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Bah!  Commercial Version.  The NSA has had this technology for years already.  ::)


A deepfake pioneer says 'perfectly real' manipulated videos are just 6 months away
Mary Hanbury

Deepfake artist Hao Li created this Putin deepfake, which was shown at an MIT conference this week. AP Photo/Alexander Zemlianichenko; MIT Technology Review

    Deepfake artist Hao Li, who created a Putin deepfake for an MIT conference this week, told CNBC on Friday that "perfectly real" manipulated videos are just six to 12 months away.
    Li had previously said that he expected "virtually undetectable" deepfakes to be "a few years" away.
    When asked for clarification on his timeline, Li told CNBC that recent developments, including the emergence of the wildly popular Chinese app Zao, had led him to "recalibrate" his timeline.
    Visit Business Insider's homepage for more stories.

A deepfake pioneer said in an interview with CNBC on Friday that "perfectly real" digitally manipulated videos are just six to 12 months away from being accessible to everyday people.

"It's still very easy you can tell from the naked eye most of the deepfakes," Hao Li, an associate professor of computer science at the University of Southern California, said on CNBC's Power Lunch. "But there also are examples that are really, really convincing."

He continued: "Soon, it's going to get to the point where there is no way that we can actually detect [deepfakes] anymore, so we have to look at other types of solutions."

Li created a deepfake of Russian president Vladimir Putin, which was showcased at an MIT tech conference this week. Li said that the video was intended to show the current state of deepfake technology, which is developing more rapidly than he expected. He told the MIT Technology Review at that time that "perfect and virtually undetectable" deepfakes were "a few years" away.

When CNBC asked for clarification on his timeline in an email after his interview this week, Li said that recent developments, including the emergence of the wildly popular Chinese app Zao, had led him to "recalibrate" his timeline.

Read more: Viral Chinese deepfake app Zao lets people superimpose their faces onto celebrities like Leonardo DiCaprio and it is terrifyingly convincing

"In some ways, we already know how to do it," he said in an email to CNBC. "[It's] only a matter of training with more data and implementing it."

It's all the fault of the Millenials!  ::)


Millennials Really Do Ruin Everything, And Big Oil Is Next
By Julianne Geiger - Sep 22, 2019, 4:00 PM CDT

It sounds harsh, but it’s true: millennials really do ruin everything. And the oil industry will be no exception. From talent acquisition to courting investors, to finding new end uses for petroleum, the oil industry is facing a whole new set of challenges—one that extends far beyond geopolitical risk premiums and barrel prices.

Oil companies who are quicker to adapt to this changing of the guard will have first pick of investment dollars and top talent, while those who are slow to change will get the leftovers.

You’re Dead To Me

Read some headlines (or some memes if that’s more your speed). There are hundreds of headlines and one-liners that tell of the serial killing nature of millennials. The death knell has tolled so far for straws, napkins, diamonds, home buying, cable television, stock trading, and even breakfast cereal—at least as we once knew it.

Some of those on the dead-to-me list are there simply because they have been replaced with new technology that is simply more convenient, like the shift from cable TV to Netflix. Others wound up on the list because they were shunned by the generation that likes to take the high ground.

And it is this high ground that has placed the oil industry in the millennial crosshairs. The image, quite simply, of the oil industry can be summed up with a single word: “dirty”. Oil companies wishing to woo the millennial workforce and investment dollars will have to work overtime to shed this moniker.

And Big Oil is starting to head down this road, but it isn’t quite far enough. 

Between the Moral High Ground and Convenience

Millennials are not just about taking the high ground. If you look at their buying and investment choices, it’s not just about shunning things that are bad for the environment, bad for things or people who are exploited, or detrimental to their health. Much of the time, millennials are about what’s practical or convenient. Online shopping, grocery delivery, next-day delivery, Uber Eats, Peloton, etc., are all great examples of goods and services that have met millennials where they are, instead of banging their head against the wall and trying to convince millennials they have what they want.
Related: Where Is The World's Safest Source Of Oil?

Companies who fail to live up to the generation’s lofty moral ground may still be able to meet their expectations for ease of use and convenience. For oil, this is tricky, because end use is multifaceted and intertwined in the transportation, plastics, and asphalt sectors—all of which the oil industry should be helping to prop up by meeting millennial needs within these sectors.

For talent acquisition, the climate unfriendly nature of the oil industry puts companies in this genre on the back foot, but the practical side of millennials gives the oil industry a rare opportunity, if they are willing to take advantage of it. Boldness and new-way pavers are needed who are not afraid to try and fail. And if oil can’t convince millennials that they are climate-friendly, they most assuredly have to offer something—or some things--that millennials need. This can be work/life balance, an easily climbable career ladder, work-from-home options, and premium on-the-job training. The oil industry might have a tough time convincing millennials that their jobs “mean something”, but they absolutely can tick all the other boxes.

Other industries are already doing most of those things, and the oil industry has too. But still, oil finds itself playing second fiddle to tech, because that’s just sexier. But oil and tech both have deep pockets, and the millennial generation has deep school debt. In fact, millennials have more school debt than any other generation. This is practically a marriage made in heaven. Paying off these student loans is a hot hot benefit, and has the ability to override other concerns about working in the oil industry.

Big Oil Doesn’t Instagram Well

Are you offering this generation an experience? Because other industries are. This generation is all about the experience (which can be Instagrammed or Snapchatted), and they will choose these experiences over things any day of the week. We already know that millennials love to share pics of where they are and what they’re doing, but it might be more important than many realize.
Related: Home Energy Storage Capacity Breaks Records In US

The basic rule is that if it’s not worth sharing with the world online, it’s not worth doing—period. And research shows that millennials are influenced by what others are posting in a FOMO kind of way. Cool brands that are inherently cool such like Apple, Microsoft, Google, or Tesla have so much interest when it comes to job seekers that they don’t have to try very hard at all.  Those brands are not short on investors, either. Maybe you don’t have this cool brand recognition that millennials would like to brag about online. You can still do cool things that will make millennials want to share you with the world that will, in turn, attract other millennials who don’t want to miss out.

Are your current employees and recruiters creating shareable experiences that others will want to be a part of? Shareable moments include corporate outings, cruises, swag, social events, and community engagement.

Willing to Do the Homework

For job hunting, millennials are willing to research everything, and they rely heavily on online reviews for their decision-making. We’re talking about Glassdoor, Indeed, Comparably, and Great Place to Work, among others. This has increased transparency in the job market, but more than this, it is a great tool for employers to use to see how they stack up—and if they don’t stack up, to look at the competition and see why—and then change accordingly.

Millennial Investments 101

Millennials are not investing the same way as the previous generations did. They are generally debt laden and risk averse. Their favorite long-term investment? Cash—if you want to call that an investment. Every other generation has preferred stocks.

For the ones that do invest in the stock market, their trading prowess is somewhat lacking. Unlike job hunting, where millennials are willing to do their research, millennials seem to pick brands they know—not necessarily ones that have upside potential. They are also socially conscious investors who tend to put their dollars into something they perceive is a worthy cause.

This risk aversion, brand recognition, and environmental activism puts fossil fuel investments on shaky ground.

The Influences of Today May Bring Down the House

Colleges are influencing the current generation of students, and it’s not pretty for the oil industry. There are mandatory sustainability classes for many degrees, and students often come away with just this one side of the energy puzzle. Engineering departments and business departments are not the oil industry’s friend, who pick and choose which businesses to invite in for special talks and Q&A sessions—and oil companies are like the scrawny kid in gym class that always got picked last.

But it’s far worse than not being invited to speak on campus: college campuses are even blacklisting speakers who even have ties to the oil industry. And this is what the industry must battle. Unless you are one of the biggest of the big such as BP or Shell, many college kids might not even know who you are. Think you can start even younger, to reach high school students? Wrong. Today, high school students are even getting excused absences to protest the “climate emergency”, for which the fossil fuel industry often shoulders 100% of the blame. Even elementary students are inundated with energy consciousness in their science curriculums that often spills over into clear Keep It In the Ground sentiment.

The trend is clear, the oil industry really does have a millennial problem—and it won’t be fixed overnight.

By Julianne Geiger for


Sep 21, 2019, 10:00pm
A Massive Asteroid Collision Once Caused Earth To Cool And Enter An Ice Age. Can We Replicate It?

Jamie Carter
I write about science and nature, stargazing and eclipses.

This is an illustration of the giant asteroid collision in outer space that produced the dust that led to an ice age on Earth.

This is an illustration of the giant asteroid collision in outer space that produced the dust that led to an ice age on Earth.Don Davis, Southwest Research Institute

The evolution of life on Earth sometimes depends on astronomical events. We know this from the case of the dinosaurs, which were wiped out by a 10 km asteroid or comet striking the Yucatán Peninsula in Mexico about 66 million years ago.

However, scientists have only just discovered that a major ice age many millions of years before was triggered by an asteroid collision in the solar system.

Could this unexpected discovery help in tackling global warming?

In the paper “An extraterrestrial trigger for the mid-Ordovician ice age: Dust from the breakup of the L-chondrite parent body” published in Science Advances, researchers at the Field Museum in Chicago, Lund University in Sweden, and others, argue that the breakup of a major asteroid 466 million years ago filled the entire inner solar system with enormous amounts of dust that lead to an ice age.

How big was the asteroid?
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Calculations put the asteroid in question at about 93 miles wide. However, instead of striking Earth, this asteroid simply broke apart in the asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter and created a lot more dust than usual in the inner solar system. It was the largest documented breakup during the past three billion years, and its break-up still delivers almost a third of all meteorites falling on Earth today, according to the paper.
This diagram shows a bird's eye view of our asteroid belt, which lies between the orbits of Mars (red) and Jupiter (purple).

This diagram shows a bird's eye view of our asteroid belt, which lies between the orbits of Mars (red) and Jupiter (purple).NASA/JPL-Caltech
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What is space dust?

Earth always has some space dust in its atmosphere, as well as dust from volcanoes, deserts, and sea salt. In the present stratosphere, extraterrestrial dust represents 1% of all the dust and has no climatic significance. “Normally, Earth gains about 40,000 tons of extraterrestrial material every year," says Philipp Heck, a curator at the Field Museum, associate professor at the University of Chicago, and one of the paper's authors. "Our hypothesis is that the large amounts of extraterrestrial dust over a timeframe of at least two million years played an important role in changing the climate on Earth, contributing to cooling," says Heck.

How did space dust cool Earth’s climate?

Essentially by blocking the Sun's light. It was already known that Earth’s climate cooled-off 466 million years ago, but just how “Ordovician icehouse conditions” were triggered or intensified has until now been a mystery. Basically, the blocking effect of the dust partially stopped sunlight reaching Earth and an ice age began. “It is analogous to standing the middle of your living room and smashing a vacuum cleaner bag, only at a much larger scale,” says Birger Schmitz, professor of geology at Lund University and the leader of the study. "Our results show for the first time that such dust, at times, has cooled Earth dramatically.”

