in sea level are virtually unavoidable, the team hopes their findings will help us better prepare for the flooding ahead.



“Approximately 7,600 years ago, the sea level must have risen abruptly in the Mediterranean regions bordering Southeastern Europe. The northern Aegean, the Marmara Sea and the Black Sea recorded an increase of more than one meter. This led to the flooding of low-lying coastal areas that would have been ideal areas for settlement,” says lead author Professor Dr. Jens Herrle.



The evidence supports a link between the two timeouts in the Neolithic revolution and the flooding events. The event 8,400 years ago coincides with archaeological findings suggesting that settlements in low-lying areas were under significant hardship from encroaching seas and other associated climatic changes. The renewed rise just 800 years later likely amplified these communities’ woes, keeping them from making the transition to agriculture.



“The source of this may have been Lake Agassiz in North America. This glacial meltwater lake was enclosed in ice and experienced a massive breach during this period, which emptied an enormous volume of water into the ocean.”



Past fluctuations in sea levels have already had a significant effect on human history during the early days of agriculture, the authors note, warning that it would be unwise to dismiss the challenges it will place in our path in the future.



https://www.zmescience.com/ecology/aegean-sea-rise-8257346/



The article goes on to repeat the overly conservative estimate from the IPCC of a rise by up to "one meter over the next 100 years". That is the same IPCC that predicted the amount of ice depletion we have at present at the poles would not occur until 2070. That is the same IPCC that has NOT figured in the contribution of ice loss from Greenland to global sea level rise in any of the models.



So, if you are a logical person, I recommend you count on 3 to 6 meters, at least, of sea level rise several decades before the end of the century. As Peter Ward says (The Flooded Earth: Our Future In a World Without Ice Caps by Peter D. Ward]) ,over 25% of the world's arable land is near sea level and will be flooded. Most major airports along coastlines will be flooded. Every harbor facility in the world will require a staggering amount of land fill to raise them as the sea level goes up. Most coastal real estate, currently highly assessed in value, will be flooded and become worthless.     



By the way, the latest science indicates that rapid sea level rise will be accompanied by a large increase in volcanic eruptions (which might slow down the heating due to a temporary increase in aerosols), and and increase in earthquaqe activity. The volcanic aerosols, at most, will be a minor speed bump on the way to intolerable climate caos. So, please don't count on volcanic eruptions to 'save us' from global warming hell. That is wishful thinking.



I am not a voice "crying in the wilderness" on this issue. I will provide you some screenshots from the video of a scientist who recently wrote the book, "Waking the Climate Giant". He predicts a continued increase in volcanic activity, now observed in the data, due to terrain bounce from melting land ice and increased pressure on the surrounding seabed, as the the global average temperature increases. It's not the volcanoes that are increasing the heat, it's the greenhouse gases that are causing massive ice melt that, in turn, triggers earthquages and volcanic eruptions. Read his book if you disagree. I just watched the video but I think he is spot on.



On Earth, destructive climate change was not catastrophic before. The difference now it that the entire globe will be impacted. Humans have never lived on a planet with an average temperature of 3° C above pre-industrial. We will pass that mark up a half century before 2100 and continue towards PLUS 4° C and beyond, with no available technological or natural negative feedback mechanism to stop the continued acceleration, not slowing, of the rate of increase in temperature.



Already our atmosphere is being distorted by global warming to the point of pushing the dry subtropical bands on either side of the tropics towards their respective pole, thereby increasind drought conditions in highly populated areas and a large percentage of hitherto arable terrain.



SNIPPET from the February 2, 2016 article, "The mystery of the expanding tropics", by Olive Heffernan



As Earth's dry zones shift rapidly polewards, researchers are scrambling to figure out the cause — and consequences.



One spring day in 2004, Qiang Fu was poring over atmospheric data collected from satellites when he noticed an unusual and seemingly inexplicable pattern. In two belts on either side of the equator, the lower atmosphere was warming more than anywhere else on Earth. Fu, an atmospheric scientist at the University of Washington in Seattle, was puzzled.



It wasn't until a year later that he realized what he had discovered: evidence of a rapid expansion of the tropics, the region that encircles Earth's waist like a green belt. The heart of the tropics is lush, but the northern and southern edges are dry. And these parched borders are growing — expanding into the subtropics and pushing them towards the poles.



Tropical forest losses outpace UN estimates



Cities that currently sit just outside the tropics could soon be smack in the middle of the dry tropical edge. That's bad news for places like San Diego, California. “A shift of just one degree of latitude in southern California — that's enough to have a huge impact on those communities in terms of how much rain they will get,” explains climate modeller Thomas Reichler of the University of Utah in Salt Lake City.






Elsewhere, there is evidence that tropical expansion is affecting the ocean. Where the Hadley cell descends, bringing cool air downward, it energizes the ocean and whips up currents to high speeds. This energy powers the upwelling of cold, nutrient-rich waters towards the surface, which feeds some of the world's most productive fisheries. But there are hints that some of these regions are suffering because of shifts in the Hadley cell.



These upwelling zones could move south over time, or get weaker or stronger, depending on what happens to the Hadley cell, says Cook. In any case, it means that fishing communities that rely on these resources will not be able to count on traditional patterns.



On land, biodiversity is also potentially at risk. This is especially true for the climate zones just below the subtropics in South Africa and Australia, on the southern rim of both continents. In southwestern Australia, renowned as one of the world's biodiversity hotspots, flowers bloom during September, when tourists come to marvel at some of the region's 4,000 endemic plant species. But since the late 1970s, rainfall there has dropped by one-quarter. The same is true at South Africa's Cape Floristic Province, another frontier known for its floral beauty. “This is the most concrete evidence we have of tropical expansion,” says Steve Turton, an environmental geographer at James Cook University in Cairns, Australia.



Turton worries that the rate of change will be too rapid for these ecosystems to adapt. “We're talking about rapid expansion that's within half or a third of a human lifetime,” he says. In the worst-case scenario, the subtropics will overtake these ecologically rich outposts and the hotter, drier conditions will take a major toll.



https://www.nature.com/news/the-mystery-of-the-expanding-tropics-1.19271



Vermont is already experiencing the economy harming effects of climate change. A Vermonter, concerned about this, wrote about it. He has a right to be.



Watching Nature Collapse March 24th, 2018 by George Harvey



Sometimes it seems the best of everything is passing away.



SNIPPET:



A few years ago, someone threw a peach pit into shrubbery on the front yard of the house where I live. The tree that sprouted from the peach pit is now bearing fruit. Neighbors have paw-paw trees growing in their yards. But Vermont’s maple sugar industry, and the apple orchards, and the blueberry fields are all suffering. Vermont is fast becoming a place unlike what it has ever been, and it is not an improvement.



https://cleantechnica.com/2018/03/24/watching-nature-collapse/



Don't look at what he wrote as the "new normal" and just think we can 'adapt' to climate change by growing different crops and so on. This is the leading edge of climate that will soon, much sooner than many think, become intolerable for crop growing. We are not just on a treadmill moving in the wrong direction; our velocity on that deadly treadmill is increasing. Please keep that in mind so you are not lulled into thinking it would be 'nice' to grow palm trees in Burlington. Yes, the fossil fuel industry 🦖 does continue to try to pitch the 'warmer weather good' out of context propaganda happy talk. They'll do anything to keep their profit over people and planet suicide machine going. Stupid is as stupid does.



All these deleterious effects of Catastrophic Climate Change will continually get worse, not for a decade or so, but for over a century.



Temperatures unsuitable for human life are baked in for at least a couple of centuries, even if we stopped the insanity of constantly making things even worse by going on a crash program to stop burning fossil fuels. Yeah, we have to do that. Yeah, if we don't, we are all dead. But, regardless of what we do, it will take a while to catch up to all of us. I write this for those who, though sadly unable to stop the insane suicidal "business model" of the biosphere killing fossil fuel fascists, wish to survive as long as possible.



I wish to stress that, though many confused voices out there do not wish to face this, the one unifying aspect of the present threat to human civilization is Catastrophic Climate Change, NOT lack of fossil fuel based energy.



Have I got your attention? Good.



Then, look at this graphic from the Video, "Waking the Climate Giant", and ask yourself if it reflects our current situation:





The above graphic is already correct in its prediciton. In 2017 (the emissions data was for the years 2014, 2015 and 2016) the greenhouse gas emissions INCREASED. Consequently, there is a very, very high probability that the collapse of our civilization will occur much sooner than we think.



Some humans in different parts of the globe are already well acquainted with living on the edge of collapse. I am absolutely certain that many jungle tribes in Brazil, Ecuador and Peru, RIGHT NOW, live on the edge of starvation in a constant state of collapse, while most of the city dwellers nearby live not much better, but still avoid starvation.



My point in this quixotic exercise in hard truth logic is that the lack of food in the past has eventually triggered revolutions, not collapse of the civilization. It is after the social upheaval, when no solution to the lack of food problem is found, such as is in LONG WARS of aggression or extended harsh climate conditions, that collapse ensues.



People tend to fear other people more than deleterious climate. People can certainly be a threat to your life and stuff, but Catastrophic Climate Change is a much greater threat to everything you hold dear, past, present and future.



Catastrophic Climate Change is worse than a long war of aggression because it will last much longer than a human lifetime.



The climate change problem is intractable, but I believe some WILL beat it for maybe a century or so. For example, there are places near the equator with very high mountains. A world heated plus 4° C by around 2060, despite happy talk by certain wishful thinkers, will kill off most humans. BUT, in high mountains, the tree line will move way up while the temperature becomes temperate, even at the Equator. I stress the equator, though RE will vigorously disagree, because human civilization in a low food environment with over acidified seas (no easy fish or whales or seals to catch = NO ESKIMOS) with poor available sunlight is not a recipe for long term survival, even if the temperature is mild enough to grow crops.



There is a mountain in Ecuador (Chimborazo) about 20,000 feet high that will, because of the horrendously altered atmosphere, get plenty of rain even at high altitudes. There are several other candidates in the HIGH tropics around the world. This will enable the folks living there to grow enough food, thanks to an ABUNDANCE of sunlight all year round, with low tech methods. They just might be able to ride out the fossil fuel burning stupidity that dooms most of human civilization.



The tree line, the highest point on a mountain that trees will grow, varies between 5,000 feet and up to 13,000 feet above sea level. It varies so much mainly because of wind chill, though the length of the summer growing season is important as well. A tree in relatively mild wind conditions can grow all the way up to the maximum recorded tree line altitude at temperature well below freezing (down to minus 40° F =- 40° C  ;D), provided its roots can get enough water.



Trees can have liquid water in their tracheal elements at such low temperatures because of a wonderful combination of two factors. The first is that the 'pumping' mechanism of a tree is more a sucking mechanism than a pumping mechanism. The transpiration of water vapor into the atmosphere at the branch leaf pores creates negative pressure on the water molecules inside the tree (as long as the tracheal elements vacuum is not breached by air intrusion).



Water molecules, as they travel up the inside of tree, aided by capillary action as well as transpiration, can be stretched by as much as negative 25 atmospheres! That is how those Giant Sequoias can move up to a 130 gallons of water a day over a 100 feet vertically.



The second factor is that the water in the tracheal elements, in addition to being thoroughly stretched, is extremely pure. This prevents the crystalization of water around non-water substances that would normally trigger freezing at 0° C. But, when the wind is howling during below freezing temperatures, the wind chill can cause the water in the tree to freeze and eventually kill the tree.



The closer to the equator a high mountain tree is located, the longer it's growing season will be. If the growing season is too short, like in the White Mountains of New Hampshire, the tree line is only about 4,500 feet.



SNIPPET from an article about the Tree line:



The elevational limit of such suitable summer conditions varies by latitude. In Mexico, for example, treeline occurs somewhere around 13,000 feet, whereas farther north, in the Tetons, for instance, it occurs lower, at approximately 10,000 feet. Again, it’s a ragged line that may vary by hundreds of feet on any mountain, depending largely on shelter and exposure.



Because the elevational treeline is so closely tied to temperature, many suggest that it could be a particularly sensitive indicator of global climate change. Presumably, rising temperatures would increase the elevation of treeline in any locale, altering forest distribution and potentially ousting rare plant communities – and their inhabitants – that now exist above treeline. Although the specific physiological mechanism of treeline formation is not fully understood, there is growing photographic and other evidence of upward shifts in treelines worldwide.



https://northernwoodlands.org/articles/article/why_is_the_treeline_at_a_higher_elevation_in_the_tetons_than_in_the_white_m



A PLUS 4° C (and still going up) atmosphere by around 2060 will enable trees to grow at much higher altitudes. For every degree increase in average global temperature, a corresponding increase in humidity of at least 7% to 13% will take place. We will have an atmosphere expanding vertically, but also with increased humidity. This will accelerate warming because water vapor is a powerful greenhouse gas, but the good news is that high mountain areas will, in some areas, experience more rain higher up.



As noted at the beginning of this article, humans need water and other adequate growing conditions in order to have a viable civilization.



The Catastrophic Climate Changed world of 2060 will be a stormy place. The over acidified, mostly dead oceans, will be full of giant waves. The winds during storms will be off the charts in comparison to what we experience now. High up in the mountains, some type of barrier will need to be erected to keep the fierce winds from destroying the crops.



Finally, those hardy folks who carve out a life in year-round sunny high mountains will have to deal with UV radiation. It is a fact that, at present, the UV levels at around 10,000 ft. and above are particularly hazardous to humans.



However, with the expanded atmosphere in an overheated planet, this is the one area I see as hopeful for humans and animals living on very high mountains. You see, in said expanded atmosphere of plus 4° C and above, the massive increase in humidity will inhibit UV radiaiton.



Nevertheless. Since the equator alpine areas are infamous for high UV radiation, it would be prudent to plan to plant crops that have high UV tolerant foliage, like tubers. Hopefully, the greatly increased humidity will help protect the High Mountain Human Heroes.



SNIPPET:



Everyone is exposed to UV radiation from the sun and an increasing number of people are exposed to artificial sources used in industry, commerce and recreation. Emissions from the sun include visible light, heat and UV radiation.



The UV region covers the wavelength range 100-400 nm and is divided into three bands:



UVA (315-400 nm)

UVB (280-315 nm)

UVC (100-280 nm).