How space dust boosted biodiversity on Earth

The arrival of all that space dust happened so gradually–actually over at least two million years–that life was able to adapt to the changing temperatures, leading to an explosion of new species. This is called the “Great Ordovician Biodiversification Event”.
This is a 466-million-year-old fossil meteorite, created in the same asteroid collision that caused the dust that led to an ice age. Along the top of the photo is the fossil of a squid-like creature called a nautiloid.

This is a 466-million-year-old fossil meteorite, created in the same asteroid collision that caused the dust that led to an ice age. Along the top of the photo is the fossil of a squid-like creature called a nautiloid.Field Museum, John Weinstein

How did the researchers figure this out?

They looked for traces of space dust in 466 million year old rocks, and compared it to tiny micrometeorites from Antarctica. "We studied extraterrestrial matter, meteorites and micrometeorites, in the sedimentary record of Earth, meaning rocks that were once sea floor," says Heck about the study of petrified sea floor sediments at Kinnekulle in southern Sweden. "And then we extracted the extraterrestrial matter to discover what it was and where it came from." Extracting the extraterrestrial matter was a was a painstaking process since the ancient rocks had to be treated with acid to eat away the stone and leave the “space stuff” to be chemically analyzed. They found helium atoms missing a neutron–a sure sign of being shot out of the Sun–as well as rare metals often found in asteroids.

In short, the dust from the asteroid was enriched with helium after being bombarded by the solar wind on its way to Earth. “This result was completely unexpected,” says Schmitz. “It wasn't until we got the last helium measurements that everything fell into place.”
These are cliffs made of sedimentary rock that was once an ancient seabed. The gray horizontal line in the rock shows where the dust from the asteroid collision fell.

These are cliffs made of sedimentary rock that was once an ancient seabed. The gray horizontal line in the rock shows where the dust from the asteroid collision fell. Field Museum, Philipp Heck

How could it help fight global warming?

“We're talking about timescales of millions of years,” says Heck. “It's very different from the climate change caused by the meteorite 65 million years ago that killed the dinosaurs, and it's different from the global warming today–this global cooling was a gentle nudge.”

However, the unexpected discovery could be relevant for tackling global warming if carbon dioxide emissions are not reduced. So could we replicate the dust shower that triggered global cooling 466 million years ago? It may be possible to place asteroids in orbits around Earth in such a way that they continuously shed dust and partially block sunlight from reaching Earth. Heck thinks such a scheme would be very risky. “Geo-engineering proposals should be evaluated very critically and very carefully, because if something goes wrong, things could become worse than before,” he says. However, this knowledge could be useful. “We're experiencing global warming, it's undeniable, and we need to think about how we can prevent catastrophic consequences, or minimize them,” he says. “Any idea that's reasonable should be explored.”

"Our results show for the first time that such dust at times has cooled Earth dramatically,” says Schmitz.”Our studies can give a more detailed, empirical based understanding of how this works, and this in turn can be used to evaluate if model simulations are realistic.”

Doom Psychology & Philosophy / 🤐 LGBTQ Kids
« on: September 20, 2019, 11:45:26 AM »
Oh good grief.  I can't even comment on this!  ::)


Megan Fox Opened Up About How Her 6-Year-Old Son Gets Bullied for Wearing Dresses

This kid is a little fashion designer!

By Shannon Barbour   
Sep 20, 2019

    Megan Fox opened up about how her 6-year-old son gets bullied for wearing dresses to school.
    She said he loves to design and draw outfits.

Days after Megan Fox opened up about how she had a "psychological breakdown" because she was hypersexualized throughout her acting career, she talked about raising her 6-year-old son, Noah, and how he likes to wear dresses.

While visiting The Talk, she mentioned how Noah is "really into fashion" and loves wearing dresses to his school even though he gets picked on for it. She said, "Sometimes, he’ll dress himself and he likes to wear dresses, sometimes." She added that even though he goes to a "liberal, hippy school" in California, the young boys still tease him and say "boys don’t wear dresses" or "boys don’t wear pink."

The New Girl actress also described a situation earlier this week when Noah wore a dress and she asked him how his day went when he came home. Basically, he doesn't care what anyone thinks and is way more concerned with turning ~lewks~ on the daily. Love 👏 to👏 hear👏 it👏! She recalled, "And he was like, ‘Well, all the boys laughed when I came in, but I don’t care, I love dresses too much.'”

BTW, Noah is apparently a budding fashion designer, according to Megan, and likes to design and "draw outfits." She joked, "But he’s still six, so when I do fittings, like, I did one recently and I had this really beautiful yellow dress on, and he kept draping it in a way where he’s like, ‘If we do it like this, it looks like a diaper!'”

She added that even though his classmates don't think he should be wearing dresses, she's "trying to teach him to be confident no matter what anyone else says."

And two years ago, Megan's husband, Brian Austin Green, said that he literally couldn't care less if his son wears dresses. He said, "I feel like at four, at five, that’s a time when he should be having fun. He’s not harming anyone wearing a dress. So if he wants to wear a dress, good on him.”

On the upside, when the shelves at Safeway go bare, they'll have plenty of stored FAT to live off for a while!


Obesity map of the United States reveals the states where up to 40 per cent of Americans are dangerously overweight

    13 Sep 2019, 17:35Updated: 13 Sep 2019, 20:21
    Tariq Tahir

OBESITY levels have reached nearly 40 per cent in parts of the United States, a shocking new map reveals.

The map shows that in nine states - Alabama, Arkansas, Iowa, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri, North Dakota, and West Virginia - adult obesity is at or above 35 per cent.

But in West Virginia and Mississippi that figure hits 39.5 per cent, according to data from the National Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Across the whole of the US, only three states have obesity levels under 25 per cent, and none have less than 20 per cent.

Colorado, Hawaii and the District of Columbia are the healthiest.

Obesity costs the United States health care system over $147 billion a year and research has shown it affects work productivity and military readiness, says the CDC.

When she was First Lady, Michelle Obama championed the cause of tackling childhood obesity.

But John Auerbach, president and CEO of the Trust for America's Health, which fights for action to tackle obesity, said individual campaigns weren't enough.

"These latest data shout that our national obesity crisis is getting worse," he said.

"Almost 50 years into the upward curve of obesity rates we haven't yet found the right mix of programs to stop the epidemic.”

"Isolated programs and calls for lifestyle changes aren't enough.

“Instead, our report highlights the fundamental changes that are needed in the social and economic conditions that make it challenging for people to eat healthy foods and get sufficient exercise."

The data comes from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, an ongoing telephone interview survey conducted by CDC and state health departments.
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When the figures are broken down by education, those who did not finish high school had the highest level of obesity - 35 per cent of adults - compared with 24.7 per cent among college graduates.

Adults aged 18-24 had the lowest self-reported obesity - 18.1 per cent - half the figure of those aged 45-54.

Broken down by regions of the US, 33.6 per cent of adults in the South were obese and the 33.1 per cent in the Midwest.

In the Northeast it was 28 per cent and the West 26.9 per cent.


Rare full moon will light up Friday the 13th for the first time in years

This week, the spooky date gets a spooky night sky to go with it.

    By Gael Fashingbauer Cooper

September 11, 2019 4:03 PM PDT

Friday the 13th will be extra spooky this week. The date associated with bad luck, haunted houses and that 1980s summer-camp slasher film series will get a full moon for the first time in years.

According to the Farmers' Almanac, those living in the Pacific, Central and Mountain time zones will get to gaze on the full moon before midnight on Friday, Sept. 13, but those living in the Eastern time zone will have to fudge a little. Their full moon will happen  just after midnight, at 12:33 a.m., pushing it to the much-less-spooky date of Saturday, Sept. 14.
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East coasters last saw a Friday the 13th full moon on June 13, 2014, the Farmers' Almanac reports. A nationwide Friday the 13th full moon hasn't happened since Oct. 13, 2000, and won't happen again until Aug. 13, 2049.

History / 🦖 Last day of the dinosaurs' reign captured in stunning detail
« on: September 10, 2019, 02:20:58 PM »

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In an instant, the Chicxulub impact forever changed life on Earth—blasting out a huge crater, vaporizing and flinging up tons of rock, and devastating plant and animal life.

Science & Innovation
Last day of the dinosaurs' reign captured in stunning detail
Rocks from deep inside the Chicxulub impact crater show what happened in the minutes to hours after one of our planet’s most catastrophic events.
5 Minute Read
By Maya Wei-Haas

PUBLISHED September 9, 2019

Inch by inch, the team pulled up the skinny core of ghostly white limestone from the ocean floor, gazing at the compressed remains of ancient organisms that died tens of millions of years ago. But then a stark divide appeared as the layers abruptly darkened.

“It was nothing like the stuff above,” recalls Sean Gulick, a co-chief scientist of the expedition and a researcher at the University of Texas at Austin.

This change in the rock marks one of the most catastrophic events in Earth’s history, some 66 million years ago, when an epic asteroid slammed into the sea just offshore of Mexico’s Yucatán Peninsula. The impact triggered a nightmarish sequence of events that sent some 75 percent of plant and animal species spiraling to extinction—including all the nonavian dinosaurs.

Now, by subjecting the rocky core to a battery of tests, including geochemical study and x-ray imaging, the research team has assembled a meticulous timeline chronicling events on that fateful day—sometimes down to the minute. As they report today in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, the dark layers reveal stunning details, including the sheer amount of material that piled up mere hours after the strike, along with bits of charcoal later left by raging wildfires.

“They can put their fingers on moments in that event,” says Jennifer Anderson, an experimental geologist who studies impact cratering at Winona State University. “The level of detail kind of blows you away.”
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Earth 101 Earth is the only planet known to maintain life. Find out the origins of our home planet and some of the key ingredients that help make this blue speck in space a unique global ecosystem.

While it’s unlikely another asteroid smashup of this magnitude will happen in our lifetimes, significant impacts are inevitable in the larger arc of our planet’s evolution, says Purdue University’s Jay Melosh, who is not part of the study team but who worked on other sections of the crater core. Studying these events helps us more strongly grasp the vulnerabilities of life on Earth, he says.

“It’s not a matter of whether there will be big impacts,” he says, “it’s just a matter of when.”
Drilling into disaster

Previous studies have been slowly piecing together what happened after the so-called Chicxulub impact using a combination of computer models and the geologic fallout found at a smattering of sites around the world. One controversial locale in North Dakota may even capture an entire ecosystem catastrophically tossed by the seismic waves that rippled out from the impact zone.

But the exact details of the chaos that ensued have been an enduring mystery, one that scientists hoped to solve by closely examining the impact crater itself. Layers of sediment had buried the crater over millennia, which prevented roaring winds and water from wearing it away, but also hid it out of reach of eager scientists. To actually touch this infamous moment in our planet’s history, researchers needed to drill.

Related: See asteroids and comets across the solar system
Photo: Comet glowing amid stars
Photo: Halley's comet
View Slideshow

Comet C/2001 Q4, also known as NEAT, emits a blue-and-purple glow as it moves through the cosmos in May 2004. Its coma, or head, and a portion of its tail are visible in this shot, as are myriad stars. This image was taken by telescope from Kitt Peak National Observatory near Tucson, Arizona.
Photograph courtesy T. Rector (University of Alaska Anchorage), Z. Levay and L. Frattare (Space Telescope Science Institute), and National Optical Astronomy Observatory/Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy/National Science Foundation

Of the thousands of known comets in the solar system, Halley's comet is one of some 200 that are periodic. Halley's comet orbits Earth every 76 years; the next flyby will occur in 2061.
Photograph by James Balog

This image shows ejected material that was propelled into space when NASA's Deep Impact probe collided with comet Tempel 1 at 1:52 a.m. ET on July 4, 2005. It was taken by the spacecraft's medium-resolution camera 16 seconds after impact.
Photograph courtesy NASA/JPL-Caltech/UMD

Seen here in a 2004 composite image, the intensely active surface of comet Wild 2 ejects dust and gas streams into space, leaving a trail millions of kilometers long. Other than the sun, Wild 2 is currently the most active planetary surface in our solar system, astronomers say.
Photograph courtesy NASA/JPL

The Hale-Bopp comet shines against a stellar backdrop in the constellation Sagittarius in this Hubble Space Telescope image. Discovered in 1995 by amateur astronomers Alan Hale in New… Read More
Photograph courtesy H. A. Weaver (Applied Research Corp.), P. D. Feldman (The Johns Hopkins University), and NASA

The round shape of Ceres, the largest object in the asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter, suggests that its interior is layered like Earth's. First classified as an asteroid, Ceres was… Read More
Photograph courtesy NASA, ESA, J. Parker (Southwest Research Institute), P. Thomas (Cornell University), L. McFadden (University of Maryland, College Park), and M. Mutchler and Z. Levay (STScI)
One of the youngest and best-preserved impact craters on Earth, Meteor Crater formed about 50,000 years ago when a 100-foot-wide (30-meter-wide) meteor weighing 100,000 tons slammed into the Arizona desert at an estimated 12 miles (20 kilometers) a second. The resulting explosion exceeded the combined force of today's nuclear arsenals and created a 0.7-mile-wide (1.1-kilometer-wide), 650-foot-deep (200-meter-deep) crater.
Photograph courtesy D. Roddy (U.S. Geological Survey), Lunar and Planetary Institute

This enlargement of a 1993 Hubble Space Telescope image shows the brightest nuclei in a string of approximately 20 objects that comprise Comet P/Shoemaker-Levy 9 as it hurtled… Read More
Photograph courtesy Dr. H. A. Weaver and Mr. T. E. Smith, STScI/NASA

Fragments of comet P/Shoemaker-Levy 9 struck Jupiter in July 1994, leaving the impacts visible in this ultraviolet image. The spots appear dark because of the large quantities of dust, which absorbs sunlight, being deposited in the planet's stratosphere.
Photograph courtesy Hubble Space Telescope Comet Team

Light reflects from the nucleus of the Tempel 1 comet in this Hubble Space Telescope image taken in 2005. The potato-shaped nucleus, which appears starlike because it's too small for Hubble to resolve, is 8.7 miles (14 kilometers) wide and 2.5 miles (4 kilometers) long.
Photograph courtesy NASA, ESA, P. Feldman (Johns Hopkins University) and H. Weaver (Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory)

A new jet of dust streams from the icy nucleus of the Tempel 1 comet, caught in this Hubble Space Telescope image. The jet extends about 1,400 miles (2,200 kilometers)—roughly half… Read More
Photograph courtesy NASA, ESA, P. Feldman (Johns Hopkins University) and H. Weaver (Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory)

Scientists started exploring the crater’s structure in 1996 via seismic surveys led by Joanna Morgan, who co-led the latest drilling efforts with Gulick. Along with a second expedition in 2005, that work confirmed the presence of what’s known as a peak ring—a circle of buried mountains that rapidly forms within the largest of impact craters. Such a structure is an ideal place to drill, Gulick says. Not only can it reveal the fundamental processes behind the formation of mega-craters, its elevation places it relatively close to the modern ocean floor, which means easier access.

In the spring of 2016, the team at last sunk metal teeth into the Chicxulub crater, and over the course of two months, they extracted sections of core 10 feet at a time. In total, they collected a slice of Earth about a half-mile long that captures the shocked rocks that were below the impact, layers of melted rock, and the transition back to normal seafloor sediments.

“It was amazing to be on the ship and see those cores first coming up and realize we had some really exciting things to say,” Gulick marvels.
Mounds of melted rock

The new study of that core sample combines the rocky record with computer models to create an unprecedented timeline of the geologic chaos on the day sparking the dinosaurs' demise.

“To say that we’re looking at something that happened the day the impact happened 66 million years ago, that’s a kind of resolution that we almost never see in geology,” Anderson says.
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One of the most striking finds is the rate at which material was re-deposited after the impact. The asteroid strike excavated miles of ocean floor, vaporizing rock and water in a flash. A ripple of shockwaves inside the crater sent solid rock flowing like liquid to form a towering peak, which then collapsed outward to form the peak ring. Just tens of minutes later, a jumble of debris piled onto the peak ring in a layer some 130 feet thick. Some of this material came from a sheet of melted rock that splashed into place within minutes as the peak collapsed.

Then, as the ocean rushed back into the yawning molten gap, pockets of steam burst forth, flinging up more fragments of rock. Within an hour, the crater was likely covered in a churning vat of rocky oceanic soup, periodically sloshed by the collapse of the crater’s steep wall.

“Just like if you pour a bucket of water into a bathtub, it doesn’t sit quiet, it sloshes around,” Melosh explains. “Each slosh as it went back and forth deposited more material.”

Rocky bits slowly settled out from the stew, piling up hundreds of feet of more debris. In total, the event laid down nearly 430 feet of new material in a single day.
Sulfur surprise

The team also found a notable lack of sulfur in the crater’s rocks. About a third of the rocks surrounding Chicxulub are sulfur-rich minerals known as evaporites, but these minerals are conspicuously absent from the core sample the team drilled.

Instead, the impact seems to have vaporized the crater’s sulfur-bearing rocks, backing up past work that suggests the event released as much as 325 gigatons of sulfur. Yet the element’s near total absence hints that even this gargantuan number may be too low. This gas could have formed a haze of sulfuric acid that blotted out sunlight and triggered years of global cooling. Or, Melosh says, it might have created acid rain that abruptly acidified the oceans. Either way, the effects would have devastated life of all kinds.

    They can put their fingers on moments in that event ... The level of detail kind of blows you away.

Jennifer Anderson, Winona State University

What’s more, the rock core offers clues to how the collision instantly affected life on land. Hurtling to Earth at some 45,000 miles an hour, the impact likely sent out a flash of energy that ignited landscapes within a 900 miles radius.

“Mexico was on fire immediately,” Anderson says. The impact also flung geologic shrapnel high into the skies that plummeted back around the globe, igniting fires even farther from the impact zone. And in the top few inches of the core’s sediment, the scientists found bits of charcoal, likely created by those raging wildfires.

Intriguingly, the researchers also found biomarkers from the fungal breakdown of wood, which further suggests that these burned bits came from a landscape set ablaze. The team thinks a mighty tsunami rippled across the Gulf of Mexico—and perhaps around the world—and that the watery wall bounced back after crossing the Mexican highlands, dragging with it charred terrestrial remains.
Opening salvo

There are still many more questions to answer about how the impact and its aftermath rippled around the world, says Kirk Johnson, director of the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History. But he praises the new work for providing such a stunningly preserved record of this terrifying day.

“In a way, it’s telling us things that we thought we knew, but it’s telling it with the data that underpins it for the first time,” Johnson says.

“I consider this to be an opening salvo,” adds the University of Washington’s Jody Bourgeois, who has studied the impact’s tsunami deposits in Texas and Mexico. Further study of the core samples and other evidence in the coming years will likely fill in many more details in the tumultuous tale.

“It’s heady,” Gulick says of finally publishing the first few papers from the drilling project. “The discoveries keep coming.”


Researchers looking at renewable energy and food security in rural Alaska
By Derek Minemyer |
Posted: Sun 5:22 PM, Sep 08, 2019  |
Updated: Mon 8:01 AM, Sep 09, 2019

ANCHORAGE, Alaska (KTUU) - Researchers at the University of Alaska are looking at how renewable energy could power the fish processing industry in Alaska’s remote communities.

The study looks at decreasing the costs of food and energy production, and helping the most isolated communities in the state develop their own renewable sources of energy. The goal is to make these communities more food secure, and less dependent on diesel fuel for electricity.

One case study, conducted by researchers with the Institute of Economic Research and the Alaska Center for Energy and Power, considers one of Alaska’s major fish processors – the City of Cordova. Only accessible by plane or boat, the community must generate and maintain large amounts of energy in order to power its highly profitable seafood processing plants.

Cordova generates 15 percent of its energy from hydroelectric power, according to Cordova Mayor Clay Koplin. This form of energy costs the city $.06 per kilowatt hour, while researchers say diesel fuel usually costs two times that amount. Koplin says the city has gone from consuming 2 million gallons of diesel fuel a year -- equivalent to $8 to 10 million -- to as little as 450,000 gallons.

"The lower cost of that energy, and the stable cost of that energy, has allowed our fish processing industry to make investments in their fish processing capacity," Koplin said.

Higher fish processing capacity has fishermen bringing in bigger catches, according to Koplin. In 2018, raw fish tax revenue generated $1.43 million for the city. This shows potential for cost savings and investment returns in hydroelectric energy.

Erin Whitney studies energy production with the Alaska Center for Energy and Power. She says the majority of rural Alaskan communities rely on diesel generators to provide most of their electricity. When oil prices rise, or shipments are delayed, they feel the economic strain -- hence the push for a more local approach to energy production.

"They are somewhat vulnerable, because they are not connected to an external electrical grid," Whitney said. "What's really interesting about some of these local options is that they are often more economical than the diesel fuel itself."

Jen Schmidt studies natural resource management and policy for the Institute of Social and Economic Research. As part of her research, she will travel to several communities this winter to gauge the viability of renewable energies. Her goal is to make sure residents see the economic benefits of renewable energies, not just businesses.

“What are those benefits? Are there ways that we can improve renewable energy?” Schmidt said, “and, of course, expand that knowledge out to other communities."

The $2.4 million project is funded through the National Science Foundation. The team has 3.5 years to complete its research into improving food, energy and water security in rural Alaska.

Economics / 🛢️ Oil prices and the coming financial ‘Ice Age’
« on: September 09, 2019, 08:34:55 AM »

Oil prices and the coming financial ‘Ice Age’
By Kurt Cobb, originally published by Resource Insights

    September 8, 2019

Abandoned oil-distribution unit, in old oil fields of Azerbaijan (2016) AlixSaz.

Albert Edwards turned bearish on stocks back in 1996—well, not exactly bearish, but cautious. He recommended to clients that they overweight long-term, high-quality bonds and therefore underweight stocks in their portfolios. It turns out that clients who followed his advice fared not quite as well as those 100 percent invested in stocks but also took far less risk. Edwards believes that events that are currently unfolding will actually vindicate his approach.