As sunlight passes through the atmosphere, all UVC and approximately 90% of UVB radiation is absorbed by ozone, water vapour, oxygen and carbon dioxide. UVA radiation is less affected by the atmosphere. Therefore, the UV radiation reaching the Earth’s surface is largely composed of UVA with a small UVB component.



Environmental factors that influence the UV level



Sun height—the higher the sun in the sky, the higher the UV radiation level. Thus UV radiation varies with time of day and time of year, with maximum levels occurring when the sun is at its maximum elevation, at around midday (solar noon) during the summer months.



Latitude—the closer the equator, the higher the UV radiation levels.  :(



Cloud cover— UV radiation levels are highest under cloudless skies. Even with cloud cover, UV radiation levels can be high due to the scattering of UV radiation by water molecules and fine particles in the atmosphere. :(



Altitude—at higher altitudes, a thinner atmosphere filters less UV radiation. With every 1000 metres increase in altitude, UV levels increase by 10% to 12%.



http://www.who.int/uv/uv_and_health/en/



What do you think are the chances of human civilization achieving what the following graph says we HAVE TO DO?






There is NO WAY in God's (formerly good) Earth that we can avoid a climate that is almost entirely unsuitable for human life. The above graphic illustrates that. Anyone who thinks that we can do what needs to be done to avoid a PLUS 4° C (and above!) climate that will kill most humans and cause the extinction of thousands of other vertebrate species is engaging in magical thinking.  >:( 



ALL the people near the surface in the tropics will die as crispy critters, period. Those in temperate zones will perish too. Those near the poles who live near the surface will last as long as the food they have lasts. Unless they can maintain some geothermally heated and powered high tech greenhouse CITY that includes PLENTY of crop growing quality light and plenty of water, they will die too.



I might add that those greenhouse giant domes, both near the poles ond on high equatorial mountains, had better be MASSIVELY strong. The storms that will visit them and the wind speeds they will face in a PLUS 4 ° C planet  will make any recent hurricane look like a gentle breeze.



The giant greenhouse domes situated in the high equatorial mountains would have to be something like the U.K. Eden Project Domes, but way up high on a mountain. In England they have an enclosed rainforest in these domes. They need to be ten or twenty times bigger for an equatorial alpine community. If the post collapse alpine community could control the atmospheric pressure in the giant domes, more UV protection is guaranteed and more comfortable living for humans too.





http://www.edenproject.com





http://www.edenproject.com



For those still worried about fellow humans trying to kill you for your stuff, remember that high mountains are a natural defense against warlike humans during the initial phases of the Climate Change Caused Collapse. The heat lower down will eliminate any human threat after a couple of decades. 



STOP thinking you are going to live on planet that has the remotest resemblance to the one you have lived in all your life. THAT is WISHFUL THINKING! The LEAST of your problems is going to be worrying about the "zombie" humans getting your stuff.






NOTE: I pose these issues for your discussion. I will not argue the merits of them beyond this comment. If you disagree with anything I said, then you are entitled to be as wrong as you like.  ;D  :D 



9
Agelbert Newz / U.S. Drilling and John Bolton. Is there a connection?
« on: March 23, 2018, 06:22:07 PM »

Oil Explorers 🦖 Push U.S. Drilling to Pace Last Seen in 2015 

By Baily Shutz

March 23, 2018, 1:03 PM EDT Updated on March 23, 2018, 1:37 PM EDT

SNIPPET:

Rig count in U.S. fields rises for eighth time in nine weeks

U.S. oil benchmark approaching 2018 high above $66 a barrel

Crude explorers boosted drilling activity in U.S. oil fields to levels not seen in three years amid rising confidence that worldwide demand will keep energy prices elevated.

Full article: 
https://www.bloomberg.com//news/articles/2018-03-23/oil-explorers-expand-u-s-work-for-eighth-time-in-nine-weeks


10
Frostbite Falls Newz / Have you ever killed another human being?
« on: December 18, 2017, 04:29:30 PM »
Quote
Have you ever killed another human being?

Bill Perrino, Electrician (1976-present)

Updated Jun 21, 2017

I was going to answer this anonymously because of the off chance that a family member might read this. Then, I decided, I hope everyone who knew about this would read this and know the truth about what happened 41 years ago, almost to the day.

I had just graduated High School and was anticipating the joys which summer would bring. A girl, who I knew from 7th to the 12th grade, and I began dating after graduation. Joan and I attended an annual picnic put on by a major aerodynamic contractor. She drove her newly purchased convertible Fiat to the picnic which was located in the mountains north of Los Angeles.

We had a wonderful time that afternoon and we planned on camping the night then driving home in the morning. Before we went to our campground we stopped at a local market where we met a friendly gentleman, Paul, who, after we told him of our plans, invited us to spend the night with him at his place. We declined his offer. “Just in case,” he told us where his place was and how to get there.

We went to our campground and went to sleep. We were awakened by a friend of mine’s mother’s yelling, bitching and carrying on in a drunken diatribe. This went on for 20 minutes or so before we decided to leave the campground and take the dude up on his offer to house us for the night.

Joan and I jumped into her Fiat and proceeded to get the hell out of there. As we were leaving, the intoxicated woman’s son, John, stopped us and asked if he could accompany us - wherever we were going - he needed to get away from his mother. John jumped into the back of the Fiat, which, mind you, is a two seater, and away we went.

We found our destination easily. It was a couple of miles down a canyon road. We found Paul, who we learned was a caretaker for this property. Paul gave the three of us a tour of the property which happened to be a Wildlife Preserve. He showed us an elephant who was chained to a tree stump, then an area which was separated by a chain link fence and housed 86 lions. It was a fascinating place, the lions were beautiful. After showing us the lions, Paul said he needed to take a piss. I stated that I needed to also and we both turned away from the lions and started walking to the house. As an afterthought,Paul, looking over his shoulder, said, “Do not try to pet the lions.” As soon as his words were spoken, Joan screamed the most terrifying scream I, to this day ever heard. I spun around to see Joan clutching her hand while she screamed. Her fingers were attached only by her skin. I immediately remove my shirt and wrapped it around her hand. “Where is the closest hospital?” I asked Paul as John and I brought Joan to the Fiat. John was seated on the trunk of the Fiat holding my shirt around Joan’s hand as I flew through the canyon road not knowing where nor how far the hospital was. This was the first time driving this vehicle on a road I had never traveled.

As I maneuvered a curve traveling at a high speed, the rear tires hit some sand, and the Fiat was slammed into a guard rail. John was thrown down the side of the mountain. Stunned, I made sure Joan was alright, she seemed not to have any injuries other than her hand, then jumped down the side of the mountain in search of John. I was wearing only a pair of shorts, no shirt, no shoes. I found John halfway down the mountain. As I reached him I noticed several people approaching. They were from a campground at the bottom of the mountain, had heard the impact of the Fiat hitting the guard rail and came to see if they could be of assistance. One of them was a nurse and she began treating John. I ran back up the mountain and found Joan being attended to by the paramedics, which was a needed relief. Immediately I ran, more like slid, down the mountain where the nurse was giving John CPR. He was alive. I sat down placing his head in my lap, he was looking up at me. Seconds later, he was dead. I ran back up the mountain to see that Joan and the paramedics were gone. I ran back down, looked at John, then it hit me, he was dead. Devastated, I walked down to the campground in a daze. I sat on a picnic table and wept for I don’t know how long.

A married couple who were camping there asked me if I needed a ride home.This was hours after John died. These kind people drove me home where I passed out in my bed. The next morning the CHP were at the door and I was subsequently arrested for DUI, Hit and Run. I was taken to Men’s Central Jail in Downtown LA, where, I was told I would remain for my safety, in case John’s parents wanted to get revenge. John’s dad, a wonderful human being, demanded my release. John’s family helped me through the aftermath. If it wasn’t for their kindness I don’t know what I would have done.

A couple of months later I am sitting in Juvenile Court (I was 17 at the time of the accident) listening to the Judge read the charges against me: Vehicular Manslaughter, Leaving the Scene of an Accident and Driving While Intoxicated. From the audience I hear a voice asking the judge permission to speak. When I locate the person who spoke, I recognize who it is: the man who gave me a ride home, his wife alongside of him. He proceeds to tell the judge that I did not leave the scene, I was there hours after the accident and that I was not intoxicated.

All of the charges were dropped thanks to a kind stranger. How he knew when my court date was and where, I’ll never know. If by chance either of you kind people are reading this, thank you again.

Wow! The number of people who have read my answer is amazing. Thank you for all of your comments.

Once I started writing about what happened, memories flashed through my mind so fast, I could not write fast enough. As soon as I finished I submitted it. Now, after reading what I wrote, I realize I should have proof read it before submitting it and I left out some critical information:

Joan tried to pet one of the lions and was bitten by a lion. She was taken to Henry Mayo Hospital in Valencia where her fingers were re-attached to her hand. The Doctors did an excellent job.

659.5k Views · 28,432 Upvotes

https://www.quora.com/profile/Bill-Perrino

11
History / Diner Autobiographical Life Anecdotes
« on: April 23, 2017, 01:23:32 PM »
Weren't the Krishnas those folks that hung around airports and sold pencils in guru outfits or something? As an air taxi pilot I had the experience of running in to them often. I do admit they were always polite and friendly.  :emthup:  I kind of felt sorry for them because they always looked like they hadn't had enough to eat.   :(

Given the time period you were doing that job, yes those were likely Hare Krishnas.

RE

Yeah, they must have been the ones.  8) I think they would have one shoulder bared in those outfits. That worked okay in the tropics...  ;)

I was kind of hungry in the days of being an air taxi rat myself. I had a mail run to two small islands for a while (Vieques and Culebra). I tried to make ends meet by importing goat cheese from Culebra but I couldn't get connected with the supermarket personnel that purchased quantities of food items.  :emthdown: So, I ended up eating the samples I bought. That was GREAT cheese!  ;D

When I flew from Vieques to Culebra I had to traverse a Navy fun and games blow stuff up area of the ocean. I got to see depth charges shot and large guns firing in real time. They were polluting the crap out of the Caribbean especially after the bomb, you know. They towed vessels that had been exposed to the nuke tests in the Pacific ALL THE WAY to Vieques and sank them off shore. Vieques has one of the highest cancer rates in the WORLD. Of course I'm sure the U.S. Navy had nuttin' to do wid dat....

Sorry for the ramblin' I'm getting old.

12
The Kitchen Sink / Right Wing Christians Begin to have Buyer's Remorse
« on: January 10, 2017, 04:39:20 PM »
Right Wing Christians are Starting to Get Buyer's Remorse
Agelbert NOTE: Chuck Baldwin is a Pastor in Montana. He is more of an honest (liberty for everyone, not just the elite) Libertarian than a Republican. He is also A Christian that talks straight about how wrong war is, how wrong scaring us into hating Muslims is, and what ACTUAL Christian behavior is and is not. So, I post this here as a evidence that the more rational people among the Christians are realizing that, like many of us leftists with Obama the fake populist, they have been conned by the fake populism of Trump. I don't agree with everything Chuck says, but I think he is talking a LOT of sense here.

Did Jeb Bush Win The Election?

Published: Thursday, December 1, 2016 

Conservatives and Christians who supported Donald Trump need to wake up to the reality that the election is over. The Wicked Witch of the West, Hillary Clinton, lost, and their guy won. What that amounts to is, campaign rhetoric means absolutely NOTHING now. Donald Trump is the President-Elect. From this moment on, we must stop judging Trump on his rhetoric and start judging him on his actions. And the man is busy right now putting his presidential administration together. These are the men and women that are going to be in control of trillions of taxpayer dollars and are going to have their own gigantic sphere of authority and influence over our lives. The kind of people Donald Trump selects for these key leadership posts speaks volumes about the kind of administration he will have. And it is on this exact point that conservatives and Christians greatly contribute to the demise of our liberties: when a Republican is elected President, they tend to go to sleep and refuse to hold the President accountable for his unconstitutional, big-government, neocon decisions and policies.

And speaking of going to sleep, did I miss something? I thought Donald Trump, not Jeb Bush, won the election. But looking over the list of people that have been selected to serve in the new administration, I see mostly establishment insiders. The vast majority of people selected by Trump could easily have been (and probably would have been) selected by Jeb Bush. In fact, Trump’s newly formed administration is shaping up to be an almost carbon copy of the ultimate neocon administrations of George Bush Sr. and Jr. In other words, the people Trump is appointing have track records that are completely contrary to what Trump told us he was going to do when he was elected President.

Let’s review what we have so far:


*Attorney General: Senator Jeff Sessions

Sessions is good on immigration and other issues, but he is terrible on Fourth Amendment issues. From TechDirt.com: “He's a huge supporter of increased surveillance, and not a fan of civil liberties. Going back a decade ago, Sessions very publicly supported President George W. Bush’s surveillance programs that included warrantless wiretapping of Americans. . . .Just this year, Sessions spoke out against encryption on mobile phones in discussing the legal fights between Apple and the FBI.”

“He's also spoken out vehemently against NSA reform that limits surveillance, complaining about the very modest changes in the USA Freedom Act.”

“On top of that, just recently, Sessions tried to massively expand the surveillance powers of the Justice Department, in an amendment he tried to attach to ECPA (Electronic Communications Privacy Act) Reform. We've been calling for ECPA Reform for many, many years, but to stop warrantless surveillance and data collection. But Sessions' plan was to make it even easier for law enforcement to get data, so long as they ‘declared it was an emergency.’”

See the report here:

Trump's Picks For AG & CIA Happy To Undermine Civil Liberties, Increase Surveillance

*Director of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA): Congressman Mike Pompeo


This man is an absolute disaster! He is a major proponent of the surveillance society; he supports unlimited government spying on American citizens. He supports the indefinite detention sections of the NDAA that authorize federal agents or military troops to seize American citizens and hold them indefinitely without a warrant, without providing the person seized with an attorney, and without even the right of Habeas Corpus. He calls government whistleblower Edward Snowden a traitor who should be executed. The Police State has no better friend than Congressman Mike Pompeo. (See the TechDirt.com report above.)

*National Security Adviser: General Michael Flynn

Flynn is a rabid supporter of the global “war on terror.” He will enthusiastically expand the global “war on terror” to levels never before seen. He has totally bought into the anti-Muslim hysteria that has swept through the conservative, Christian, and Republican worlds. It is anti-Muslim hysteria--created by our own CIA, the Israeli Mossad, British MI6, Wahhabi terrorists from Saudi Arabia (most of whom couldn’t even find Mecca on a map), and professional agitators from Turkey--which the neocon establishment uses to foment all of these endless wars of aggression that Trump said he opposes on the campaign trail. If Mr. Trump truly wanted to put an end to the perpetual war doctrine created by the Bush family, he would never have chosen General Flynn.

Personal Adviser: Donald Trump’s son-in-law, Jared Kushner


Jared is the son of Zionist billionaire Charles Kushner, who is a convicted criminal and, I suspect, an integral part of the Jewish mafia. The establishment media is now promoting the idea that it was Jared Kushner who masterminded Trump’s election victory. This is a 35-year-old young man that nobody even heard of before election night. Now, Kushner is on the front cover and is the center of the featured article of the current edition of the very influential Forbes Magazine. Let me quote a little bit from this article in Forbes. The title of the article is “How Jared Kushner Won Trump The White House.”

“Winners will emerge shortly. But today’s focus is on the biggest loser: New Jersey governor Chris Christie, who has just been fired from his role leading the transition, along with most the people associated with him. The episode is being characterized as a ‘knife fight’ that ends in a ‘Stalinesque purge.’

“The most compelling figure in this intrigue, however, wasn’t in Trump Tower. Jared Kushner was three blocks south, high up in his own skyscraper, at 666 Fifth Avenue, where he oversees his family’s Kushner Companies real estate empire. . . .”

“The speculation was well-founded, given the story’s Shakespearean twist: As a U.S. attorney in 2005, Christie jailed Kushner’s father on tax evasion, election fraud and witness tampering charges. Revenge theories aside, the buzz around Kushner was directional and indicative. A year ago he had zero experience in politics and about as much interest in it. Suddenly he sits at its global center. Whether he plunged the dagger into Christie . . . is less important than the fact that he easily could have. And that power comes well-earned.”

See the article here:

Exclusive Interview: How Jared Kushner Won Trump The White House

I suggest that anyone who thinks that the Kushner Empire’s world headquarters’ address is mere coincidence is truly not paying attention to how New World Order mystics operate. Numerology may not be a big deal to you, but it is a big deal to THEM.

Kushner is a major player in the Zionist/Neocon agenda. And in all likelihood, this young man will be the most influential adviser that Trump will have. NOT GOOD.

*Ambassador to The United Nations: South Carolina Governor Nikki Haley

Haley was a strong critic of Donald Trump throughout the campaign. She was an avid supporter of neocon globalist Marco Rubio. As governor of South Carolina, she has zero experience in international affairs. The only experience Haley has in international affairs is when she eats breakfast at the International House of Pancakes. Why, then, would Trump select her as Ambassador to the U.N.? The senior senator from South Carolina gave us the answer. High-level neocon globalist Lindsey Graham said that Haley is “a strong supporter of Israel,” adding that her presence at the U.N. “will be reassuring to all of those who are concerned about the increasing hostility of the United Nations toward Israel.” (Egad! The United Nations was instrumental in creating the modern State of Israel.)

In other words, Nikki Haley is there to promote the interests of Israel--NOT the interests of the United States. I’m sure we can already thank Jared Kushner for this appointment.

*Secretary of Education: Betsy DeVos

On the campaign trail, Donald Trump was emphatic in his opposition to the Department of Education curriculum known as “Common Core.” Well, ladies and gentlemen, Betsy DeVos is a longstanding advocate of Common Core. Breitbart.com has the report:

“President-elect Donald Trump’s transition team announces the choice of Common Core and charter school supporter Betsy DeVos as U.S. Secretary of Education.

“Anti-Common Core grassroots groups of parents and teachers urged Trump to abandon DeVos as his choice, citing her support for the education reform policies of pro-Common Core Jeb Bush and her influence through the Great Lakes Education Project (GLEP) in favor of Common Core.”

“DeVos, whose family founded Amway, was an at-large delegate for pro-Common Core Ohio Gov. John Kasich. Kasich received a grade of “F” at The Pulse 2016 for his support of the controversial standards.”

“Frank Cannon, president of American Principles Project, said in a statement prior to the announcement of DeVos’ nomination:

‘President-elect Trump rightly slammed Governor Jeb Bush for his support of Common Core on the campaign trail. Betsy DeVos would be a very Jeb-like pick, and the idea that Trump would appoint a Common Core apologist as Secretary of Education seems unlikely.’”

See the report here:

Donald Trump Announces Pro-Common Core Betsy DeVos As Education Secretary

Obviously, Frank Cannon thought he knew Donald Trump better than he does, because Trump did indeed select Betsy DeVos as Secretary of Education. All of her current backpedaling aside, she is a TERRIBLE appointee to be trusted with the anti-Common Core agenda promised by Trump on the campaign trail. Of course, Jeb Bush gave Trump high praise for selecting DeVos.

On November 22, I said this on my Facebook page:

"Folks, from this point onward, keep an eye out for how many CFR members Trump appoints. Over the past several decades, both Democrat and GOP administrations have been littered with CFR members. This is one of the BIGGEST reasons that nothing much changes regardless of which person is elected president."

See and “Like” my Facebook page here:

Chuck Baldwin's Facebook Page

Well, folks, it didn’t take long for Donald Trump to join his presidential predecessors from both parties and start appointing members of the globalist agenda-driven Council on Foreign Relations (CFR) to his administration.

*Deputy National Security Adviser: K. T. McFarland

McFarland is CFR. AND THE CFR IS THE SWAMP!

Let me remind readers of what Rear Admiral Chester Ward warned about the CFR. Admiral Ward was the Judge Advocate General of the Navy from 1956-1960 and a former member of the CFR who pulled out after realizing what they were all about. He warned the American people about the dangers of this and similar organizations (such as the Trilateral Commission).

Admiral Ward said, “The most powerful clique in these elitist groups have one objective in common--they want to bring about the surrender of the sovereignty and the national independence of the United States. A second clique of international members in the CFR . . . comprises the Wall Street international bankers and their key agents. Primarily, they want the world banking monopoly from whatever power ends up in the control of global government.”

Admiral Ward also said, “The main purpose of the Council on Foreign Relations is promoting the disarmament of U.S. sovereignty and national independence and submergence into an all powerful, one world government.”

Plus, the short list for Trump’s selection to the office of Secretary of State are said to be Rudy Giuliani, John Bolton, Mitt Romney, and General David Petraeus. Each of these men is totally and thoroughly an establishment neocon. And if Trump picks Petraeus, it will be another CFR member picked by Trump.

Besides being a globalist CFR member, Petraeus is an anti-Second Amendment gun-grabber and convicted criminal.

Petraeus hates guns so much that he teamed up with anti-gun leader Mark Kelly and his wife, Gabrielle Giffords, to co-found the Veterans Coalition for Common Sense, an anti-gun organization devoted to "do[ing] more to prevent gun tragedies" by "urging lawmakers to toughen gun laws." (Source: Gun Owners of America)

Petraeus was convicted (and pled guilty) to sharing classified information with his lover, Paula Broadwell. He was fined $100,000 and sentenced to two years on probation. On the campaign trail, Trump used Petraeus as an example of the kind of carelessness and criminality that Hillary Clinton was guilty of as Secretary of State. During the campaign, Trump said that Hillary “has to go to jail” for what she did. Is Trump really going to turn around and appoint a CFR globalist and a man who was convicted of the same kind of crimes that he accused Hillary Clinton of committing to the very same office? God help us if he does. It’s bad enough already.

Senator Rand Paul has hinted that he will oppose the nomination of David Petraeus should Trump appoint him. Good for Rand!

*Secretary of Transportation: Elaine Chao


Chao is another longstanding CFR member. She served in the cabinets of both G.H.W. Bush and G.W. Bush. She is a high-level neocon and globalist. She is a horrible pick! She is also the wife of the Senate Majority Leader, neocon Mitch McConnell. Gee! Why is that not surprising?

*Secretary of The Treasury: Steven Mnuchin


Talk about a globalist banking elite: no one personifies it more than Mnuchin. He was an Investment Professional with Soros Fund Management LLC and spent 17 years at Goldman Sachs. No single individual is more responsible for the attempted surrender of the United States to global government than George Soros. And no institution on the planet has done more to promote globalism than Goldman. When Mnuchin is confirmed as Treasury Secretary (and he will be), he will be the third Goldman alumnus to hold that position. The other two are Henry Paulson under President G.W. Bush and Robert Rubin under President Bill Clinton.

Goldman, JP Morgan, Rothschild, Warburg, Lehman Brothers, Lazard Brothers, Israel Moses Seif,  Rockefeller, and Kuhn Loeb control the Federal Reserve; and no institution on the planet is more responsible for the surrender of U.S. sovereignty and independence than the Federal Reserve. Talk about a swamp: the Federal Reserve bankers are the ones who are most financially responsible for filling the swamp.

For Donald Trump to say he intends to drain the swamp and to then appoint a Goldman-Sachs partner as Secretary of the Treasury is the height of either simplicity or duplicity. Either way, it’s BAD for America. If Trump truly wanted to drain the swamp, he would have appointed Ron Paul as Secretary of the Treasury.

*Secretary of Commerce: Wilbur Ross

Here we go again! Ross worked for Rothschild for twenty-four years. When Trump’s three casinos in Atlantic City, New Jersey, were going bankrupt, it was Wilbur Ross who stepped in and fronted the monies needed to keep them afloat and rebuild his business. Ross also served under President Bill Clinton on the board of the U.S.-Russia Investment Fund.

As I said at the beginning of this column: conservatives and Christians who supported Donald Trump need to wake up to the reality that the election is over. Hillary Clinton lost, and their guy won. What that amounts to is, campaign rhetoric means absolutely NOTHING now. Donald Trump is the President-Elect. From this moment on, we must stop judging Trump on his rhetoric and start judging him on his actions. And the man is busy right now putting his presidential administration together. These are the men and women that are going to be in control of trillions of taxpayer dollars and are going to have their own gigantic sphere of authority and influence over our lives. The kind of people Donald Trump selects for these key leadership posts speaks volumes about the kind of administration he will have. And it is on this exact point that conservatives and Christians greatly contribute to the demise of our liberties: when a Republican is elected President, they tend to go to sleep and refuse to hold the President accountable for his unconstitutional, big-government, neocon decisions and policies.

What I am seeing right now is another G.W. Bush administration developing. The vast majority of Trump’s appointments so far could easily have been selected by either Bush, either Clinton, or Barack Obama. They are the same establishment insiders that have been running the federal government for decades. Even perceived outsider Steve Bannon is a Goldman-Sachs alumnus, so I am very skeptical of exactly what he will bring to the table. 

And the reason that Republican administrations generally do so much more damage to our liberties than Democratic ones is because once they are in office, they have no meaningful opposition. Christians and conservatives lie down and go to sleep. But if they go to sleep on Donald Trump, they may wake up in an enslaved country.

Accordingly, I call on Alex Jones to be honestly objective about Donald Trump. I call on Steve Quayle to be honestly objective about Donald Trump. I call on Bradlee Dean to be honestly objective about Donald Trump. I call on Joseph Farah to be honestly objective about Donald Trump. I call on Ann Coulter to be honestly objective about Donald Trump. I call on the writers on NewsWithViews.com (most of whom I hold in high regard) to be honestly objective about Donald Trump.

The fact is, we owe Donald Trump NOTHING. He owes us his fidelity to constitutional government. Therefore, as radio hosts, writers, and opinion makers in the alt-media, we owe it to our country to be as faithful to constitutional government as we expect our civil magistrates to be. When the day comes that we lose our honest objectivity, we also lose our credibility and integrity.

I like Trump’s stated decision to ban former government office holders and employees from being lobbyists for five years. I like his stated position that America does not need any additional gun control laws and that Americans have an individual right to keep and bear arms. Obviously, he said many things on the campaign trail that sounded good, including investigating and prosecuting Hillary Clinton--a promise he has recanted since being elected.

I will happily give Donald Trump all due praise when he acts constitutionally and in the interest of the liberties protected in our Bill of Rights. I give him praise for convincing the Carrier company to keep their manufacturing plant in Indianapolis and not moving it to Mexico. But I will NOT give him a pass simply because he is a Republican or because he said a bunch of good things on the campaign trail. And giving him a pass by comparing him to Hillary Clinton is now moot. He’s not candidate Donald Trump any longer; he is now President Donald Trump. As such, I find it SCARY that Trump would suggest that burning the American flag in protest should result in the loss of citizenship or a year in jail. That’s Hitlerian kind of talk. The freedom to protest--even by burning the flag (as despicable as that is)--is what America is all about. For the government to punish peaceful protest is a huge step down the slippery slope to oppression. This is the kind of thing that has always bothered me about Donald Trump.

Again, Donald Trump’s campaign rhetoric means nothing now. As President of The United States, he has one main responsibility: to preserve, protect, and defend the Constitution of the United States. And to the people he convinced to vote for him on November 8, he has one major promise to fulfill: to drain the swamp! But he is not going to drain the swamp with the people he is choosing to help him thus far.

 
http://chuckbaldwinlive.com/Articles/tabid/109/ID/3540/Did-Jeb-Bush-Win-The-Election.aspx

13
[html]


   



   Off the keyboard of A. G. Gelbert



   Follow us on Twitter @doomstead666

   Friend us on Facebook



   Published on the Doomstead Diner on November 1, 2015



   



   PART THREE OF THREE PARTS



   Whatever is finally determined by scientists as the exact combination of factors that forms these monster waves, it is well known that wave height and ferocity is a function of the ferocity and duration of the winds.



   ΔT = plus 2C or greater guarantees ferocious winds of long during over wide areas in a consistent direction.



   We are already experiencing the beginning of the abrupt climate change that is bringing these destructive winds due to the increase in frequency and severity of cyclonic movements over the oceans.



   Hurricanes and typhoons are the DIRECT result of overheated ocean surface water. As heat increases, so will they continue to increase in frequency and severity, setting new records. As soon as the surface temperature of the ocean is at or above 27.8C (82F), they can form.




      Sea surface temperatures must be 82 degrees F (27.8C) or warmer for tropical cyclone formation and sustenance.    
   




   Recipe for a Hurricane



   http://www.nasa.gov/vision/earth/environment/HURRICANE_RECIPE.html



   The higher the ocean surface temperature, the more often they will form to wreak havoc with ships and coasts.