Although Edwards never mentions energy as central to his thinking, I believe that energy and oil, in particular, are related to his views. I’ll develop this later, but first more on Edwards.

Edwards is a long-time financial strategist for the French investment bank and financial services giant Société Générale. He has an investment thesis that arose from the experience of Japan in the 1980s. He calls it the “Ice Age” thesis. It amounts to this: Gigantic debts that built up during Japan’s boom in the 1980s led to exceptionally sluggish economic growth after the Japanese stock market bust and finally to deflation and ultra-low interest rates.

Edwards expected the same thing to happen to Europe and the United States for the same reason. He got some of what he expected after the market crash of 2008/2009: ultra-low interest rates and sluggish growth. What didn’t show up was deflation.

But Edwards kept expecting his Ice Age thesis to play out in a subsequent recession that he felt couldn’t be more than four or five years away. At regular intervals he gloomily predicted a stock market crash resulting from a deflationary shock. But the recession and crash kept getting postponed—until now, he thinks.

Edwards was one of the very few who correctly predicted the drop in bond yields this year and he believes the world is about to enter the long-awaited terminal phase of the “Ice Age” he outlined back in 1996. In this terminal phase, he expects U.S. interest rates to turn decidedly negative and U.S. stocks to decline by more than 80 percent—that is, unless the Federal Reserve decides to interrupt the decline by buying stocks directly to bolster the market or to hand out free money to the populace in a sort of quantitative-easing-for-all strategy.

Edwards writes: “The key for me is whether QE2 [that is, another round of forced credit and money infusions into the economy by central banks] can revive the economic cycle, not equity prices temporarily.” He believes QE2 cannot revive economic activity at this point. And, that implies a bust that will rival if not exceed the crash of 2008, he says—and a prolonged malaise of slow or no growth afterward as part of a financial hangover from bingeing on too much credit.

Edwards hints that “unprecedented monetary measures” might be taken to forestall outright deflation which, of course, implies entirely different investment advice than he is giving now.

So, how does all this relate to energy and, in particular, oil. When reading Edwards’ latest pronouncements, I couldn’t help thinking about Gail Tverberg’s almost parallel thesis that what will doom oil supplies is prices that are too low for producers to make a profit. That is just what has been happening this decade along with the slowly creeping financial Ice Age described by Edwards. Could the two be related?

Tverberg answers the question indirectly in a second piece entitled “Why stimulus can’t fix our energy problems.” For Tverberg affordability is the problem. Widening wealth inequality leads to stagnant and even lower incomes for a greater and greater number of people who are then unable to afford not only direct energy purchases as easily as they have in the past, but are also faced with affordability issues for practically everything else. That’s because energy is embedded as a cost of production, distribution and sale in everything we buy.

So, a sluggish economy—made sluggish by excessive debt (Edwards)—combined with widening wealth inequality (Tverberg)—leads to generally lower employment and depressed wages than otherwise would have been the case—which leads to prices that are too low for energy producers, in particular, oil producers to make a profits sufficient to replace oil reserves that have been depleted or, in the case of oil exporting nations, pay for social welfare costs. According to Tverberg, this inability to make much profit among oil producers—shale producers have had negative free cash flow for years—feeds back into the economy, especially in the United States where the previously broadly booming oil and gas industry has been a major source of employment and business activity. (The boom now seems confined to the Permian Basin in Texas.)

A low oil price also leads to lower investment and social welfare payments in major oil exporting nations which reduces employment and incomes below what they otherwise would have been. The overall sluggishness of the world economy (compared to previous expansions) reinforces the effect of low oil prices.

The sweet spot in the oil industry is a price which insures healthy profits for the industry (with which they can invest in new wells) and at the same time does not tip the world into recession because the price is unaffordable to consumers. There is a supposition in Tverberg’s work that these two price bands no longer overlap. Prices low enough for the world’s consumers to afford are too low for producers. Prices high enough for producers to make a decent profit are too high for consumers to afford over the long term.

Now, here’s how Tverberg’s thinking hooks up most directly with Edwards’. Tverberg writes: “It looks as though growing debt at ever-lower interest rates is becoming a less effective workaround for the economy’s real need, which is a need for a rapidly growing supply of under $40 per barrel oil and other low-priced energy products.” Edwards sees debt creation as becoming a less and less potent way to create economic growth in a debt-saturated economy. Tverberg goes to what she believes is the heart of the matter claiming that added debt cannot seem to provide oil and other energy sources at cheap enough prices for the economy to flourish. The financial Ice Age seems central to the views of both.

And, both Edwards’ and Tverberg’s outlook lead to the same result, a crash in the world economy that will be difficult to turn around. For Edwards there is the possibility that after a long retrenchment period, economic conditions could return to what passes for normal. For Tverberg, however, her thesis suggests a permanent alteration of conditions for modern societies in which energy insufficiency becomes a feature that limits and even stops economic growth.

If either one is correct, look for an economic tsunami in the not-to-distant future.

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Landmark US case to expose rampant racial bias behind the death penalty
Capital punishment

Top capital lawyers head to North Carolina as judges consider the cases of four inmates who faced ‘bleached’ juries

Ed Pilkington in New York

Sun 25 Aug 2019 02.00 EDT
Last modified on Sun 25 Aug 2019 10.17 EDT

Marcus Robinson, a death row inmate, listens in court. Photograph: Shawn Rocco/Raleigh News & Observer/MCT via Getty Images

The dark secret of America’s death penalty – the blatant and intentional racial bias that infects the system, distorting juries and throwing inordinate numbers of African Americans on to death row – will be laid bare next week in North Carolina.

Some of the country’s top capital lawyers will gather on Monday at the state supreme court in Raleigh. Over two days, they will present evidence that capital punishment is so deeply flawed and riddled with racial animus that it makes a mockery of basic principles of fairness and equal justice.

The court’s seven judges will be asked to address a simple question. Will they allow men and women to be condemned to die despite powerful evidence that prosecutors deployed racially discriminatory tactics to put them on death row?

“We are taking an unprecedented look at whether the courts will tolerate proven racial bias in the death penalty,” said one of the case’s leading lawyers, Cassandra Stubbs, director of the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) capital punishment project. “We’re talking about fundamental rights that go to the integrity of the courts and the entire criminal justice system.”

At the heart of the case are four inmates facing execution: three African American men and a Native American woman. Over the past seven years Marcus Robinson, Quintel Augustine, Tilmon Golphin and Christina Walters have been on an extraordinary judicial roller coaster that has seen them taken off death row on grounds that their sentences were racially compromised, only to be slapped back on to it following a partisan backlash by the Republican-controlled state legislature.

In all four cases, a review of their trials found racial bias had been an “overwhelming” feature of how death sentences were secured. In particular, the juries had been “bleached”.

    A very stark and unmistakable picture of discrimination emerges
    Cassandra Stubbs, ACLU

Black potential jurors were systematically struck off – consciously and intentionally – at a rate far higher than their white equivalents. As a result, juries were produced that were almost exclusively, or in Augustine’s case entirely, white.

“A very stark and unmistakable picture of discrimination emerges with compelling evidence that it is not an accident, it is purposeful,” Stubbs said.

The evidence Stubbs referred to was uncovered by a commission set up under North Carolina’s Racial Justice Act (RJA), an exceptional measure introduced in 2009 following a spate of exonerations of innocent people held in some cases for decades on death row. That so many innocent people, most of them African American, had come close to being killed by the state alarmed local politicians to the extent that the then Democratic-controlled assembly decided to root out racial discrimination from the death penalty once and for all.

In a historic break with the past, the RJA established that anyone who could prove race was a significant factor behind their death sentences would be deemed ineligible for capital punishment.

That new protection unleashed one of the most thorough investigations into the practice of the death penalty in US history. What it uncovered shocked even lawyers working on RJA cases.
‘The more we looked, the more we found’

First up was Cassandra Stubbs’s client, Marcus Robinson. He had just turned 18 in 1994 when he and his black co-defendant carjacked a white teenager, Erik Tornblom, at a gas station in Fayetteville.

Robinson, as prosecutors privately admitted at the time, did not pull the trigger when Tornblom was shot and killed – his co-defendant did. Yet Robinson was still condemned to death, becoming the youngest person at the time on the state’s death row.

When Stubbs began analyzing Robinson’s trial she discovered that the jury had been grossly skewed along race lines. During jury selection, in which both defense and prosecution lawyers have the right to exclude potential jurors so long as they have legitimate reasons, the prosecutor John Dickson struck out five of 10 black people in the pool.
Shirley Burns, center, mother of Marcus Robinson, listens in court.
Shirley Burns, center, mother of Marcus Robinson, listens in court. Photograph: Shawn Rocco/Raleigh News & Observer/MCT via Getty Images

That 50% dismissal rate was almost four times the rate at which eligible white jurors were rejected: just 14%. A review of the record showed that Dickson asked demeaning questions of one black prospective juror, including whether the individual could read and had completed school – questions that were put to none of the white candidates.

“The more we looked, the more we found,” Stubbs told the Guardian. “These were explicit biases. It was overt racial discrimination.”

Investigations of the other three cases under the RJA spotlight threw up even more disturbing evidence.

At the trial of Augustine, who was charged with killing a police officer, they dug up handwritten notes in which the prosecutor had scrawled “thug” and “blk wino” against the name of two potential black jurors. By contrast, the same prosecutor described a white juror with alcohol issues as “drinks – country boy – ok”.

Another prospective black juror had “blk/high drug area” placed beside her name, a reference to her largely African American neighborhood.

    They feared that breaking the link between the death penalty and race would remove too many people from death row
    Cassandra Stubbs

The prosecutor ended up throwing out every single qualified black juror, producing an all-white jury.

At Golphin’s 1998 trial on charges that he and his brother killed two highway patrol officers, an African American man in the jury pool overheard a couple of potential white jurors talking about the defendant. One said Golphin “should have never made it out of the woods” – an apparent lament that officers had arrested the 19-year-old rather than summarily executing him on sight.

When the black potential juror reported what he had overheard, he was struck off the jury pool. The white pair were left alone and may well have sat on the final jury.
The cheat sheet

Other stunning evidence of race bias will be raised at Monday’s hearing. At the 1993 trial of a black defendant named Rayford Burke, the prosecutor described him to the all-white jury as a “big black bull”.

More jaw-dropping still was how the courtroom was arranged by state officials at the 2010 trial of Andrew Ramseur for killing two white victims. Immediately behind the defense table, four rows of benches where the defendant’s family would normally have sat had been cordoned off with yellow crime-scene tape.

In full view of the all-white jury, Ramseur’s elderly grandparents were forced to sit in the proverbial “back of the bus” while the family of the white victims were allowed to locate themselves right behind the prosecution table.
Crime tape, in use at the 2010 trial of Andrew Ramseur.
Crime tape, in use at the 2010 trial of Andrew Ramseur. Photograph: ACLU

Perhaps the most startling discovery of all was that North Carolina prosecutors were trained in how to get around constitutional prohibitions against selecting juries on race grounds.