   



   Patricia the Fastest-Intensifying Western Hemisphere Hurricane on Record





    



   



   Susan Casey gives us an eye opening look at giant waves.



   The book titled, "The Wave" is the overall scope; Casey links how the Earth's weather is changing to how waves are growing, and there's no denying the stats: there is a clear correlation. She visits various scientists and marine salvage folks and shares their stories; they all agree that we're seeing the oceans get nuttier, and it's only just beginning.



   



   The Wave: In Pursuit of the Rogues, Freaks, and Giants of the Ocean by Susan Casey



   Susan Casey, National Post · Monday, Sept. 20, 2010



   57.5° N, 12.7° W, 175 MILES OFF THE COAST OF SCOTLAND FEBRUARY 8, 2000



   The clock read midnight when the 100-foot wave hit the ship, rising from the North Atlantic out of the darkness. Among the ocean's terrors a wave this size was the most feared and the least understood, more myth than reality — or so people had thought. This giant was certainly real. As the RRS Discovery plunged down into the wave's deep trough, it heeled 28 degrees to port,



   



   The above graphic is a scale simulation of 295 ft. ship heeling 28 degrees to port in the trough of a 100 ft. wave by yours truly.



   rolled 30 degrees back to starboard, then recovered to face the incoming seas. What chance did they have, the 47 scientists and crew aboard this research cruise gone horribly wrong? A series of storms had trapped them in the black void east of Rockall, a volcanic island nicknamed Waveland for the nastiness of its surrounding waters. More than 1,000 wrecked ships lay on the seafloor below.



   



   Captain Keith Avery steered his vessel directly into the onslaught, just as he'd been doing for the past five days. While weather like this was common in the cranky North Atlantic, these giant waves were unlike anything he'd encountered in his 30 years of experience.



   And worse, they kept rearing up from different directions. Flanking all sides of the 295-foot ship, the crew kept a constant watch to make sure they weren't about to be sucker punched by a wave that was sneaking up from behind, or from the sides.



   



   No one wanted to be out here right now, but Avery knew their only hope was to remain where they were, with their bow pointed into the waves. Turning around was too risky; if one of these waves caught Discovery broadside, there would be long odds on survival. It takes 30 tons per square metre of force to dent a ship.



   A breaking 100-foot wave packs 100 tons of force per square metre and can tear a ship in half. Above all, Avery had to position Discovery so that it rode over these crests and wasn't crushed beneath them.



   He stood barefoot at the helm, the only way he could maintain traction after a refrigerator toppled over, splashing out a slick of milk, juice and broken glass (no time to clean it up–the waves just kept coming).



   Up on the bridge everything was amplified, all the night noises and motions, the slamming and the crashing, the elevator-shaft plunges into the troughs, the frantic wind, the swaying and groaning of the ship; and now, as the waves suddenly grew even bigger and meaner and steeper, Avery heard a loud bang coming from Discovery's foredeck. He squinted in the dark to see that the 50-man lifeboat had partially ripped from its 2-inch-thick steel cleats and was pounding against the hull.



   Below deck, computers and furniture had been smashed into pieces. The scientists huddled in their cabins nursing bruises, black eyes and broken ribs. Attempts at rest were pointless. They heard the noises too; they rode the free falls and the sickening barrel rolls; and they worried about the fact that a 6-foot-long window next to their lab had already shattered from the twisting. Discovery was almost 40 years old, and recently she'd undergone major surgery. The ship had been cut in half, lengthened by 33 feet, and then welded back together. Would the joints hold? No one really knew. No one had ever been in conditions like these.



   One of the two chief scientists, Penny Holliday, watched as a chair skidded out from under her desk, swung into the air and crashed onto her bunk. Holliday, fine boned, porcelain-doll pretty and as tough as any man on board the ship, had sent an e-mail to her boyfriend, Craig Harris, earlier in the day. "This isn't funny anymore," she wrote. "The ocean just looks completely out of control." So much white spray was whipping off the waves that she had the strange impression of being in a blizzard. This was Waveland all right, an otherworldly place of constant motion that took you nowhere but up and down; where there was no sleep, no comfort, no connection to land, and where human eyes and stomachs struggled to adapt, and failed.



   Ten days ago Discovery had left port in Southampton, England, on what Holliday had hoped would be a typical 3-week trip to Iceland and back (punctuated by a little seasickness perhaps, but nothing major).



   



   RRS Discovery in calm seas



   Along the way they'd stop and sample the water for salinity, temperature, oxygen and other nutrients. From these tests the scientists would draw a picture of what was happening out there, how the ocean's basic characteristics were shifting, and why.



   These are not small questions on a planet that is 71% covered in salt water. As the Earth's climate changes — as the inner atmosphere becomes warmer, as the winds increase, as the oceans heat up — what does all this mean for us?



   Trouble, most likely, and Holliday and her colleagues were in the business of finding out how much and what kind. It was deeply frustrating for them to be lashed to their bunks rather than out on the deck lowering their instruments. No one was thinking about Iceland anymore.



   The trip was far from a loss, however. During the endless trains of massive waves, Discovery itself was collecting data that would lead to a chilling revelation. The ship was ringed with instruments; everything that happened out there was being precisely measured, the sea's fury captured in tight graphs and unassailable numbers.



   Months later, long after Avery had returned everyone safely to the Southampton docks, when Holliday began to analyze these figures, she would discover that the waves they had experienced were the largest ever scientifically recorded in the open ocean. The significant wave height, an average of the largest 33% of the waves, was 61 feet, with frequent spikes far beyond that.



   At the same time, none of the state-of-the-art weather forecasts and wave models– the information upon which all ships, oil rigs, fisheries and passenger boats rely — had predicted these behemoths. In other words, under this particular set of weather conditions, waves this size should not have existed. And yet they did.



   http://www.samsmarine.com/forums/showthread.php?15984-Giants-of-the-Ocean-(Part-1)&s=3ce56fe6a5efb7cdccd8412c349f4bf2



   ă€€



   You could call them whatever you wanted — rogues, freaks, giants — but the bottom line was that no one had accounted for them. The engineers who'd built the Draupner rig had calculated that once every 10,000 years the North Sea might throw them a 64-foot curveball in 38-foot seas. That would be the maximum. Eighty-five-foot waves were not part of the equation, not in this universe anyway.



   But the rules had changed. Now scientists had a set of numbers that pointed to an unsettling truth: Some of these waves make their own rules. Suddenly the emphasis shifted from explaining why giant waves couldn't simply leap out of the ocean to figuring out how it was that they did.



   This was a matter of much brow sweat for the oil industry, which would prefer that its multimillion-dollar rigs not be swept away. It had happened before. In 1982 the Ocean Ranger, a 400-foot-long, 337-foot-high oil platform located 170 miles off the coast of Newfoundland, was struck by an outsize wave in heavy weather. We'll never know how big the wave was exactly, for there were no survivors. Approved for "unrestricted ocean operations," built to withstand 110-foot seas and 115-mile-per-hour winds, considered "indestructible" by its engineers, the Ocean Ranger had capsized and sank close to instantly, killing all 84 people on board.



   In the nautical world things were even more troubling. Across the global seas ships were meeting these waves, from megaton vessels like the Munchen — oceangoing freighters and tankers and bulk carriers — down to recreational sailboats.



   At best, the encounters resulted in damage; at worst, the boat vanished, taking all hands with it. "Two large ships sink every week on average [worldwide], but the cause is never studied to the same detail as an air crash. It simply gets put down to 'bad weather,' " said Dr. Wolfgang Rosenthal, senior scientist for the MaxWave Project, a consortium of European scientists that convened in 2000 to investigate the disappearing ships.



   http://www.samsmarine.com/forums/showthread.php?15984-Giants-of-the-Ocean-(Part-1)&s=3ce56fe6a5efb7cdccd8412c349f4bf2



   



   MS München



   December 12, 1978: Considered unsinkable, the Munchen was a cutting-edge craft, the flagship of the German Merchant Navy. At 3:25 a.m. fragments of a Morse code Mayday, emanating from 450 miles north of the Azores, signaled that the vessel had suffered grave damage from a wave.



   ă€€



   Artist's conception of MS München facing a giant wave.



   But even after 110 ships and 13 aircraft were deployed — the most comprehensive search in the history of shipping — the ship and its 27 crew were never seen again.



   A haunting clue was left behind: Searchers found one of the Munchen's lifeboats, usually stowed 65 feet above the water, floating empty. Its twisted metal fittings indicated that it had been torn away. "Something extraordinary" had destroyed the ship, concluded the official report. *



   The Munchen's disappearance points to the main problem with proving the existence of a giant wave: If you run into that kind of nightmare, it's likely to be the last one you'll have.



   The force of waves is hard to overstate. An 18-inch wave can topple a wall built to withstand 125-mile-per-hour winds, for instance, and coastal advisories are issued for even five-foot-tall surf, which regularly kills people caught in the wrong places.



   The number of people who have witnessed a 100-foot wave at close range and made it back home to describe the experience is a very small one.



   http://www.samsmarine.com/forums/showthread.php?15984-Giants-of-the-Ocean-(Part-1)&s=3ce56fe6a5efb7cdccd8412c349f4bf2



    *Agelbert NOTE: The container ship El Faro sank during Hurricane Juaquin on October 1, 2015. All 33 crewmembers perished. The lifeboats on El Faro were also 65 feet above the water line. From the condition of the lifeboat that was recovered, the evidence indicates a giant wave sank the El Faro. The authorities have not admitted this as of yet. But I am not the only one that strongly suspects that the condition of the lifeboat is evidence that a giant wave sank El Faro (Spanish for "Lighthouse").



   



    




      "A heavily damaged lifeboat from the El Faro was discovered, with no one …"
   




   



   Coast Guard Investigates El Faro Life Boat




      Published on Oct 5, 2015
   



      A Coast Guard Air Station Miami MH-60 Jayhawk helicopter crew investigates a life boat Sunday, Oct. 4, 2015, that was found from the missing ship El Faro. El Faro lost propulsion and communications prior to Hurricane Joaquin passing directly over it. U.S. Coast Guard video.
   




   https://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_detailpage&v=BQv_NxVBge0



    



   Warming oceans are with us now and increasing the violence of the oceans. By chance, I recorded the SST (Sea Surface Temperature) off the East Coast of the USA the day before Hurricane Juaquin sank the El Faro container ship. Here's the September 30, 2015 (8 day average – proof that it was really consistently hot out there!) screenshot:



   



   Here's two days later (one day after the El Faro Container ship sank). I superimposed the hurricane location. It is a one day average SST so the conditions when the El Faro sank are displayed. I was not aware that the El Faro had been lost at the time I made these screenshots. Notice the cooler spot on the ocean precisely where Hurricane Juaquin is lashing El Faro. A hurricane transfers several degrees of water temperature directly to the atmosphere, which, in turn, increases the ferocity of the winds. Ferocious winds produce ferocious waves.



   



   El Faro departed Jacksonville en route to San Juan, Puerto Rico.



   



    



    



   The El Faro was one of TWO cargo ships that went down because of Hurricane Juaquin (the 215 ft. MV Minouche that went down didn't make national headlines, because people, perhaps, might start to get "unnecessarily alarmed" about the increasing shipping losses from our increasingly violent oceans). All 12 crew of the MV Minouche were rescued.



   MV Minouche:



   The Coast Guard pilot's voice shakes as he describes conditions they have never before experienced in rescue attempts when they were searching for the El Faro and rescuing the crew of the MV Minouche.



    



    



   US Coast Guard search for El Faro; 12 rescued from MV Minouche



   https://youtu.be/_xFT9JD2f1A




      Published on Oct 5, 2015
   



      A US Coast Guard C-130 pilot describes a flight through Hurricane Joaquin in 100 knot winds and over 40-foot waves in search of the cargo ship El Faro, which has been reported sunk after debris was found. Part two of this video features footage from an Oct. 1 rescue of 12 people from the MV Minouche near the Bahamas.
   




    



   The El Faro, that went down with a crew of 33, all lost, 294 cars, trailers and trucks, along with hundreds of containers, had a type of lifeboat that is a death boat in stormy seas.



   Here's a comment by a fellow who's handle is deckofficer:



   Hurricane Joaquin vs. M/V El Faro's final voyage, weather and decision-making…



   I guess the only point I would like to make is some owners don't seem to value the lives of their crews. Schedules are tight and safety equipment is in many cases the bare minimum for certification. In the case of SS El Faro (it is my understanding this is a steam ship, not diesel) the open life boats as high on the super structure as they were meets requirements but certainly doesn't offer the all sea state conditions of deployment as free fall enclosed life boat capsules. If these souls are lost at sea, it is maddening that the simple added investment of better emergency egress would have saved their lives. I have done more lifeboat drills than I can remember, and for the older style gravity systems there was a good reason these drills only occurred on calm days.



   When sea state is overwhelming and you have lost propulsion and need to abandon ship, do you want this….



   



   Bridge of the El Faro with an open lifeboat on the port side



   Or this…



   



   https://youtu.be/a7giEX-vIyo



   Bob



   USCG Unlimited Tonnage Open Ocean (CMA)



   http://www.cruisersforum.com/forums/f122/hurricane-joaquin-vs-m-v-el-faros-final-voyage-weather-and-decsion-making-154191-3.html



    



   Free fall enclosed life boat capsules are a great idea. They should be mandatory. The fact that they aren't is mute evidence of the neoliberal Empathy Deficit disordered "cost/benefit analysis" that values goods more than lives. As long as people continue to line up to crew the ships, management will cut corners on life support.



   And the Libertarians will cheer them on demanding all those "government regulations" be eliminated so the shippers can make more money without "government interference". devil





    



   But the greedball shippers are increasingly going to have a bit more to worry about than whether they have a labor force or not. Thanks to the fossil fuel industry socialized cost of CO2 pollution (even though Big Oil is getting a bit of payback from the oceans with oil rig difficulties and tanker losses), this is no longer going to be about whether the "demand" for products "justifies" cargo shipping.





   



   I am grateful to Paul Beckwith of the University of Ottawa for alerting me to the threat from violent oceans that mankind faces.



   Paul Beckwith is a part time professor at the University of Ottawa and a post graduate studying and researching abrupt climate change, with a focus on the arctic.




      An Ocean Full of 30 meter Tall Waves
   



      by Paul Beckwith
   



      Published on Jul 23, 2015
   



      "Near the end of the previous warm period (Late-Eemian) when the sea level was +5 to +9 meters higher than today, persistent long period long wavelength waves 30 meters high battered the Bahamas coastline. Will we see these massive storm generated waves soon? No ship could survive this…"
   




    



   https://youtu.be/rq24d3-bIU4



   If the ships cannot handle the seas (NO ship is designed, or can cost effectively be designed, to handle anywhere near 100 tons per square meter of force on her hull), shipping itself will no longer be cost effective unless cargo ships morph into cargo submarines. The cost of doing that is staggering. Even if they designed them to ride just beneath the wave turbulence, they still would have to submerge to one half the wavelength of ocean waves.




      Deep-Water Waves
   



      If the water depth (d) is greater then the wave base (equal to one-half the wavelength, or L/2), the waves are called deep-water waves. Deep-water waves have no interference with the ocean bottom, so they include all wind-generated waves in the open ocean. Submarines can avoid large ocean waves by submerging below the wave base.
   




   http://www2.fiu.edu/~kpanneer/lab_assignment/Lab8_Waves.pdf



   ă€€



   The wave that hit the Draupner platform in 1995 was over 90 ft. high and had a wavelength of 231 meters (which it covered in only 12 seconds! – 45 mph). To avoid these waves, a submerged cargo vessel or tanker would have to withstand pressures at a minimum of 116 meters below sea level.



   That may be a piece of cake for a normal submarine but it would cost multiples of what cargo and tanker vessels cost now to make cargo submarines and tankers capable of routinely submerging to 400 or 500 feet.



   And in water that is too shallow to get under the wave action, they will not avoid being damaged or sunk. Those waves Paul Beckwith mentions will be visiting the coastlines regularly in a ΔT = plus 2C (and beyond) world.



   During WW2 the Germans actually made submarine tankers. They nicknamed them "Milk Cows". The German type XIV U-Boat could resupply other boats with 432 t (425 long tons) of fuel. I'm sure ExxonMobil will look into it when the going gets REALLY rough on the oceans, instead of doing the right thing and giving up fossil fuels. They aren't known for their ability to consider the wider consequences of their greed based, short term profit motive stupidity. But I digress. wink 



   Besides the large increase in sea level, the wave action predicted makes every hull design of modern shipping inadequate. It will be very hard to sustain our level of civilization without the benefits of modern shipping.



   Redesigning hulls will not work for the simple reason that the waves, now called "rogue" waves, of those oceans will be routine. 30 to 35 meter tall waves exert forces on a hull of about 100 tons per square meter. No modern hull design exceeds 30 tons per square meter.



   



   Hellespont Alhambra (now TI Asia), a ULCC TI class supertanker, which are the largest ocean-going oil tankers in the world



   To give you a better idea of the huge threat a giant wave or three is to a large tanker or cargo vessel, I took some screenshots from a video of a wave laboratory testing the effects of 72 ft. waves on a modern supertanker. I'm sure Big Oil is paying attention, regardless of what they say in public.



   



    



    



    



    



    



   



   



    



    



    



    



    



    



    



    



    



    



    



    



   The tanker completely capsized. In a real world situation, this is a death blow to the crew because it happens too fast to get survival gear on or reach the lifeboats, even if they are the emergency egress sealed type you saw earlier. That is why both tanker and cargo ships do everything they can to avoid being broadsided. In the real world, when the engines are lost in these types of seas, the only way to survive is to immediately abandon ship on a free fall enclosed life boat capsule.



   If the above series of screen shots are not convincing enough to the reader of the threat shipping faces from giant waves, the following video series will leave no doubt in your mind that world shipping is incapable of handling the routine 30 to 35 meter waves that the Hansen et al June 2015 paper predicts for a ΔT = plus 2C (and beyond) world.



   The following video series is the first of an excellent BBC series that describes the difficulties that shipping faces with giant waves. Some of the material I have covered is presented with some added background provided. You will learn much from these videos. You will learn that absolutely nothing I have told you is exaggeration or hyperbole.



   The threat is real and it is getting worse. I urge you to set aside some time to view them because this concerns our future as a civilization. We are not prepared for a ΔT = plus 2C world (and beyond).



   https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0YVZn46KgTs&list=PLF7FBE5EA5E56AF7E&feature=player_detailpage







   CONCLUSIONS



   Global Civilization is threatened within 25 years or less by the scientifically predicted ocean surface wave activity in the Hansen et al June 2015 study * and the Dutton et al July 2015 study ** evidencing a 6 to 25 meter (19 to 82 feet!) sea level increase in the geological record when the CO2 parts per million (PPM) atmospheric concentration was between 300 and 400PPM. As of October of 2015, the CO2 concentration is at 400PPM. It is increasing at over 3PPM per year.



   *Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., 15, 20059–20179, 2015 doi:10.5194/acpd-15-20059-2015 © Author(s) 2015. CC Attribution 3.0 License.



   Ice melt, sea level rise and superstorms: evidence from paleoclimate data, climate modeling, and modern observations that 2 C global warming is highly dangerous



   J. Hansen1, M. Sato1, P. Hearty2, R. Ruedy3,4, M. Kelley3,4, V. Masson-Delmotte5, G. Russell4, G. Tselioudis4, J. Cao6, E. Rignot7,8, I. Velicogna8,7, E. Kandiano9, K. von Schuckmann10, P. Kharecha1,4, A. N. Legrande4, M. Bauer11, and K.-W. Lo3,4



   www.atmos-chem-phys-discuss.net/15/20059/2015/



   http://www.atmos-chem-phys-discuss.net/15/20059/2015/acpd-15-20059-2015.pdf



   ** Science 10 July 2015:  Vol. 349 no. 6244 DOI: 10.1126/science.aaa4019



   Sea-level rise due to polar ice-sheet mass loss during past warm periods



   A. Dutton1,*, A. E. Carlson2, A. J. Long3, G. A. Milne4, P. U. Clark2, R. DeConto5, B. P. Horton6,7, S. Rahmstorf8, M. E. Raymo9



   http://www.sciencemag.org/content/349/6244/aaa4019.abstract



   Furthermore, the rate of increase is also rising, evidencing, not only the lack of concerted action by the governments of the industrialized nations of the world to stop using fossil fuels, but an increase in their use, along with the incredibly destructive policies of subsidizing the exploration for fossil fuels.



   If drastic action is not taken to avert this violent oceans catastrophe for human civilization, our global civilization will collapse into "sea-locked" regions unable to conduct trade across the oceans except via air transportation, a method that is not economically feasible to use for bulk cargo.



   Port facilities and coastal airport facilities will become unusable. In addition, the salt water fishing industry would also collapse, both from the violent oceans and the increasing rate of marine extinctions, creating joblessness, food shortages and widespread hunger.



   At least 25 percent of the world's arable land, all of which is low lying and near sea coasts, will be lost due to salt water invasion of the water table, even several miles from the coasts.



   ă€€



   RECOMMENDATIONS



   To prevent a collapse of global civilization into a group of "sea locked" areas, we must act now to prevent the oceans from being too stormy for shipping.



   This requires the following:



   1. The manufacture of internal combustion engines, and spare parts, used to power utility scale power plants, land, sea and air vehicles and emergency generators for public or private use, be they large or small, is to be outlawed, unless they are designed to run exclusively (low temperature alloys ONLY – 2/3 lighter engine blocks – they break down due to high waste heat if run on fossil fuels) on ethanol or some other biofuel. All aircraft must be powered by biofuels until electrically powered or hydrogen powered aircraft replace current jet engines. All ocean going oil tankers are to be recycled for low cost EV metals. All remaining ships of all sizes must be electrically powered as well, unless they can be modified to run on biofuels. Biofuels must be used to bridge the gap while phasing out the internal combustion engine in industry, the military and transportation by air, land or sea.



   2. All ships must have enclosed egress lifeboats capable of surviving 35 meter waves.



   3. Small engines, like those used for lawn mowers. leaf blowers or weed whackers are to be outlawed. All ordinances requiring lawns are to be outlawed. All lawn, gardening or snow removal power equipment not running on E100 is to be electrically powered without any exceptions or grace period.



   4. A program to phase out of all uses of fossil fuels within one year must begin immediately. All gasoline stations are to have at least two E100 pumps. A gasoline tax of one dollar per gallon is to be levied to existing gasoline or other distillate fuels tax. The tax is to be increased by one additional dollar per gallon every month.



   5. All governments must provide an EV for gas guzzlers consumer trade program at no cost to the owner until all on road and off road vehicles that are not fueled exclusively with E100 (100% ethanol) have been recycled.



   6. All public and private buildings (including the military) are to be modified to have 100% renewable energy for heating and cooling. Zero percent financing and a 30 year amortization period is to be provided to all private households and landlords for the purchase and installation of Renewable Energy infrastructure. No household is entitled to heat and cool more than 500 square feet per occupant. No exceptions. Monitoring devices are to placed on all large houses in general and mansions in particular with heavy fines for violations.



   7. After all buildings are heated and cooled with renewable energy, the remaining energy needs, plus a surplus, are to be generated by renewable energy in order to begin the process of returning to less than 350PPM of CO2. Carbon will be sequestered with renewable energy machines.



   8.The manufacture, sale or use of fossil fuel based pesticides or chemical fertilizers for agriculture is to be outlawed with a six month phase out grace period.



   9. The manufacture and sale of any product, including, but not limited to, pharmaceuticals and plastics, using fossil fuels as a feed stock is to be prohibited by law. A one year grace period will be allowed for transition to the use of plant based carbohydrates as feed stock.



   10. Water use is to be heavily regulated.



   11. Military budgets are to be limited to no more than 5% of tax receipts.



   12. All subsidies for fossil fuels are be declared null and void in every country in the world. All rigs, refineries, tanker trucks, pipelines and other fossil fuel industry plant and equipment are to be recycled within a five year period. The fossil fuel industry stock holders are to shoulder the cost of this. Corporate bankruptcies of fossil fuel corporations will not limit the liability of the corporation stock holders sccording to a worldwide proclamation of Force Majeure. Executives, board members and all other stock holders will be liable for all recycling costs according to ownership records over the last 50 years.



   ă€€



   And that is just the start. Massive conservation efforts must be undertaken to preserve and protect all animals now threatened with extinction. All governments must put these efforts on the level of war time demands simply because our survival as a civilization and possibly as a species is threatened.



   We cannot function without the use of the oceans. We will not be able to use those oceans if we don't lower the CO2 atmospheric content to at least 350 PPM.



   And even then, with the 6 meter or more (over 19 feet!) rise in sea level locked into the ΔT = plus 2C world, we will lose the use of all port facilities, coastal cities and arable land near sea level within a decade or, optimistically speaking in regard to the IPCC RPC-8.5 "Business as Usual" scenario, by 2050. Our civilization does not have the money to rebuild and replant and relocate millions of people as the seas go up and fly all cargo when the seas can't be used, PERIOD.



   It is only possible to avoid a collapse of global civilization by the drastic measures I listed, and only if those measures are undertaken within a decade.



   If not, then mankind will be split into several "sea locked" groups watching the oceans acidify and the temperature increase to the point when the methane bursts from the thawed clathrates in the Arctic ocean bottom. Then the ΔT = plus 2C world will be a distant mild memory in comparison to the ΔT = plus 4C and beyond runaway GHG hell.



   Sadly, I do not see any of evidence that any government is championing drastic action.



   ă€€



   Oil Tanker named "Prestige" sinks. Is this the Writing on the Oil Tanker Hull Wall for Big Oil?



   It is small consolation to me that these oil tankers will not survive the coming oceans. But there is a certain logic to it.



   If you find this article of importance to our survival as a species or the survival of civilization, please pass it on with or without attribution. People need to properly understand the nature of our climate problem in general, and the fossil fuel industry's blame for profiting from it in particular, in order to embrace the outlawing of the burning of fossil fuels.



   



    



    



    



    



    



   They must be held accountable and they must NOT be allowed to influence energy policy ever again. They will try to sabotage or water down all the reforms proposed at the December 2015 COP21 Climate Conference, as they have done at all the other global climate conferences through corruption or threats. Our survival and the welfare of the children of the world depends on stopping these criminals NOW.



   ă€€



    



   



   Please help the children.



   



   



   "We call on you to take immediate action to protect COP21 and all future negotiations from the influence of big polluters. Given the fossil fuel industry’s years of interference intended to block progress, push false solutions, and continue the disastrous status quo, the time has come to stop treating big polluters as legitimate “stakeholders” and to remove them from climate policymaking."



   Today, we are facing the prospect of the destruction of life as we know it and irreversible damage to our planet due to climate change. Scientists are telling us with ever more urgency that we must act quickly to stop extracting fossil fuels and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. But the world’s largest polluters have prevented progress on bold climate action for far too long.



   We call on the Parties to the UNFCCC to protect the UN climate talks and climate policymaking around the world from the influence of big polluters. The world is looking to the next round of negotiations – in Paris this December – for decisive action on climate. This is a pivotal moment to create real solutions. We need a strong outcome from the Paris talks in order to seize the momentum of a growing global movement, and to urge leaders to take bolder action to address the climate crisis.



   But the fossil fuel industry and other transnational corporations that have a vested interest in stopping progress continue to delay, weaken, and block climate policy at every level. From the World Coal Association hosting a summit on "clean coal" around COP19 to Shell aggressively lobbying in the European Union for weak renewable energy goals while promoting gas – these big polluters are peddling false solutions to protect their profits while driving the climate crisis closer to the brink.



   A decade ago, the international community took on another behemoth industry – Big Tobacco – and created a precedent-setting treaty mechanism that removed the tobacco industry from public health policy. This can happen again here.



   Corporate Accountability International will deliver this message and the list of signatures at the climate talks in Bonn, Germany, the first week of June. We will do another delivery by the end of COP21 in Paris this December.