The US supreme court has been crystal clear: jury “bleaching” is not allowed. In a 1986 ruling, Batson v Kennedy, the court ruled that jurors could not be dismissed on a racial basis – a valid cause had to be given. That unambiguous ban was reaffirmed just two months ago in the case of Curtis Flowers, a black man from Mississippi who was put on death row after the state prosecutor struck off five black potential jurors, leaving only one on the final jury.

The Flowers ruling was backed by seven of the nine justices. Underlining how little tolerance exists at the highest judicial levels for overt racial discrimination in jury selection, the Flowers opinion was written by Brett Kavanaugh, Donald Trump’s controversial pick, who denounced the Flowers prosecutor’s “relentless, determined effort to rid the jury of black individuals”.

None of this appears to have dissuaded some of North Carolina’s capital prosecutors from pursuing their objective of keeping death row populated with black prisoners. The court will hear that in 1995 a training scheme was set up for prosecutors statewide.

As part of the training, dubbed Top Gun II, attendees were given a handout titled “Batson Justifications: Articulating Juror Negatives”. The document was essentially a cheat sheet – it told prosecutors how they could skirt the clear prohibition on racial strikes by listing 10 “justifications” they could “articulate” to dismiss black people while disguising the race motive.

The list begins with this cod ground for dismissal: “Inappropriate dress – attire may show lack of respect for the system, immaturity or rebelliousness.” It is followed by “Physical appearance – tattoos, hair style, disheveled appearance may mean resistance to authority”.

Another “justification”: “Body language – arms folded, leaning away from questioner, obvious boredom may show anti-prosecution tendencies.”
How I got 30 years on death row for someone else's crime
Read more

Several of the state’s capital prosecutors sat through the training and there is evidence they went on to make use of it. The prosecutor in the Augustine case apparently quoted from the Top Gun cheat sheet as she was trying to justify to a judge in a separate trial why she had rejected a black juror.
‘Accept racial bias to keep the death penalty’

The evidence unleashed by the RJA investigation was so overpowering that it persuaded the North Carolina supreme court – the same panel that will host Monday’s hearing – to scrap the death sentences of Augustine, Golphin, Robinson and Walters in 2012. Their new punishment was far from soft: they would spend the rest of their natural lives behind bars.

Nonetheless, that was not harsh enough for the Republican-controlled state legislature voted in in 2012. They made it their business to overturn the RJA the following year, disregarding the overwhelming evidence of racial wrongdoing and dragging the four inmates without any further judicial review back on to death row.

For Stubbs of the ACLU, there is only one conclusion to draw: Republicans in North Carolina were more concerned with preserving capital punishment than with ensuring the integrity of the judicial system.

“They feared that breaking the link between the death penalty and race would remove too many people from death row,” she said, “so they decided they were willing to accept racial bias to keep the death penalty.”

    The one category that is vastly more likely to get a death sentence is when a black man kills a white woman
    Frank Baumgartner

Stubbs and her fellow lawyers are hoping that Monday’s hearing will once again take their four clients off death row. They are also hoping that the proceedings will put a spotlight on discrimination that remains rampant across the state.

The statistics tell the story. North Carolina is 34% non-white, yet about 63% of death row inmates are non-white. A similar disparity is shown in the statewide statistics on jury selection.

A Michigan State University study found that black potential jurors in capital cases were dismissed through pre-emptory strikes at more than twice the rate of whites.

Frank Baumgartner, professor of political science at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and co-author of Deadly Justice, a recent statistical portrait of the death penalty, said that the same racial faultline runs across all the 29 states that still have the death penalty. His analysis has shown that it is impossible to understand the death penalty without taking on board its grotesque racial distortions.

Baumgartner studied the 1,394 executions that took place in the US from 1976 to 2014 and found that the number of executions carried out for every 10,000 homicides was 65 when the victim was white but only 14 when the victim was black. When gender was factored in the disparity grew even larger, with 123 executions where the victims were white females and only nine for black males.

“The death penalty is reserved for very special categories,” Baumgartner said. “You would expect that to be the most heinous offenders, people who torture their victims and so on. But it’s not like that – the one category that is vastly more likely to get a death sentence is when a black man kills a white woman. The parallels to slavery and southern history are clear in the statistics nationwide.”

He added that he hoped Monday’s hearing, which he will be attending, would give America pause.

“It’s such a visceral and powerful idea,” he said. “To expose the death penalty for what it is: an ugly symbol of racial hierarchy designed to preserve the southern way of life.”

History / 🏝️ The Recent History of Hawaii
« on: August 22, 2019, 09:43:20 AM »
...and so it went in the end for those Freedom Seekers who crossed the Pacific Ocean in a Cat-Rigged Canoe to become the first Homo Saps to inhabit (and destroy) the pristine beauty of the Hawaiian Islands.  :'(  Only 1000 years later now, one of the last places our species made it to.

But Once Upon a Time, there was Camelot...


A Call for Review of the Historical Facts Surrounding UNGA Resolution 1469 (xiv) of 1959 Which Recognized Attainment of Self-Government for Hawaii



In 1959, the UN General Assembly adopted Resolution 1469 relieving the U.S. from the reporting requirements under Article 73 e, after finding that the people of the territory had exercised self-government by choosing to become a state of the United States of America. [link to original source: and PDF format]

Our current Resolution first asks the General Assembly to order a review of how the US complied with the provisions of Chapter XI of the U.N. Charter, particularly Article 73, over the relevant years from 1946, the year in which Hawaii and Alaska were inscribed in the list of Non-Self-Governing-Territories under GA Resolution 66, until 1959, the year in which the U.S. reported that the people of these territories had exercised self-determination.   It further calls on the General Assembly to initiate a review of the representations made in Report A/4226, submitted by the United States on 24 September 1959, ostensibly to be in compliance to Article 73 e, and also to review the consequent discussions and procedures that led to the adoption of GA Resolution 1469 (XIV) on 12 December 1959.

A careful review of the case will reveal that the General Assembly adopted Resolution 1469 under false premises, on the basis of false and incomplete information provided by the United States of America, relying on representations that were tainted by grave material and procedural irregularities surrounding the fraudulent referendum on Hawaii’s entry into the United States as a State, which amounted to an act of annexation.  Because the referendum was fundamentally flawed, the resolution based thereon must be deemed null and void.


Part One:

U.S. Non-compliance with U.N. Charter Article 73

Article 73 of the United Nations Charter addresses the responsibilities of member nations for the administration of territories “whose peoples have not yet attained a full measure of self-government.”

This Article called upon the Administrative authority to “recognize the principle that the interests of the inhabitants of these territories are paramount and accept as a sacred trust the obligation to promote to the utmost, within the system of international peace and security established by the present Charter, the well-being of the inhabitants of these territories.”

Among the responsibilities mentioned are:

“a. to ensure, with due respect for the culture of the peoples concerned, their political, economic, social, and educational advancement, their just treatment, and their protection against abuses; and

    “to develop self-government…, to assist them in the progressive development of their free political institutions….”


Replacing Hawaiian culture

It was U.S. policy from the beginning for Hawai’i to be completely Americanized.  Instead of “due respect for the culture of the people,” great effort was made to completely replace Hawaiian culture with American culture.  During the time of the monarchy, there had been forty-eight Hawaiian language newspapers.   Hawaii’s 96% literacy rate was the highest in the world.   When the U.S. Territorial Government was formed, Hawaiian language was banned in schools and in government, and there was an aggressive effort to raise the next generations as speakers only of English.  As a result, the Hawaiian language nearly died out completely.


Failure to ensure political, economic, social, and

educational advancement, and just treatment

Prior to the United States’ takeover, Hawaii was a fully recognized independent nation-state, with international treaties and diplomatic consular posts all around the world.  Its national character was multi-cultural, multi-racial, multi-ethnic, highly literate, informed, and progressive.

A careful review will establish that the Hawaii Kingdom was overthrown by the United States through aggression to support the power and position of a small number of non-native, mostly American insurrectionists, and to meet the needs of the U.S. economic and military expansionism.

After the U.S. established its Territorial Government of Hawaii, those insurrectionists, descendants of the American missionaries, became fabulously wealthy, forming the Big 5 corporations that controlled almost all aspects of economic, education, and political life in Hawaii.

At the same time, under U.S. rule, “the political, economic, social, and educational advancement” of other descendants of the Hawaiian Nation, particularly native Hawaiians, suffered from loss of land and resources, resulting in poverty, far greater exposure to illness than whites, prejudice, blatant racism and significantly higher rates of incarceration than the settler population.

The Hawaiian colony lacked almost all control over public and private life.  The governor, and all judges of the Territory were appointed by and served at the pleasure of the President of the U.S.  The U.S. Constitution and the laws adopted by the U.S. Congress were elevated as superior to Hawaii’s laws.  Migration into Hawaii was controlled by the U.S.  Education, health policies, communications, international and inter-island transportation were all controlled by the U.S. government.

Schools became the tool for American indoctrination and destruction of the Hawaiian culture.  They focused on American history, beloved American icons, American songs, loyalty and allegiance to the United States of America.  The U.S. Territorial Government re-wrote history, hiding from succeeding generations the knowledge that their kingdom had been overthrown and supplanted by the United States.  Children were taught American culture and taught to look down on anything Hawaiian.  Some Hawaiian children were able to succeed under these circumstances, but in general Hawaiians sank to the bottom of their classes or dropped out of school.

The Kamehameha Schools were founded in the Hawaiian Kingdom in 1887 as a private school with the mandate to educate native Hawaiian children.  But, under the U.S. Territory of Hawaii, Hawaiian children in Kamehameha Schools were primarily trained for military service, farming, home-making and prepared for blue-collar jobs, while non-Hawaiian children (Asians and Caucasians) were in private schools being trained in academics, business, politics, and other professions that would make them leaders in society.  There was a systematic degradation of, and discrimination against, native Hawaiians.


Non-compliance with “developing self-government”

There never was any attempt by the Territorial Government “to develop self-governance” among the descendants of Hawaiian Kingdom subjects, as required by the UN Charter, and by the 1946 U.N.G.A. Resolution 66.  Instead, the United States engaged in 1) a program of propaganda and indoctrination aimed at thoroughly Americanizing the descendants of Hawaiian Kingdom subjects, and 2) a program making it possible for mass numbers of American settlers to move to Hawaii, eventually outnumbering the autochthonous population.  The primary goal of the American occupiers was to retain total control of the islands.  To this day, they have been successful in this variant of classical imperialism.

In requesting a review of U.S. compliance with UN Charter Article 73, we ask the reviewers to especially study how the U.S. failed in its administering responsibilities to ensure “with due respect for the culture of the peoples concerned, their political, economic, social, and educational advancement, their just treatment, and their protection against abuses,” and how the U.S. failed to develop self-government, both of which were required pursuant to the UN Charter.


Part Two:

Problems with UNGA Resolution 1469 (XIV)

 Paragraph 2. of Resolution 1469 (XIV) reads: “The General Assembly… 2.  Expresses the opinion, based on its examination of the documentation and the explanations provided, that the people of Alaska and Hawaii have effectively exercised their right to self-determination and have freely chosen their present status.”