   Participating organizations:



   350.org



   Amazon Watch



   Chesapeake Climate Action Network



   Climate Action Network International



   Corporate Accountability International



   CREDO Action



   Daily Kos



   Environmental Action



   Food & Water Watch



   Federation of Young European Greens



   Forecast the Facts



   Greenpeace USA



   League of Conservation Voters



   Oil Change International



   People for the American Way



   Rainforest Action Network



   RH Reality Check



   SumOfUs



   The Natural History Museum



   CC: UNFCCC Executive Secretary Christiana Figueres



   UN Secretary General Ban Ki-moon



   Outgoing COP20 President Manuel Pulgar-Vidal



   Incoming COP21 President Laurent Fabius 









   Many will read this and scoff. They do not accept the FACT that Business as usual is a death sentence for global civilization. They do not accept the FACT that nature does not negotiate. They do not accept the FACT that Incremental/half measures are like being half pregnant with Rosemary's baby.



   They will say that there is absolutely no way that the governments of the world will undertake even a tiny portion of the recommendations I list as sine qua non for our survival as a global civilization.



   Perhaps they are right about the governments. If they are, then perhaps we will, because of the successful degrading of democracy and the biosphere by the fossil fuel industry over the course of about a century, experience the roaring oceans and the collapse of all of civilization, not just global civilization.



   If so, then the ocean violence, now predicted by science, was prophesied about a long time ago.




      And there will be signs in sun and moon and stars, and on the earth distress of nations in perplexity because of the roaring of the sea and the waves, people fainting with fear and with foreboding of what is coming on the world. For the powers of the heavens will be shaken. Luke 21:25-26 English Standard Version


14





Off the keyboard of A. G. Gelbert



Follow us on Twitter @doomstead666

Friend us on Facebook



Published on the Doomstead Diner on October 28, 2015






PART TWO OF THREE PARTS



On top of the disaster for civilization that a rise in seal level of 6 meters (over 19 FEET!) represents from the loss of coastal arable land, coastal cities, shipping ports and airports, there is the problem of wave activity.



Which brings us back to shipping and the ocean surface. Of particular concern to ocean shipping in a ΔT = plus 2C (and greater) atmosphere are the following facts about waves.



WHY?



Because that world will have more energy both in the oceans and in the atmosphere. That world will have, not just greater average wind speeds, particularly over unobstructed surfaces like the oceans, but a greater duration of higher wind velocities (speed in a relatively constant direction) over thousands of miles. High wind velocity and duration over hundreds or thousands of miles is a recipe for giant waves.



Here's a very brief primer on waves so you can grasp the impact of giant wave characteristics on shipping.



First, the high points of the waves are called "crests" and the low points of the waves are called "troughs". The crest is the part that starts to curl over and turn foamy when waves hit the beach. The difference in height between the crest and the trough is called the wave height.



The "amplitude" is one half the wave height. So if you have "50-foot seas", you have wave crests 25 feet above calm sea level and troughs 25 feet below it. The amplitude of 50-foot seas is 25 feet.



In the ocean, the trough of a wave is just as far below sea level as the crest is above sea level.







Energy, not water, moves across the ocean's surface. Water particles only travel in a small circle as a wave passes.







 



How are waves energy?



The best way to understand waves as energy is to think of a long rope laid on the ground. If you pick up one end and give it a good snap –there's a ripple effect all the way to the other end — just like the waves on the ocean! That means that energy is applied at one end and it moves to the other end.



What provides the energy?



In the case of ocean waves, wind provides the energy. Wind causes waves that travel in the ocean. The energy is released on shorelines. Some of the energy of waves is also released against the hulls of ships at sea. The larger the vessel surface being impacted by the wave, the more force is exerted against that surface. Being hit by a single giant wave from the front of the bow or the rear of the stern is normally within the structural design limits of a large vessel. But being broadsided can either sink a ship or severely damage it.






1973: A rogue wave off the coast of Durban, South Africa, strikes the 12,000-ton cargo ship Bencrauchan. The ship is towed into port, barely floating.



http://freaquewaves.blogspot.com/2006/07/list-of-freaque-wave-encounters.html



What determines the size of the wave?



The size of a wave depends on:



1. the distance the wind blows (over open water) which is known as the "fetch",



2. the length of time the wind blows, and



3. the speed of the wind.



The greater these three, the larger the wave.






The distance waves are apart is called the "wavelength". Wavelength is typically measured between the crests of two adjacent waves, but it could be measured from trough to trough or from any point on one wave to the same point on the next wave. You will get the same distance no matter where you measure.



Finally, the "frequency" of the wave specifies how many wave wavelengths go by in a set amount of time. So this is dependent not only on the speed of the waves, but on their wavelength.



http://www.colorado.edu/physics/2000/applets/xray/wavefront.html



The "period" of a wave must also be considered. The period of a wave is the amount of time it takes for one wavelength to occur.



Frequency and period are distinctly different, yet related, quantities. The frequency of a wave is how many wavelengths occur in a given amount of time.



http://www.physicsclassroom.com/class/waves/Lesson-2/Frequency-and-Period-of-a-Wave



Ship hulls are designed to withstand about 15 to 20 tons per square meter. They can handle up to 30 tons per square meter only if they bend to take the blow.






Rogue Wave Is Suspected in Mideast Tanker Blast



When a wave with a height of 30 meters (100 ft.) is spoken of, only half that much of it is what is above the sea level. That doesn't do a ship much good because the ship will ride down the 15 meter trough before it gets hit by the 30 meter monster. And "riding" down the trough is somewhat of a misnomer.



Large ships, because of the combined weight of the ship and the cargo, have a lot of inertia. If the ship is moving forward at about 13 kts (15 mph) and a giant wave is approaching it a 45 mph (this has been documented and is routine), you have a relative speed of the wave to the ship of 60 mph. The wavelength of a 30 meter wave is about 230 meters (this has also been documented).



Even if the combined speed against such a wave is just 45 mph because the captain has slowed his ship to reduce hull stress, the ship experiences a drop of ocean beneath it of 50 feet in 6 seconds, followed by the a rise of 100 feet in another six seconds.



Initially the ship just dives bow first and everybody on it feels like they are in free fall. When the ship hits the trough bottom, its inertia is still driving the bow down as the seas rise 100 feet. The bridge superstructure is impacted and often the windows are blown in and the bridge, with all its electronics, is flooded.



If that causes the engines to fail, the ship will probably sink. That is because the waves and wind will then turn the ship broadside to the waves. When a ship is broadside to the waves, it will either get rolled and sink or get holed by the force of a giant wave. Whether it sinks or not depends on how long the severe sea state continues. This ship was hit broadside by a "rogue" wave, but survived.






Thirty meter waves have a force of about 100 tons per square meter, depending on the frequency and period of the wave. Waves of the same height with a higher frequency and shorter period are traveling faster, so they have much more force.



1976: The oil tanker Cretan Star in Indian Ocean off Bombay radios for help: “Vessel was struck by a huge wave that went over the deck.” The ship is never heard from again. The only sign of the vessel's fate was 6 km oil slick.



http://ycaol.com/demons_of_the_deep2.htm



 






1980: A huge wave was reported to have slammed into the oil tanker Esso Languedoc off the east coast of South Africa. First mate Philippe Lijour, aboard the supertanker Esso Languedoc, took this rare photo.



http://www.theartofdredging.com/roguewaves.htm



 



 






1981: A giant wave seemed to want to teach a crude oil tanker named "Energy Endurance" (Gross tonnage, 97,005 tons. DWT, 205,808 tons) what REAL energy endurance is all about.



http://migciao.blogspot.com/2007/10/vagues-scelerates.html



 There is no amount of cargo that a large vessel can safely carry under these conditions, regardless of the design claims about "safe" DWT tonnage for cargo and tanker ships you read about earlier in this article.



 





Where are the largest waves found?




The largest waves are found in the open ocean. Waves continue to get larger as they move and absorb energy from the wind.




http://www.angelfire.com/crazy2/nur_filzah/new_page_2.htm



 



Waves at Sea



Waves at sea are created by winds blowing across the water surface and transferring energy to the water by the impact of the air. Small ripples develop first, and frictional drag on their windward side causes then to grow larger, or to collapse and contribute part of their expended energy to larger waves.



Consequently, large waves capture increasing amounts of energy and continue to develop as long as the wind maintains sufficient strength and constant direction.



As more and more energy is transferred to the water surface. waves become higher and longer, and travel with increasing velocities; 50-foot waves are not uncommon in the open ocean, and waves more than 100 feet high have been reported.



http://www2.fiu.edu/~kpanneer/lab_assignment/Lab8_Waves.pdf






2002: December 15, 2002, MS Hanseatic of the Radisson Seven Seas was struck by a large rogue wave while on a coastal cruise of New Zealand.



http://freaquewaves.blogspot.com/2006/07/list-of-freaque-wave-encounters.html



 



Above you see a scale simulation of two small vessels in 50 ft. seas. The wavelength is fairly large, so these vessels are handling a very dangerous sea state okay. The wave is 50 feet from crest to trough. The danger increases when the wind gets stronger. That is because the wind increases the wave height and the wave frequency while the wavelength gets shorter.



When large waves are present, the shorter the wavelength, the steeper and more dangerous the wave. And, as mentioned earlier, a higher frequency of large waves makes them even more dangerous because they have much more energy to be delivered as a force against the hull of a ship. It is simple physics that getting hit with a wall of water at 44 mph is potentially far, far more than twice as damaging as the same wall of water hitting you at 22 mph.



Larger vessels, while generally more sea worthy, have weaknesses that small vessels do not have. A small vessel with properly battened hatches can bob like a cork in a storm. In the above situation, the sail boat would probably have the sails reefed (taken in). It will survive as long as it isn't smashed against a reef or a rock.



But a large vessel, because it is much longer than it is wide, is weakest in the middle and along the sides from bow to stern. The bow and stern act as giant levers moved by the wave crests and troughs with the fulcrum located somewhere in the middle.



The middle either sags or it "hogs" (bends up instead of down). There is no ship that can be made strong enough to handle the massive metal fatigue inducing stresses of repeated sagging and hogging that would occur in seas populated with 30 meter waves. Here is an example of a container ship that hit a reef. It did not sink right away. But you can see that it buckled and cracked on the side from the up down and sideways wave movement of the ends of the ship.






 



Individual "rogue waves" (also called "freak waves", "monster waves", "killer waves", and "king waves") much higher than the other waves in the sea state can occur.






NOAA ship Delaware II in bad weather on Georges Bank.




 



… the largest ever recorded wind waves are common — not rogue — waves in extreme sea states.







 



For example: 29.1 m (95 ft) high waves have been recorded on the RRS Discovery in a sea with 18.5 m (61 ft) significant wave height, so the highest wave is only 1.6 times the significant wave height.




The biggest recorded by a buoy (as of 2011) was 32.3 m (106 ft) high during the 2007 typhoon Krosa near Taiwan.




https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wind_wave



 



Giants of the Oceans






Naval architects have always worked on the assumption that their vessels are extremely unlikely to encounter a rogue. Almost everything on the sea is sailing under the false assumption that rogue waves are, at worst, vanishingly rare events. The new research suggest that’s wrong, and has cost lives. Between 1969 and 1994 twenty-two super carriers were lost or severely damaged due to the occurrence of sudden rogue waves; a total of 542 lives were lost as a result.



G. Lawton. Monsters of the deep. New Scientist, 170(2297):28–32, 2001.



Freak, rogue or giant waves correspond to large-amplitude waves surprisingly appearing on the sea surface. Such waves can be accompanied by deep troughs (holes), which occur before and/or after the largest crest.



There are several definitions for such surprisingly huge waves, but the one that is more popular now is the amplitude criterion of freak waves, which define them as waves with heights that exceed at least twice the significant wave height. The significant height is the height of at least one third of the largest waves in a given area being traversed by a ship.






 



According to orthodox oceanography, rogue waves are so rare that no ship or oil platform should ever expect to encounter one. But as the shipping lanes fill with supercarriers and the oil and gas industry explores ever-deeper parts of the ocean, rogue waves are being reported far more often than they should.



The most spectacular sighting of recent years is probably the so-called New Year Wave, which hit Statoil’s Draupner gas platforms in the North Sea on New Year’s Day 1995. The significant wave height at the time was around 12 metres. But in the middle of the afternoon the platform was struck by something much bigger. According to measurements made with a laser, it was 26 metres from trough to crest.



Hundreds of waves been recorded by now that are at least twice the significant wave height, and several waves at larger than three times the significant wave height. Waves with an "Abnormality index" (Ai) larger than three (Ai > 3) are known.



Alexey Slunyaev Christin Kharif, Efim Pelinovsky. Rogue Waves in the Ocean. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2009.



 



The New Year Wave is an example of a wave with an Ai = 3.19.






 



Christian Kharif and Efim Pelinovsky. Physical mechanisms of the rogue wave phenomenon. European Journal of Mechanics – B/Fluids, 22(6):603 – 634, 2003.



I obtained the above information from a paper submitted to the mathematics department of the University of Arizona. Here is a summary:



"In this project, the rogue wave phenomenon is introduced along with its importance. The main equations governing both linear and nonlinear theory are presented. The three main linear theories proposed to explain the rogue rave phenomenon are presented and a linear model reproducing rogue waves due to dispersion is shown. A nonlinear model for rogue waves in shallow water is also exhibited."



I have skipped the math. The information is state of the art and the references are impeccable.



References



[1] Alexey Slunyaev Christin Kharif, Efim Pelinovsky. Rogue Waves in the Ocean. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2009.



[2] K.B. Dysthe, HE Krogstad, H. Socquet-Juglard, and K. Trulsen. Freak waves, rogue waves, extreme waves and ocean wave climate. Mathematics Departments in Bergen and Oslo, Norway. Available at: www. math. uio. no/-karstent/waves/index_ en. html, July, 2007.



[3] R.S. Johnson. A modern introduction to the mathematical theory of water waves. Cambridge Univ Pr, 997.



[4] Christian Kharif and Efim Pelinovsky. Physical mechanisms of the rogue wave phenomenon. European Journal of Mechanics – B/Fluids, 22(6):603 – 634, 2003.



[5] G. Lawton. Monsters of the deep. New Scientist, 170(2297):28–32, 2001.



[6] Pengzhi Lin. Numerical Modeling of Water Waves. Taylor and Francis, 2008. 13



And that is why the conclusions are so unsettling.



Conclusions



1. Precise physical mechanisms causing the rogue waves phenomenon remain unknown.



2. Rogue waves should be considered when designing ships and marine platforms to reduce the number of vessels sunk worldwide.



http://math.arizona.edu/~gabitov/teaching/101/math_485_585/Midterm_Reports/RogueWaves_Midterm.pdf






Ocean Ranger severely listing in a storm after being hit by a "rogue" wave.



Ironically, the first industry that started to feel the effects of an angrier ocean was the fossil fuel industry. You've already read about some oil tanker damage and losses. They continue to this day despite alleged vessel "design improvements".



But the 120 million dollar "unsinkable" Ocean Ranger, a giant ocean going oil platform damaged from a "rogue" wave, really got their attention. All hands perished. This was a wake up call to the scientists that studied waves and was of much concern to the fossil fuel industry.



The wave hit too high and damaged some electronics. The platform began to list. The operator made the right moves but the valves that should have closed, opened more. The last that was heard from them was that they were listing at about 15 degrees and going to the lifeboat stations.



Ocean Ranger reported experiencing storm seas of 55 feet (17 m), with the odd wave up to 65 feet (20 m), thus leaving the unprotected portlight at 28 feet (8.5 m) above mean sea level vulnerable to wave damage. Some time after 21:00, radio conversations originating on Ocean Ranger were heard on the Sedco 706 and Zapata Ugland, noting that valves on Ocean Ranger's ballast control panel appeared to be opening and closing of their own accord. The radio conversations also discussed the 100-knot (190 km/h) winds and waves up to 65 feet (20 m) high. Through the remainder of the evening, routine radio traffic passed between Ocean Ranger, its neighbouring rigs and their individual support boats. Nothing out of the ordinary was noted.






At 00:52 local time, on 15 February, 1982, a Mayday call was sent out from Ocean Ranger, noting a severe list to the port side of the rig and requesting immediate assistance. This was the first communication from Ocean Ranger identifying a major problem. The standby vessel, the M/V Seaforth Highlander, was requested to come in close as countermeasures against the 10–15-degree list were proving ineffective.



The onshore MOCAN supervisor was notified of the situation, and the Canadian Forces and Mobil-operated helicopters were alerted just after 1:00 local time. The M/V Boltentor and the M/V Nordertor, the standby boats of the Sedco 706 and the Zapata Ugland respectively, were also dispatched to Ocean Ranger to provide assistance.



At 1:30 local time, Ocean Ranger transmitted its last message: "There will be no further radio communications from Ocean Ranger. We are going to lifeboat stations." Shortly thereafter, in the middle of the night and in the midst of severe winter weather, the crew abandoned the rig. The rig remained afloat for another ninety minutes, sinking between 3:07 and 3:13 local time.



All of Ocean Ranger sank beneath the Atlantic: by the next morning all that remained was a few buoys. Her entire complement of 84 workers – 46 Mobil employees and 38 contractors from various service companies – were killed.



https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ocean_Ranger





It turns out that the math formulas for wave action were incorrect. But it took over a decade to get some proof that they were incorrect. The fossil fuel industry apparently filed the tragedy away as a freak incident. They certainly did not seem that concerned, considering they did everything possible to keep from having to build more sturdy (i.e. double hulled) tankers with the help of the Reagan and the first Bush Administration.



Scientists, up until the 1980's, had believed that it was impossible for an ocean wave on this planet to be higher than 80 feet. This, despite eye witness accounts from mariners to the contrary. As usual, the non-credentialed folks could not convince the scientists that there were waves out there that exceeded 100 feet.



AND that those waves appeared in seas that were only half as high (or less) as the giant wave(s) (sometimes they came in a group of three – they call them the three sisters – the women always get the blame – lol!). Impossible, proclaimed the scientist worthies. Fish tales!



 



But in 1995, a laser wave height measuring device on an oil platform provided the first concrete evidence that the happy math was wishful thinking.   You saw the graph of the 1995 New Year Wave earlier in this article. In this video it is modelled in 3D.



https://youtu.be/sCxr_XzyGO8



As you all know, when the fossil fuel industry wants action, it gets action. And it gets government funded action that you and I pay for and they don't pay a penny for. But I digress. wink Faster that you can say fossil fuel profits are threatened, a three week satellite survey of the oceans was undertaken. Four giant waves were observed and measured in just three weeks!



Not only was the math wrong, but, as referenced earlier in this article, "rogue" waves were not really "rogue" at all!



Of course, at that time, no connection to wave activity and global warming had been established.



Snark alert.   Yes, it's true that scientists are taught, like all the rest of us that cook every now and then, that warmer waters can be a bit more turbulent, but it's a big ocean out there, right?



Well, the attitude of the scientific community is changing, at least in regard to these giant waves.



The cause of rogue waves is still an area of active research. One theory under investigation cites “constructive interference,” which is a result of several smaller waves overlapping in phase, combining to produce one massive wave. Another working hypothesis is based on the “non-linear Schrödinger effect," in which energy is "soaked up" from neighboring waves to create a monster wave. Still other researchers are looking into the possibility that wave energy is being focused by the surrounding environments, or that wind action on the surface is amplifying existing effects.



http://www.damninteresting.com/monster-rogue-waves/



 



Suggested mechanisms for the formation of freak waves include the following:






 



http://www.theartofdredging.com/roguewaves.htm



End of PART TWO.



PART THREE will be published on or before November 1, 2015. If you missed PART ONE, you may read it HERE.



15


Off the keyboard of A. G. Gelbert



Follow us on Twitter @doomstead666

Friend us on Facebook



Published on the Doomstead Diner on October 26, 2015






PART ONE OF THREE PARTS





In this three part article I explain what the scientific community defines as the "Business as Usual" scenario in regard to atmospheric pollutants fueling Global Warming. A brief review of the existential threat to marine life that this scenario represents will follow.



Subsequently, I discuss global shipping. I provide a summary of the tremendous importance of blue water (deep ocean) cargo shipping to global civilization. You will be surprised at how vital to global civilization blue water cargo shipping is. All the military vessels, all the pleasure yachts and even all the fishing fleets are insignificant in tonnage compared to that of ocean going cargo and tanker vessels.



I then leave the subject of shipping and the types of cargo vessels, which I return to at the end, to provide the reader with a graphic climate history of the Northern Hemisphere, from the last Glacial Maximum to the present, followed by the, scientifically based, predicted sea level and land vegetation changes in the "Business as Usual" scenario within the next 85 years.



The discussion then returns to cargo ships and their behavior in rough seas. I provide graphics to explain what has been learned about ocean waves in the last 40 years that shocked the scientific community and caused them to go back to the drawing board on the science and math formulas of hydrodynamics in regard to maximum wave heights. Some tragic cargo vessel losses from "rogue" waves (that turned out not to be as "rogue" as science had thought) are presented as evidence that the oceans are becoming increasingly dangerous to shipping.



Finally, the Hansen et al paper, published in June of 2015, is referenced as evidence of a coming abrupt sea state change that will make modern blue water surface cargo shipping either too costly or impossible. The reason for this will be explained in detail with graphics showing ocean wave action and modern shipping design limitations.



Included in the last section that ties all the others together is a reference to another scientific paper just published that provides evidence that the worst case scenario ("Business as Usual") modeled by the scientific community severely understates the amount of sea level rise in the next 85 years.



I conclude with recommendations on what the governments of the industrialized countries of the world need to do within the next decade in order to prevent a collapse of civilization (or worse) within the next 25 years.



Let us begin with these nuggets of climate science from NASA:



Carbon Dioxide Controls Earth's Temperature



Water vapor and clouds are the major contributors to Earth's greenhouse effect, but a new atmosphere-ocean climate modeling study shows that the planet's temperature ultimately depends on the atmospheric level of carbon dioxide.



Without non-condensing greenhouse gases, water vapor and clouds would be unable to provide the feedback mechanisms that amplify the greenhouse effect.



The study ties in to the geologic record in which carbon dioxide levels have oscillated between approximately 180 parts per million during ice ages, and about 280 parts per million during warmer interglacial periods. To provide perspective to the nearly 1 C (1.8 F) increase in global temperature over the past century, it is estimated that the global mean temperature difference between the extremes of the ice age and interglacial periods is only about 5 C (9 F).



"When carbon dioxide increases, more water vapor returns to the atmosphere. This is what helped to melt the glaciers that once covered New York City," said co-author David Rind, of NASA's Goddard Institute for Space Studies. "Today we are in uncharted territory as carbon dioxide approaches 390 parts per million in what has been referred to as the 'superinterglacial'."



"The bottom line is that atmospheric carbon dioxide acts as a thermostat in regulating the temperature of Earth," Lacis said.



"The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has fully documented the fact that industrial activity is responsible for the rapidly increasing levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases.



It is not surprising then that global warming can be linked directly to the observed increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide and to human industrial activity in general."



http://www.nasa.gov/topics/earth/features/co2-temperature.html



So, if you read some happy talk from the fossil fuel industry that it's the "water vapor" that is causing global warming, be sure and reference the above study (and the companion study also mentioned at the link) just before you call them on their ignorance, or worse, their duplicity. 



You just read about the huge difference a mere 5 degrees C (Centigrade) can make. Here's a graphic to give you an idea about how effective our greenhouse gas (GHG) shell is at keeping us from turning into a ball of ice.






 



Green house gases are vital to regulating Earth's temperature. But there is a goldilocks band of these gases that must be adhered to in order to provide a viable biosphere.



In addition, GHG changes in concentration within that band must proceed, down or up, at or slower than a certain rate in order to allow the organisms that live in that biosphere to adapt to the changes or they will go extinct.



Industrial civilization has BOTH exceeded the upper margin of the GHG band by a huge margin AND has done it at a rate far above the ability of most complex non-microscopic organisms to adapt to these violent changes. Mammalian vertebrates, among the complex organisms on Earth, are the least able to adapt to rapid GHG concentration changes.






 



There is no precedent in the geological record for the increase in CO2 caused by the burning of fossil fuels over the last century. And the rate those fossil fuels are being burned is increasing, not slowing down or ceasing.



Non-self aware mammalian vertebrates, unlike us, cannot use technology to adapt. This is the part the CEO of ExxonMobil (RexTillerson) forgot accidentally on purpose when he said, "We will adapt to that". Mr. Tillerson is an idiot or a liar (possibly both). Those "qualities" seem to be a job requirement for those that work in the fossil fuel industry.



Mr. Tillerson's optimistic happy talk is not based on climate science or the geological record.



"Mass extinctions due to rapidly escalating levels of CO2 are recorded since as long as 580 million years ago."



http://theconversation.com/another-link-between-co2-and-mass-extinctions-of-species-12906



Whether we humans want to admit it or not, we need the 75% of all of Earth's species in danger of extinction from climate change. I know it is really hard for the fossil fuel industry predators 'R' US crowd to wrap their greedy heads around this, but it's hard to live on a diet of hydrocarbons. And if we don't stop burning them, both our plant and animal food supply, along with thousands of other species of other earthlings that make this planet viable, will go extinct.



This is not hyperbole. Mass extinctions are part of the geological record. In all but one of those mass extinctions, the rapid rise in GHG was the cause of the extinctions. Furthermore, in all the former mass extinctions, the RATE of rise in GHG was much slower than today.



"As our anthropogenic global emissions of CO2 are rising at a rate for which no precedence is known from the geological record with the exception of asteroid impacts, another wave of extinctions is unfolding."



http://theconversation.com/another-link-between-co2-and-mass-extinctions-of-species-12906



According to the latest scientific studies on Global Warming, "Business as Usual", touted as the basis for the continued health of global civilization, is actually the greatest threat to global civilization and our species that we have ever faced.



Before we get to what exactly is meant by, "Business as Usual", let us first review the human caused pollution effects on ocean physical chemistry and temperature and marine species biochemistry.



The following review references an analysis of oceans that totally omits a growing problem for worldwide shipping. Although the review is mostly very bad news, it may turn out to be, in terms of what deals the collapse triggering blow to human civilization as we know it, the "good" news.



The World Ocean Review



The ocean may be buffering the most severe consequences of climate change for now. But in the long run we can only hope to avoid these if we strictly curb GHG emissions today.



Experts are concerned that hundreds of thousands of tonnes of methane hydrate could break down due to the warming of seawater – gas masses that are lying inertly in solid, frozen form in the sea floor sediments today. A portion of the methane, which is a powerful greenhouse gas, could then rise into the atmosphere and further accelerate the process of climate change – a vicious circle.



The oceans absorb many millions of tonnes of carbon dioxide annually. They are the largest “sink” for anthropogenic CO2 emissions. The excess carbon dioxide, however, upsets the chemical equilibrium of the ocean. It leads to acidification of the oceans, the consequences of which are unpredictable. Acidic water disrupts the sense of smell in fish larvae, carbonate formation by snails, and the growth rates of starfish. The phytoplankton, tiny algae in the ocean and vital nutrient basis for higher organisms, are also affected by acidification.



The coastal environment is still being damaged by effluent and toxic discharges, and especially by nutrients conveyed to the ocean by rivers. Thousands of tonnes of nitrogen and phosphorus compounds flow into the ocean around the world, causing an explosion in algal reproduction. In many coastal regions the catastrophe begins with the death of the algae. Bacteria feed on the algal remains and consume oxygen in the water. In these oxygen-depleted zones all higher life forms die off. Efforts to reduce nutrient levels have been successful in Western Europe.



Worldwide, however, the input of nutrients is becoming increasingly problematical. People are, without a doubt, abusing the oceans in many respects, and this is increasing the stress on marine organisms. Through over-fertilization and acidification of the water, rapid changes in water temperature or salinity, biological diversity in the ocean could drop worldwide at increasing rates. With the combination of all these factors, the disruption of habitats is so severe that species will continue to disappear.



Clearly the oceans continue to be the “last stop” for the dregs of our civilization, not only for the persistent chemicals, but also our everyday garbage. Six million tonnes of rubbish end up in the ocean worldwide every year. The trash is a fatal trap for dolphins, turtles and birds. Plastic is especially long-lived and, driven by ocean currents, it collects in the central oceans in gyres of garbage covering hundreds of square kilometres. A new problem has been identified in the microscopically small breakdown products of plastics, which are concentrated in the bodies of marine organisms.



http://worldoceanreview.com/en/wor-1/wor-1-in-short/



That World Ocean Review I just quoted from, after laying out the hard facts, incredibly goes on to happily discuss ocean mining opportunities and methane hydrate harvesting plans for "energy products" for "energy independence". The only caveat they supply is more of an epitaph for human willful denial of facts than a precautionary warning. Please file the following in the WTF!? category.