Paragraph 3. Congratulates the United States of America and the people of Alaska and Hawaii upon the attainment of a full measure of self-government by the people of Alaska and Hawaii;

This section will look at how “the people of Hawaii” that voted were the wrong “people of Hawaii,” how actual self-governance had never been presented to the public as a possibility, much less an option, how the ballot question did not conform to essential U.N. requirements, how thorough indoctrination had hidden the true history of Hawaii from voters preventing the informed consent they needed to freely choose and to cast a valid vote, and how the U.S. falsely reported a 94% yes vote on statehood, even though, in this most important election ever held in Hawaii, 65% of people of voting age stayed away from the polls.


Incorrectly defining “the people of the territory”

The wrong “people” voted

When Article 73e of the UN Charter speaks of “Member nations who assume responsibilities for the administration of territories whose peoples have not yet attained a full measure of self-government,” clearly it is talking about governments which have taken over, occupied, and/or colonized other nations; and the “people who have not yet attained a full measure of self-government” are the occupied and colonized people.  In the case of Hawaii, where a once independent and internationally recognized Hawaiian Kingdom was taken over, occupied, and colonized by the U.S., the Charter obviously was addressing currently living people who were descendants of subjects of the overthrown Hawaiian Kingdom who had “not yet attained a full measure of self-government.”  However, it was not these descendants who were offered the vote on statehood. Accordingly, the referendum was invalid ratione personae.

During the 59 years that Hawaii was a Territory, there was a huge in-migration of American settlers.  The U.S. military presence also grew exponentially during the period with World War II, the Korean Conflict, and the Cold War. Great numbers of military dependents were also moved to Hawaii.

In the statehood referendum, the U.S. ignored the fact that this vote for self-determination needed to be held among the descendants of subjects of the taken-over, occupied, and colonized Hawaiian Nation.  Instead, the entire populace was allowed to vote, as long as they were American citizens, had lived in Hawaii for one year, and were at least 20 years old.  Even the U.S. military personnel and their dependents stationed in Hawaii for at least a year could vote.  However, since only U.S. citizens could vote, if one pledged allegiance only to the Hawaiian Nation, he or she could not vote in the referendum.

Three quarters of the citizens of the American Territory were racially and culturally different from most of the descendants of the Kingdom subjects.  They were thoroughly Americanized.  They were not at all the people whose Kingdom had been taken over, occupied, and colonized.  These were not at all the people contemplated in the U.N. Charter, Article 73.  They should not have been allowed to vote!  The fact that they did vote invalidates the referendum as an event in which the correct “people of Hawaii” have effectively exercised their right to self-determination and have freely chosen their current status.”

It must also be noted that the immigration of American citizens raises an issue under Geneva Convention IV of 1949, article 49 (6) which stipulates: “The Occupying Power shall not deport or transfer parts of its own civilian population into the territory it occupies.” This provision was included so as to prevent demographic manipulation with the ultimate aim of effecting annexation.  According to Demographic Statistics of Hawaii: 1778-1965 by Robert C. Schmitt, between 1950, one year after the U.S. signed onto that Geneva Convention, and 1960, a year after the statehood vote, while all other ethnicities in Hawaii grew by 10% to 19%, the Caucasian population in Hawaii increased by 63%, growing from 124,344 to 202,230. The African American population increased by 86%, grow grew from 2,691 to 4,943.  Clearly the Occupying Power transferred parts of its own population into the territory it occupied, contrary to the Geneva Convention article.


Switched concept of “full measure of self-governance”

Article 73 intended that the descendants of the Kingdom be offered independence or some other form of self-governance, separating themselves from the United States.  Instead, all the people of Hawaii were offered exactly the opposite, movement from a Territory of the United States to a state within the United States.  Instead of separation, they were offered, and given, total absorption.  And this was passed off as “the attainment of a full measure of self-government by the people of Alaska and Hawaii,” in Resolution 1469 (XIV).

The United States government was responsible for implementing the steps to self-determination listed in Article 73.  It deliberately failed to do this.  It is noted that in Hawai’i at the time of the plebiscite, there was little or no awareness of the right of self-determination, that is, no awareness of the possibility of independence, or of the possibility of an independent state in free association with the United States.  None of these possibilities were ever discussed with the general public.  Seemingly, they also were not even discussed among the local American leadership.

Evidence of this is found thirty years after statehood in a television program with William Quinn, the Governor of Hawaii appointed by the U.S. President prior to statehood.  Pōkā Laenui offered an argument that the plebiscite was illegitimate because there was no option for independence on the plebiscite ballot.  Governor Quinn responded, “Har, har, har. [Laughter] That’s the first time I have ever heard anyone make that argument, today, right now….”    ”I’m saying you’re the first time I’ve ever heard someone say that.  I’ve never heard it from Congress, I’ve never heard it from the Presidential office, I’ve never heard it from… (See p. 5, 6 of “DIALOGUE: Statehood & Sovereignty HAWAII PUBLIC TELEVISION, August 16, 1996,” found in Documents at

Whether this is true or not, it seems clear that once the American settler population far surpassed the number of Kingdom descendants, the U.S. switched identification of “the people of Hawaii” from the Kingdom descendants to all residents of the Hawaiian Islands.  Since the new majority of residents was then primarily American, the U.S. then switched the meaning of “full self-governance” from “independence for Kingdom descendants” to “moving from U.S. Territory status to U.S. Statehood.”

But a great wrong was done here.  The right of the descendants of the Kingdom to self governance had been summarily denied and ‘swept under the rug.’

It might also be asked, what “attainment of full measure of self-governance” took place?  Practically nothing changed.   Hawai’i moved from a Territory of the United States to a State of the United States.  The same occupier/colonizer remained in place.  That occupier controlled the foreign relations, the U.S. mechanisms for war, political and economic systems, shipping and air travel. Hawai’i had the same U.S. currency, the same U.S. courts and U.S. laws, and the same government agencies.  The same occupier-controlled immigration and population growth, bringing in ever more American settlers.  Moreover, the occupier’s school system continued to indoctrinate youth, stressing allegiance to America and, for at least another decade, concealing the truth that America had overthrown their kingdom, done everything it could to destroy Hawaiian language and culture, and flooded their islands with U.S. settlers to assure its position.

Except for being allowed to elect four people to Congress and electing their own governor, nothing changed.

This was not “attaining a full measure of self-government,” as the U.S. claimed.  For descendants of the Kingdom, it was attaining the full measure of imperial annexation.


Non-conforming ballot question

The complete wording of the ballot question was: “Shall Hawaii immediately be admitted into the Union as a State?”  The only answers were “Yes” and “No.”  Thus the only choices were: to become a State within the United States of America, or to remain a Territory of the United States of America.  There was no choice for becoming independent of the United States or to have some other relationship with the United States.  U.N. Resolution 742 in 1953 declares that one of the “factors indicative of the attainment of independence or of other separate systems of self-government,” is “freedom of choosing between several possibilities including independence.”  The ballot as written did not comply with U.N. requirements and clearly prevented voters from “effectively exercising their right to self-determination.”

The United States had been a part of the United Nations General Assembly in 1953, six years before the statehood vote, when it approved Resolution 742 (VIII) “Factors which Should be Taken into Account in Deciding Whether a Territory is or is Not a Territory Whose People Have Not yet Attained a Full Measure of Self-Government.” Certainly, the U.S. was aware that Resolution 742 (VIII) required the offer of “independence” as a ballot choice in the statehood vote.

Whatever the reason that the option for independence was not on the ballot, it was an essential requirement of Resolution 742 (VIII) that it be there, and its absence invalidated the vote for statehood.  It also should have been a reason for the United Nations General Assembly to reject UNGA Resolution 1469 instead of accepting it.


Voters lacked informed consent

It should also be questioned whether the people “have freely chosen their present status.” One can only freely choose if one has the ability to make an informed decision. Throughout the years as a Territory, the United States thoroughly indoctrinated the people of Hawai’i into an American worldview and mindset.

In 1906, “as a means of inculcating patriotism in a school population that needed that kind of teaching, perhaps more than mainland children do,” the Board of Education published a “Programme for Patriotic Exercises in the Public Schools.” By the time of the statehood vote, generations of children had been indoctrinated into loving the noble and righteous, glorious United States of America.

History was taught in a way that avoided mentioning the landing of American troops and the overthrow of the Queen.  That is, textbooks were arranged so that one year covered stories of the kings and ended with the happy reign of Queen Lili`uokalani.   The next year began with Annexation and told the glories of the United States.  The Overthrow and the ugly events leading up to and surrounding “Annexation” were assiduously avoided.  One textbook even related that the Queen begged the United States to take over the kingdom.

Very few knew that, contrary to international law, this seemingly kindly, benevolent United States, seventy years before, had committed an act of aggression against Hawaii by landing its troops and overthrowing their peaceful and friendly Hawaiian Kingdom, so that the U.S. could take over the islands. (For a brief history of this period see the Source Document, “Historical Analysis” at pp 5-19, under the heading Hawaiian Sovereignty.)

Further, at the time of the vote, almost no one knew that there were alternatives to integration into the U.S. that should have been included on the ballot: alternatives such as “independence” or “free association with the U.S.”

Not knowing the complete and true history of relations with Hawaii and the U.S., not fully appreciating that they were victims of propaganda programmed to achieving not only American patriotism, but adulation of the United States, and not aware of and certainly not understanding the alternatives they should have been given, voters clearly lacked the knowledge to make a valid, free choice.

Informed consent is an integral part of free choice.   To have a valid referendum, those voting needed to give their free and informed consent.  Since they could not, the entire statehood referendum (or plebiscite) was invalid.  It is therefore not true that the people had freely chosen statehood.


Only 35% of eligible age voted

While 1959 newspapers gleefully reported that 94% supported statehood, the actual facts are much different.  First, it must be pointed out, that the 94% only counts the Yes and No votes cast.  18% of the voters left the question blank.  When all of the votes are included, only 77% of those who voted actually voted for statehood, not 94%.

But even more stunning is that fact that, while this was undeniably the most important vote ever taken in the history of Hawai’i, and under ordinary circumstances would be expected to draw huge numbers of voters to the polls, only 35% of those of eligible age to vote actually turned up to the polls.  There were 381,859 Hawaii residents of eligible age to vote at that time.  Yet, despite all of the hype in the campaign to “get out the vote,” only 35% (132,772) actually wanted statehood strongly enough to go to the polls to vote for it.

With only 35% of eligible voters casting ballots, it cannot be truthfully claimed that “the people of Hawai’i effectively exercised their right to self-determination and have freely chosen their present status,” statehood.

Indeed, contrary to accepting the report that 94% of the people voted for statehood, it must be asserted that 65% actually voted with their feet against statehood by staying home from the polls.

The question to be investigated is how much of this overwhelming 65% non-voting majority should be counted as resistance to statehood.  It may well be found that the 94% vote for statehood should be re-assessed at a number well below the 50% required to win the vote.