Energy from burning ice



In addition to abundant minerals, there are large amounts of methane hydrate beneath the sea floor. Some countries hope to become independent of energy imports by exploiting marine gas hydrate deposits near their own coasts. The technology for production, however, is not yet available. Furthermore, the risks to climate stability and hazards to marine habitats associated with extraction of the methane hydrates must first be clarified.



http://worldoceanreview.com/en/wor-3-overview/methane-hydrate/



Yes, it seems the DANGER of extracting methane hydrates has not been "CLARIFIED" enough. Neither the Permian Extinction geological record nor the PETM (Paleocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum) geological record has "clarified" the methane issue enough.



Hello? Is this, a more recent pre-human epoch, CLARIFICATION enough for you fellows providing your business friendly "World Ocean Review ", claiming, among other wonders of optimistic prose, that the sea level is only going to rise about 180 cm by century's end?






 



The following alarming, but still too conservative, MIT study EXCLUDES the ABRUPT climate change positive feedback loop effects we are now beginning to experience.



Do they think this MIT study needs "clarification"?






 



And the DANGER of an acidified ocean to most marine species, which will clearly be exacerbated by the methane bomb, has not been clarified? Didn't Professor Gerardo Ceballos, lead author of a study published in June of 2015 on the Sixth Mass Extinction we are now entering, with particular emphasis on marine mammal extinction threats, get the word?



I think he and his fellow scientists CLARIFIED the methane issue AND the CO2 pollution issue rather well. For those that do not get it, the CO2 pollution, now baked in, is already threatening marine mammals with extinction. When methane hydrates are added to the mix from a warmed ocean, acidification will accelerate and trigger anoxic conditions throughout the ocean water column, thereby destroying the food chain. That is a death sentence for most non-microscopic marine life and a large portion of the microscopic oxygen producing microscopic phytoplankton as well.






 



These scientifically challenged, insultingly naive, business friendly, bland statements sold as "sober advice" are precisely the kind of double talk that has placed humanity in the polluted situation it finds itself.



Some have blamed the scientific community.



 






 



 



They forget that scientists are mostly employees. They forget that businesses gag their reports or keep their published, peer reviewed papers from the public on a regular basis. So the criminally negligent here are business leaders, not scientists.



 



 



My experience with reading these big picture reviews of our terribly polluted situation is that they seem to feel obligated to give some peppy, optimistic, happy talk at the end.



Do these people understand what "business as usual" means? It appears that either they don't or willfully avoid doing so.



The IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) has a scientific name for "Business as Usual". They have modeled it. They have a number for it. It's called the RCP-8.5. RCP stands for Representative Concentration Pathway.






Business as usual is a death sentence for over 75% (or more) of life on Earth.



The people that defend business as usual are deluded. There is evidence, which I will present, that even the RCP-8.5 scenario is too conservative. And yet the methane issue needs "clarification"?






 



 



 



Dr. Scott Goetz (Deputy Director and Senior Scientist of the Woods Hole Research Center) has that thousand yard stare for a reason.



 



 



CHANGES IN THE ARCTIC AND THEIR CLIMATE FEEDBACK IMPLICATIONS: Interview with Scott Goetz



https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NDxw0PcRgE0



 



Friends, there is a crime being committed. But the guiltiest parties do not want to pay for their share of the damage. And that is why these reviews lack the urgency that they need to have in order to successfully convince government policy makers to alter our destructive trajectory.



But I have discussed that in my recent article,  Dianoia is sine qua non to a viable biosphere. So, I will move on to other matters of concern to humanity.






Global shipping



Human civilization has come to rely on the relatively inexpensive movement of millions of tons of cargo over the oceans.



It is difficult or impossible to avoid a collapse without the use of the oceans.



To underline the importance of cargo shipping as the lifeblood of civilization, you need to look at the massive amount of tonnage these ships move globally on a daily basis.






Tankers, bulk carriers and container ships are the most important means of transportation of our time. Each year they carry billions of tonnes of goods along a few principal trade routes.






 



 



Containerization has revolutionized global cargo shipping, bringing vast improvements in efficiency. Throughout history the oceans have been important to people around the world as a means of transportation. Unlike a few decades ago, however, ships are now carrying goods rather than people.



 



 






 



 



 



 



Deadweight tonnage (abbreviated to dwt) or tons deadweight (TDW) is a measure of how much mass a ship is carrying or can safely carry; it does not include the weight of the ship.



Agelbert NOTE: Please take note of the caveat, "safely carry". More on what that means later.



In terms of carrying capacity in dwt,






 



 



 



 



 



 





tankers account for 35 per cent,





 



 






 



 



 



 





bulk carriers account for 35 per cent,





 



 



 



 



 



 



 



 



 



 



 








container ships 14 per cent,





 



 



 



 





 





 



 








 



 



 





general cargo ships 9 per cent





 



 









 








and passenger liners less than 1 per cent.





 









 



In all, the global merchant fleet has a capacity of just under 1192 million dwt.



 



Shipping Activity of Tankers, Cargo and Cruise Ships on October 12, 2015:






 



The growth of the global merchant fleet according to type of vessel (as at 1 January [sic]) 2009.






http://worldoceanreview.com/en/wor-1/transport/global-shipping/



There is a LOT of shipping out there and a LOT of ships. If the above graphics have not brought home to you how much shipping is going on 24 hours a day, 365 days a year, take a look at this:






In summary, this is what is out there going hither and yon across the oceans on a regular basis:






Singapore anchorage



Most of those affordable products in our homes are a direct result of a the uninterrupted global lifeblood of efficient blue ocean shipping. If that shipping was no longer possible, global civilization would be impossible because it would be unaffordable. It is, therefore, extremely important to ensure that human civilization can use those oceans for routine cargo transportation.



The oceans, as was pointed out earlier in this article, are a giant heat sink. The more CO2 we pump into the air, the hotter the oceans get. When the oceans get hotter, they become more active. This means trouble for shipping.



Insurance companies do not like that. They analyze the risks of blue water shipping and track any trends that might increase those risks. They have actuaries that pay a lot of attention to losses of insured ships.



All commercial shipping is insured. You and I are billed for insuring, not just the merchant fleets, but the military ships too! That's what the "defense budgets" lobbied for by all those welfare queen corporations, constantly whining about that "dangerous world out there", are all about.



Well, it looks like all shipping is going to find out how DANGEROUS the oceans, not some invented threat about bellicose humans, can be. The insurance actuaries already know that the "terrorist" or piracy threat on the high seas is insignificant compared to the threat of sinking from rough seas.



Of course you haven't read that in the papers. But you will read it here. And I will provide evidence for it.



But I'm getting ahead of myself. To understand what is happening in the oceans today, we need to go back in time about 20,000 years. We need to go back to the Last Glacial Maximum.



WHY? Because the sea state, as well as the sea level, is a function of the average global temperature. In addition, the vegetation changes that accompany changes in the average global temperature can have deleterious effects on the sea state, totally separate from the dire extinction threat these temperature changes represent to marine organisms.



The Environmental Change Model (ECM)



The following series of graphics deals with accurately modeled representations of the climate in a large part of the Northern Hemisphere centered on the Arctic. A link to the science and the source is provided. The average global temperature and pertinent data on the ice cover and types of vegetation is provided. Of particular importance to the reader is the different types of Tundra coverage. The legend has color codes for the graphical representations.



NOTE: The Greek letter "DELTA" ="Δ". It is used in science to mean, "Change in". The referenced average global temperature is what we have today (about 15 degrees Centigrade = T).



So, ΔT = – 6C is a change in average temperature of minus 6 degrees centigrade from today. THAT was when there was a two mile high glacier sheet edge near what is now New York City. That was also when the oceans were 120 meters = 394 feet lower than they are today.






http://cci-reanalyzer.org/ECM/



Notice how much dry and moist Tundra there was. Notice the range and size of the types of forests and the polar desert coverage too. At a glance you can see that this was a very dry world in comparison to our world.



 



Fast forward to ΔT = – 0.5C. This was the Little Ice Age of 1850. That was just before the industrial pollution revolution had gotten up to full biosphere trashing speed.



Sea level is close to the present level. Notice how the forest cover has changed. Notice how the Tundra moved north as the ice retreated. Notice how the forests and the forest Tundra transition changed.






Tundra responds in one of two ways when it goes above freezing. It has to do with the available oxygen. If there isn't enough in the soil, the microbes resort to anaerobic metabolism and make lots of methane. This is NOT methane locked in the Tundra. This is NEW methane. This is unrelated to the methane hydrates frozen on the ocean bottom, but it is still an additional feedback mechanism that increases the RATE of atmospheric heating. So these mechanisms are, by definition, not linear. They can become self reinforcing. That means they can go exponential.



Below, please find, the world we all grew up in (ΔT = 0C.). I have labeled some areas for clarity. The Tundra continues to shrink, as does the ice coverage. The forest transition area creeps north and the forests grow along with the prairie grass covered areas. There is less ice.






Which brings us the IPCC RCP-8.5 scenario labeled "Business as Usual".



This scenario is considered "worst case". It does not expect us to hit ΔT = plus 2C until 2050. The boundless optimism of the IPCC sounds a lot like those fellows doing the "World Ocean Review" that mentioned the methane "issue" needed "clarification" right after they admitted that the PRESENT conditions were causing the extinction of most marine animals.



Please look at this graph:






The line with the number "1" is the IPCC RCP-8.5 scenario. The temperature increases in lines 2 and 3 ARE NOT in the IPCC RCP-8.5 scenario.



 






 



 



 



ΔT = plus 2C is considered extremely dangerous.



 















The IPCC projects a mere 0.5 meters sea level increase by 2050. But the study just released that I reference in the graphic claims a sea level rise greater or equal to 6 meters (over 19 feet!) is evidenced in the geologic record for this type of temperature rise.



The IPCC projected sea ice decline will give you more context to understand why it is unrealistic to believe that we will not hit the ΔT = plus 2C until 2050.



 






But nevertheless, the IPCC RCP-8.5 scenario for ΔT = plus 2C is instructive because the Tundra is disappearing. You know what that means for increased methane release, don't you?






A note about the word, "Equilibrium" on the graphic: The word "Equilibrium" means that the full effects of the temperature change are being felt throughout the planet. Glaciologists had previously thought that "equilibrium" effects on ice sheets took centuries or millennia.



Now, because of empirical observations on the Greenland ice sheet, Antarctica and various glaciers in the world, they have come to accept that equilibrium is reached in decades or in years, depending on the temperature anomaly increase. As you know, or should know, the polar regions have warmed over 3C MORE than the rest of the planet in the last 50 years.



The huge differential was not plugged in to the IPCC models so they are too conservative on ice retreat and sea level rise. So, if somebody tells you that all this is a long way off, they are uninformed or working for the fossil fuel industry.



I will return to the dangers of the ΔT = plus 2C (and beyond) world in a moment.



For now, I wish to show you the rest of the IPCC RCP-8.5 scenario projections. Please remember that they are conservative projections and the effects portrayed will most likely arrive 25 years or more earlier than predicted. Also please remember that the actual sea level increase (see graphic below),






Science 10 July 2015: Vol. 349 no. 6244 DOI: 10.1126/science.aaa4019



Sea-level rise due to polar ice-sheet mass loss during past warm periods



according to the July 2015 paper referenced previously, will be several METERS, not feet, above the predictions.



ΔT = plus 3C






Sometime after the loss of the ice cap, all the Tundra will have thawed. ALL the trapped gases, be they CO2 or CH4, will be released. Added grasses absorbing CO2 will not be enough to counteract the warming acceleration.



There are those who expect a negative feedback from the stopping of the thermohaline oceanic current circulation (stopped by all the cold fresh water melted off the Greenland ice cap into the oceans). Perhaps that will help slow the heating (north of about 45 degrees latitude – below that they will roast even more!) for a decade or so. But it will do nothing to calm the ocean surface.



ΔT = plus 4C






The worst effect is that Arctic ocean bottom frozen clathrates will thaw and the methane will be released. The planet will continue warming increasingly faster past ΔT = plus 4C.



That will exacerbate ocean conditions even more. With more and more heat energy present, the ocean surface will get increasingly more turbulent. And we will already be well past the ΔT = plus 2C mark.



As evidenced by the two referenced scientific studies, both published recently this year (2015), and the woefully conservative IPCC predictions on the rate of the North Polar Ice Cap retreat, Antarctic and Greenland ice cap melt rates, and temperature rise rate, sea level will most likely rise a minimum of 6 meters within 10 years, not 35 years.



We are talking about 2025, not 2050, for a ΔT = plus 2C world. We are not preparing adequately for that.



For those who will point to the increase in size of the floating ice around Antarctica as evidence that the Earth is not really warming, I beg to differ.



The fact that the Antarctic land mass IS losing ice has been measured with satellites. It is losing ice because of global warming. It is true that the floating ice around Antarctica has increased and will continue to increase as long as the Antarctic land mass is shedding melt water.



This is because of two factors. The first one is that there are very high winds around Antarctica, unimpeded by any land mass. The second factor is that fresh water freezes more rapidly on the ocean surface than salty water.



That's why salt is spread on roads in winter. On the ocean, the water molecules must rid themselves of the sodium and chloride ions dissolved in them before they can freeze. All the ice floating on the oceans is water ice. It has no salt in it.



And as long as that floating ice is the product of melt water from the Antarctic land mass, it will ADD to sea level.



And when the sea level goes up just 6 feet, never mind the 19 feet or more increase expected with CURRENT CO2 levels, all shipping port facilities (and most coastal airport facilities too!) in the world are no longer usable without gargantuan and heroic efforts requiring trillions of dollars in costs for every foot the land and port infrastructure must be raised.



It seems that the countries (see every industrialized country on the planet) dragging their feet on CO2 reduction actions do not understand this. There are, as of this writing, over 140 countries investing trillions of dollars in port facilities.



No, they aren't raising the level of the port facilities to prepare for rapidly rising sea levels. They are trying to cash in on container shipping by building more container shipping infrastructure.






 



Don't these governments listen to their climate scientists?



 



End of PART ONE.



PART TWO of "Climate Change, Blue Water Cargo Shipping and Predicted Ocean Wave Activity" will be published by October 29, 2015. 



 



Thank you for reading this article. Have a good day.



Pages: [1] 2 3 ... 6