Plebiscite invalid due to all above

Individually, and even more so collectively, the above problems with the 1959 Hawaiian Plebiscite on Statehood render it invalid.  It must be clearly stated: There was no valid vote for statehood.  There was no valid vote of self-determination. Further, it is not at all true, as Resolution 1469 states, that “the people of Alaska and Hawaii” have effectively exercised their right to self-determination and have freely chosen their present status.”

The descendants of the subjects of the Hawaiian Kingdom still await the very first U.S. efforts on their behalf “to develop self-government, to take due account of the political aspirations of the peoples, and to assist them in the progressive development of their free political institutions,” as promised by paragraph b. of the United Nations Charter Article 73.


U.N. intentionally circumvented with statehood vote

This section will expose an effort to devise a process to avoid the administering responsibilities of the United States and to devise a process to overcome the scrutiny of the General Assembly.

Allowing Hawaii and Alaska to be placed on the 1946 list of non-self-governing territories was considered a great mistake by many.  Being on the list could eventually lead to pressure to prepare them for independence, and the U.S. had no intention of ever letting them go.

Francis O. Wilcox, Assistant Secretary of State for International Organization Affairs, sent a letter to Secretary of State John Foster Dulles on 17 July 1956, titled “Possible Procedure and Arguments for Cessation of Reporting on Alaska and Hawaii to the United Nations.”  The letter proposes ways to delude the United Nations into allowing the U.S. to stop reporting.  The last two paragraphs read,

To many United Nations Members, the above arguments would seem to evade the main issue of constitutional advance since 1946. It would therefore be desirable, even essential, for us to demonstrate that the people of the two Territories oppose further reporting to the United Nations. This might help to persuade those Members, which attach importance to the idea of the freely expressed wishes of the people concerned. At the moment, however, we have no evidence of a popular demand in Alaska and Hawaii for cessation of reporting. Such a demand would therefore have to be stimulated in one form or another.

One of the following methods, which are listed in the order of their possible effectiveness, might be used in expressing [t]he desires of the people of Alaska and Hawaii to cease reporting: 1) the Territorial Legislatures might adopt resolutions to this effect; 2) the Territorial Delegates to the Congress might request the Congress to adopt a resolution; 3) The Territorial Delegates might ask the President to cease reporting, a request that would be strengthened if the Delegates could base it upon a widely circulated petition in the Territories; and 4) the Territorial Governors might ask the President to cease reporting.

But Secretary of State Dulles, (cited above) had another way to stop the reporting on Hawaii.  He wrote to Senator William F. Knowland on June 26, 1956, “The grant of statehood to Alaska and Hawaii would provide the best means of convincing other United Nations Members that the two territories have achieved “a full measure of self-government.”  This became the plan. (Both letters can be found in the “Source Documents” section of this paper.  They are also available on Statehood, a website created by researcher Arnie Saiki,  NEED TO SPECIFY WHAT COUNTDOWN YOU ARE REFERENCING HERE pp. 1-2.)


Request to the General Assembly for Review

Given the evidence of egregious irregularities, we call on the General Assembly of the United Nations to conduct a review of UN General Assembly Resolution 1469 of 12 December 1959 to verify the veracity of the representations submitted by the United States in Report A/4226 on September 24, 1959, regarding its obligation as an Administering Power under Article 73 e. We further call for a review of the discussions, deliberations and actions taken by the General Assembly leading to the passage of UN General Assembly Resolution 1469 of 12 December 1959.

Should the review reveal that UN General Assembly Resolution 1469 of 12 December 1959 was adopted by relying on incomplete and fraudulent information, and that the referendum was vitiated by material errors and deliberate misrepresentations, we also call upon the General Assembly to take appropriate action to correct the consequences of the multiple errors by annulling or rescinding UN General Assembly Resolution 1469 of 12 December 1959.


Part Three:

Definition of Aggression, U.N.G.A. Resolution 3314 (XXIX)

A further consideration:

UNGA Resolution 3314 (XXIX) adopts the following Definition of Aggression: [FN3]

Article I

Aggression is the use of armed force by a State against the sovereignty, territorial integrity or political independence of another State, or in any other manner inconsistent with the Charter of the United Nations, as set out in this Definition.

Article 3

Any of the following acts, regardless of a declaration of war, shall, subject to and in accordance with the provisions of article 2, qualify as an act of aggression:

(a) The invasion or attack by the armed forces of a State of the territory of another State, or any military occupation, however temporary, resulting from such invasion or attack, or any annexation by the use of force of the territory of another State or part thereof,

Article 5

    No territorial acquisition or special advantage resulting from aggression is or shall be recognized as lawful.


U.S. Extension of Manifest Destiny Doctrine

Prior to the United States’ military aggression and occupation, Hawaii was a fully recognized independent nation-state, with international treaties with almost every major nation/state.  It was a member of one of the first international organizations, the Universal Postal Union, and had ninety-nine diplomatic and consular posts around the world[ii].

Hawaiian literacy was among the highest of the world.  Hawai`i had telephones and electricity built into its governing palace, `Iolani, prior to the U.S.’s White House.  Multi-lingual citizens abounded.  Hawaiian leaders had excellent comprehension of world and political geography.  King Kalākaua was the first Head of State to circle the world in a visit of nations in his plan to weave a tapestry of international economic and political alliances to assure Hawaiian independence.  By 1892, Hawai`i was a vibrant multi-racial, multi-cultural nation engaged in intellectual and economic commerce throughout the world.

Across the ocean, the United States was obsessed with expansion and the belief that it was the Manifest Destiny of America to not just rule from Atlantic to Pacific, but beyond.  The plan for the aggression into Hawaii was initiated by the landing of U.S. military forces upon the shores of Hawaii in January 1893 and the subsequent absorption of Hawaii as a “Territory of the United States of America” in 1898, was to expand the reach and influence of the United States politically and militarily into the Pacific and to Asia, first in possessing a military outpost with a deep harbor from which the U.S. Navy could operate exclusively.[iii]  (See President Cleveland’s Address to the Joint Houses of the U.S. Congress, December 1893; Special Investigation Report by Senator Blount to the President of the United States, 1893)

On January 16, 1893, the U.S.S. Boston landed 162 U.S. Bluejackets, fully armed with carbines and Howitzer cannons, and marched upon the streets of peaceful Honolulu, the capitol city, billeting themselves directly across from the seat of government, `Iolani Palace.  Queen Lili`uokalani, the Constitutional Monarch of the Hawaiian Kingdom, learning of this landing of the U.S. troops, immediately protested to the U.S. Minister Plenipotentiary, John L. Stevens, demanding that the troops be returned to the U.S. warship Boston, which had been moored in Honolulu Harbor.  The U.S. Minister gave no response, as it was he who had ordered the landing of the U.S. troops.

In the afternoon of January 17, 1893 the real purpose of the U.S. troops billeting themselves at this location became obvious.  The Committee for Public Safety, consisting of 13 members, in an act of high treason, stood on the side steps of the government building, facing away from the Palace across the street, and began the “public reading” of a proclamation declaring themselves a new government of Hawaii, the Provisional Government (provisional until terms of annexation could be negotiated between its members and the United States of America).  They declared Sanford B. Dole as their President.   (He was the son of one of the early missionaries from the United States, Daniel Dole of the 9th Missionary Company to Hawaii from the American Board of Commissioners of Foreign Missions, based in Boston, Massachusetts U.S.A.).

As the reading of the proclamation of this self-proclaimed Provisional Government was taking place, the U.S. Bluejackets stood guard on Mililani Street.  After receiving and reading the proclamation, the U.S. Minister, John L. Stevens, officially recognized this Provisional Government as the government of Hawaii.[iv]

In the years immediately following this, this Provisional Government of Hawaii, on July 4, 1894 converted itself into the Republic of Hawaii, with U.S. government officials directly participating in the step-by-step process.  The Republic of Hawaii, claiming it had the authority to do so, “ceded” Hawaii to the United States in 1898. The people of Hawaii were disenfranchised from participating in these transactions.  Their many protests were ignored by the U.S. and its puppet Republic of Hawaii.

In 1900, the U.S. Territory of Hawaii was created through the U.S. Organic Act for the Organization of the Territory of Hawaii.

Article 2, Section 2 of the Constitution of the United States gives the President the power to make Treaties if two thirds of the Senators present in the Senate concur. This power was used by the United States to enter 9 treaties of cession, annexing 56 out of 58 acquired territories, over a period of 168 years (1783-1951).  Hawaii never had a Treaty of Annexation because the U.S. Senate could not get the two-thirds vote required to Constitutionally annex the islands.  Acting in non-compliance with its own Constitution, the U.S. annexed Hawaii through the Newlands Resolution passed by both Houses of Congress by a simple majority vote of both houses of Congress.

In the UN Resolution Defining Aggression, UNGA Resolution 3314 (XXIX) Article 5, section 3, we see a definition of aggression: “the invasion or attack by the armed forces of a State of the territory of another State, or any military occupation, however temporary, resulting from such invasion or attack, or any annexation by the use of force of the territory of another State or part thereof.”

Article 5, section 3 states, “No territorial acquisition or special advantage resulting from aggression is or shall be recognized as lawful.”  It must be averred that this territorial acquisition must no longer be recognized as lawful.


Anticipating U.S. Reaction to this Initiative and proposed Resolution on Hawaii’s status

 In moving ahead, it is to be expected that the United States of America will strongly oppose any action by the General Assembly.   The easy path would be to back down and enable this powerful country to continue flaunting the repeated UN doctrine of commitment to self-determination of all peoples, found in the very Charter of the United Nations, which every member has accepted as a trust obligation, along with the plentiful declarations, conventions and resolutions supporting the principle especially in occupied territories deemed non-self- governing.   We ask all members of the United Nations to stand with the “people of Hawaii,” the descendants of the subjects of the Hawaiian Kingdom.

The Declaration on Principles of International Law Concerning Friendly Relations and Co-operation Among States in Accordance with the Charter of the United Nations (GA Res 2625 (XXV) of 24 October 1970), states: “Nothing in the foregoing paragraphs shall be construed as authorizing or encouraging any action which would dismember or impair, totally or in part, the territorial integrity or political unity of sovereign and independent States conducting themselves in compliance with the principles of equal rights and self determination of peoples as described above and thus possessed of a government representing the whole people belonging to the territory without distinction as to race, creed or colour.“

This statement has been misused to argue that Hawaii cannot be separated from the United States since it reads, „Nothing in the foregoing paragraphs shall be construed as authorizing or encouraging any action which would dismember or impair, totally or in part, the territorial integrity or political unity of sovereign and independent States.”  This is often quoted by those resistant to applying self-determination to Hawaii.

But the sentence does not end there.  It continues on to qualify the sovereign and independent States which cannot be dismembered as states “conducting themselves in compliance with the principles of equal rights and self-determination.”  As has been shown in all of the pages above, the whole history of the United States of America and Hawaii contradicts the claim that the U.S.  conducted itself in compliance with the principles of equal rights and self-determination for the subjects of the Kingdom and their descendants.

Let us close with the Letter to the American People by Queen Liliuokalani found in her 1898 book, Hawaii’s Story by Hawaii’s Queen:

„Oh, honest Americans, as Christians hear me for my downtrodden people! Their form of government is as dear to them as yours is as precious to you. Quite warmly as you love your country, so they love theirs. With all your goodly possessions, covering a territory so immense that there yet remain parts unexplored, possessing islands that, although new at hand, had to be neutral ground in time of war, do not covet the little vineyard of Naboth’s, so far from your shores, lest the punishment of Ahab fall upon you, if not in your day, in that of your children, for „be not deceived, God is not mocked.“ The people to whom your fathers told of the living God, and taught to call „Father,“ and whom the sons now seek to despoil and destroy, are crying aloud to Him in their time of trouble; and He will keep His promise and will listen to the voices of His Hawaiian children lamenting for their homes.“

The time has come.


Authored by:

Dr. Kioni Dudley

Leon Kaulahao Siu

Pōkā Laenui (Hayden F. Burgess)

Professor Dr. Alfred de Zayas, former UN Independent Expert on the Promotion

of a Democratic and Equitable International Order (2012-2018)
copyright 2019-us troops
Landing of the U.S. troops for Overthrow of Hawaiian Nation   Honolulu Harbor   January 17, 1893.
copyright 2019-uss boston troops
U.S. troops from USS Boston across the street from ‘Iolani Palace  January 17, 1893.

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Troops from the USS Boston   Honolulu   January 17, 1893.

By 1887, Hawai`i had treaties and conventions with Belgium, Bremen, Denmark, France, the German Empire, Great Britain, Hamburg, Hong Kong, Italy, Japan, Netherlands, New South Wales, Portugal, Russia, Samoa, Spain, the Swiss Confed­eration, Sweden and Norway, Tahiti, and the United States.  Treaties and Conventions concluded between the Hawaiian Kingdom and Other Powers since 1825, Elele Book, Card, and Job Print., 1887.  See also Stephen Kinzer, Overthrow, Times Books, Henry Holt & Company, New York 2006.

[ii] Directory and Handbook of the Kingdom of Hawaii, F.M. Hustat, 1892

[iii] In January, 1893, Thurston organized twelve of his associates to form the „Committee of Public Safety“ and arranged an immediate visit to the American Minister plenipotentiary in Hawai`i, John L. Stevens, to conspire for the overthrow of Lili`uokalani.

Little convincing was necessary for Stevens was already one of the foremost advocates for a U.S. takeover of Hawai`i.  Appointed in June, 1889 as the U.S. Minister plenipotentiary, he arrived in Hawai`i on September 20 of that year and regarded himself as having a mission to bring about annexation of Hawai`i to the United States.  His letters to Secretary of State James G. Blaine, beginning less than a month after his arrival reflect his passion to take Hawai`i for the United States.

After three years of encouraging taking Hawai`i, he writes on March 8, 1892, for instruction of how far he may deviate from established international rules and precedents in the event of an orderly and peaceful revolutionary movement, setting forth a step-by-step prediction of future events.

On November 19, 1892, he writes to the Secretary of State, arguing that those favoring annexation in Hawai`i are qualified to carry on good government, „provided they have the support of the Government of the United States.“  He continued, „[H]awaii must now take the road which leads to Asia, or the other, which outlets her in America, gives her an American civilization, and binds her to the care of American destiny. . . .To postpone American action many years is only to add to present unfavorable tendencies and to make future possession more difficult.“

He called for „bold and vigorous measures for annexation.  I cannot refrain from expressing the opinion with emphasis that the golden hour is near at hand. . . . So long as the islands retain their own independent government there remains the possibility that England or the Canadian Dominion might secure one of the Hawaiian harbors for a coaling station.  Annexation excludes all dangers of this kind.“

Thus, when Thurston met with Stevens on January 15, 1893, the „golden hour“ was at hand.  It was agreed that the United States marines would land under the guise of protecting American lives (the missionary parties‘).  The „missionary“ party would declare themselves the „provisional government.“  This puppet government would immediately turn Hawai`i over to the United States in an annexation treaty.  The missionary party would be appointed local rulers of Hawai`i as a reward.  The United States would obtain the choicest lands and harbors for their Pacific armada.  Cleveland’s Address to Congress, 18 December 1893,“ Richardson, A Compilation of The Messages and Papers of the Presidents: 1789-1908, Vol. IX (1908).

[iv] See the U.S. Apology Law, Public Law 103-150, 107 Stat. 1510

This is really cool shit.  You could use this to make portable dome housing that flattens out and you can roll up.


August 20, 2019
Mathematical framework turns any sheet of material into any shape using kirigami cuts

by Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences

Researchers from the Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences have developed a mathematical framework that can turn any sheet of material into any prescribed shape, using the paper craft kirigami. Credit: Harvard SEAS

Researchers from the Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences (SEAS) have developed a mathematical framework that can turn any sheet of material into any prescribed shape, inspired by the paper craft termed kirigami (from the Japanese, kiri, meaning to cut and kami, meaning paper).

Unlike its better-known cousin origami, which uses folds to shape paper, kirigami relies on a pattern of cuts in a flat paper sheet to change its flexibility and allow it to morph into 3-D shapes. Artists have long used this artform to create everything from pop-up cards to castles and dragons.

"We asked if it is possible to uncover the basic mathematical principles underlying kirigami and use them to create algorithms that would allow us to design the number, size and orientation of the cuts in a flat sheet so that it can morph into any given shape," said L. Mahadevan, de Valpine Professor of Applied Mathematics, Physics, and Organismic and Evolutionary Biology, the senior author on the paper.

"Specifically, if we are given a general shape in two-or-three dimensions, how should we design the cut patterns in a reference shape so that we can get it to deploy to the final shape in one motion?" said Gary P. T. Choi, a graduate student at SEAS and first author of the paper. "In this work, we solve that problem by identifying the constraints that have to be satisfied in order to achieve this cut pattern, use a numerical optimization approach to determine the patterns, and then verify this experimentally."

Researchers from the Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences have developed a mathematical framework that can turn any sheet of material into any prescribed shape, using the paper craft kirigami. Credit: Harvard SEAS

The research is published in Nature Materials.

This research follows previous work by the Mahadevan lab that characterized how origami-based patterns could be used as building blocks to create almost any three-dimensional curved shape.

"We were actually able to do a little more with kirigami than we were able to do with origami," said Levi Dudte, graduate student in the Mahadevan lab and co-author of the paper. "The presence of cuts and holes in the interior of the material gives kirigami the ability to change its shape significantly."

"Our work draws on inspiration from art, tempered by the rigor of mathematics, and the challenges of engineering shape. Finding kirigami tessellations that can convert a square to a circle, or a flat sheet into a poncho is just the start. We think that this is just the beginning of a class of new ways to engineer shape in the digital age using geometry, topology, and computation," said Mahadevan.

Next the researchers aim to explore how to combine cuts and folds to achieve any shape with a given set of properties, thus linking origami and kirigami.


August 16, 2019
The Biotech-Industrial Complex Gets Ready to Define What is Human
by Stuart A. Newman

Vitruvian Man, Leonardo da Vinci

Fabricating part-human-part-nonhuman animals, with features of both, seemed like something out of Greek mythology until the late 20th century. New research then on “geeps,” fully developed, viable mixtures of goats and sheep, showed that constructing such “chimeras” was a real possibility. Still, the warning by H.G. Wells, a century before, in his novel “The Island of Dr. Moreau,” that scientific experiments like this could go terribly awry, seemed fantastical. But this will soon change. At the end of July, it was reported that the biologist Juan Carlos Izpisúa Belmonte, director of a laboratory at the Salk Institute in California, produced fetal human-monkey chimeras. He did this in collaboration with researchers in China. And this month the Japanese government is expected to give the go-ahead to scientist Hiromitsu Nakauchi, leader of teams at the University of Tokyo and Stanford University in California, to conduct similar experiments with the goal of bringing human-pig chimeras to full term. These novel forms of life will soon be among us.

Dr. Nakauchi acknowledges that the concerns of Wells and later writers like Aldous Huxley, author of “Brave New World” (1932), which similarly envisioned technologically calibrating degrees of humanness, are not farfetched. The art of getting the human cells to the right places in the composite animals is worse than imperfect, as are most manipulations of embryos. Developmental biology is simply not the kind of science that can guide an engineering program. Will the resulting mice and pigs have human consciousness? How this will be ascertained is not clear, but if they do Dr. Nakauchi assures us he will destroy them and stop the experiments.

The newly approved human-animal chimera procedures are just some of a number of scientifically and ethically questionable techniques that are being soft-pedaled and normalized on a daily basis by panels of experts advised by financially motivated bioentrepreneurs. In 1997, I applied for a patent on such part-human creatures. I had no intention of producing a chimera. But as a biologist whose work requires close tracking of the relevant scientific literature, I knew that part-human organisms could eventually be produced and that we were quickly approaching an era of deconstruction, reconfiguration, and commodification of human biology. The public deserved a heads-up.

The announcement of the chimera patent application in 1998 was met with derision and accusations of bad faith by the then U.S. Patent Commissioner, and some biotechnology executives and scientists as well. The chair of genetics at Harvard Medical School, for example, asserted that “[t]he creation of chimeras is an outlandish undertaking. No one is trying to do it at present, certainly not involving human beings.” A little over two decades later, however, a once grotesque development has been normalized and approved by experts.

In fact, there are numerous cases in the past four decades of interested parties playing down individual risk and potential societal impact of medically related procedures while making inflated promises based on the claimed novelty of the same methods. Advocates from the entrepreneurial side will often advertise prospective cures with oversimplifications that attribute undue power and singular action to favored (often patented) genes. From the scientific side there have been corner cutting in qualifying patients for treatments and misleading characterizations of the nature of and uncertainties around techniques to alter prospective humans.

An egregious example was one motivated by the understandable desire to avoid propagation of mitochondrial disease. It involved the renaming of the methods for transferring one woman’s egg cell nucleus (containing about 20,000 genes) into a second woman’s egg, leading to embryos constructed from cells of three persons. What was, essentially, a type of cloning was rebranded as “replacement of mitochondria” (involving only 23 genes). This procedure was sold on these deceptive terms to the people of the U.K., where it was approved and is now under way.

The “CRISPR” gene modification of embryos is the latest development being dealt with by expert panels. They will be the arbiters of when the technologically inevitable will occur.  But any dispassionate consideration of the extreme nature of what these methodologies can produce should shake us into a realization that the public needs to be made aware of what is underway and have their voices heard on what will surely change our concept of human identity.
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More articles by:Stuart A. Newman

Stuart A. Newman, Ph.D. is a professor of cell biology and anatomy at New York Medical College, and co-author (with Tina Stevens) of Biotech Juggernaut: Hope, Hype, and Hidden Agendas of Entrepreneurial Bioscience (Routledge).

Wanna get away from it all?

Tristan da Cunha only makes #3!  :o


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