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The Daily SUN☼
« on: April 09, 2017, 03:00:20 AM »
Another of the Daily Papers I began is one focused on Resilience, Permaculture, Renewable Energy, Hydroponics etc.  The main focii of the SUN☼ Project.

You can find the daily edition at:

The Daily SUN☼

The last edition I customized with SUN☼ Links was on 4/3/17

I was hoping GM would curate this one but she is not a big fan of paper.li.

If any of our Permies  or Renewables Diners would like to customize and add specific links to this paper let me know and I will make you a collaborator.

RE
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The Daily SUN☼: Creating a Food Forest
« Reply #1 on: April 09, 2017, 03:09:56 AM »
From today's edition of The Daily SUN☼

RE

http://waldenlabs.com/creating-a-food-forest-a-step-by-step-guide/

Creating a Food Forest – A Step by Step Guide

Creating a Food Forest – A Step by Step Guide

 
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, December 15, 2015
 

One of my earliest memories of visiting my grandparents’ farm was playing on the dry stone wall, tossing stones around and just generally fooling around.

Then, looking down, I came across a small seedling sticking out the side of the wall, growing in nothing, with barely any soil between the stones.

Out of childish curiosity more than anything I decided to set it free from the heavy stones and leave it to grow on its own. That was 20 years ago…

IMG_2303Today, that seedling is this strapping young fellow on the image left – European Ash tree.

He has survived the droughts, heavy snows, pouring rains and sub-zero temperatures all by himself, without anyone taking care of him.

As I sit under his shadow today and plan my food forest I’m curious to find out how trees flourish without human intervention.

How come wild apples, plums and cherries from the nearby forest do so well while the cherry tree I planted in my orchard five years ago has died miserably? To understand this I needed to return to the place where the seed of this Mountain Ash tree came from and revisit my teacher – the forest itself.

Forests are our teachers

Just by my house, some 50m away is an entrance to a forest. I visit there often, it makes me feel relaxed, I enjoy the serene sounds of nature, the falling leaves, birds and other critters. Most importantly, I go there to observe and learn.

You see, given enough time every ecosystem ends up like a forest. This is the end point of an ecological succession; a point where the ecosystem becomes stable or self-perpetuating as a climax community and, without any major disturbances, the forest will endure indefinitely.

This is exactly what you want your own food forest to be like. To achieve a low maintenance abundance of fruit, nuts, berries and herbs you’ll want to create a forest-like system where fertility comes from various sources, where you’re greatly aided by fungi, where wildlife is your primary pest control, where soil holds water like a sponge, and where you have a high diversity of plants.

You want a carefully designed and maintained ecosystem of useful plants and emulate conditions found in the forest.

However, the problem is often that you’ll find yourself starting out with a bare field, a blank canvas and the overall plan can feel a little overwhelming. Sometimes even reading books such as Edible Forest Gardens can make things harder rather than easier.

While creating my own food forest, I broke down the plan into smaller, manageable steps. I want to make as few mistakes as possible and to be honest, I don’t have time to make them. 

Right, let’s dive in and see how this process can help you go from that bare field to a fully-functioning ecosystem inspired by forests. 

Note: I’ll be giving away a free PDF with ‘Five Temperate Climate Guild Examples’(Apple, Walnut, Peach, Medlar and Oak) and a free Site survey checklist’ in the article. Be sure to check them out. 

1. What do you want from your food forest?

First you have to be clear about the ultimate goals of your project.

Why is this important?

You see, with a clear goal, everything becomes easier, you know where best to place your efforts and, most importantly, what are the priorities, what to focus on and what to postpone for the time being.

You have to think are you doing this because of: 1. being more self-reliant, 2. making an income, 3. producing healthy food 4. educating others 5. having a fun project for all the family

As you can see, each of these will require different considerations for your precious time and money.

Don’t overdo it at the outset, but just be clear what you want from the beginning.

2.  Explore, Sit Quietly and Observe, Analyse

IMG_1258Entrance to my nearby forest. My source of inspiration and many seeds & cuttings.

  • Explore your local forest so you’ll have an idea what will grow best in your area

Start with taking casual walks in your local forest. When designing a food forest you want to learn from the local ecosystem and try to emulate it. This is why such observations are important, this is how you discover what plants will grow best in our area.

For example, when I walked in my forest I saw elderberries, hazels, hawthorns, lindens, cherries, apples, junipers, and the list goes on. So, guess what I’ll be growing in my food forest? I’ll be also taking seeds from those naturalised species and using them as rootstock for my plants.

  • Sit quietly and observe your site

Next, sit at the future site of your food forest, no matter if it’s 5 or 50 min, just sit there quietly. Brew yourself some coffee or tea and just be mindful of what is happening around you. No specific agenda here, just immerse yourself and study the wildlife, feel the breeze, listen to the sounds of the natural world around you. You can learn a great deal simply by sitting quietly.

However, I must admit this comes hard for me. I like to work and there is so much to be done, yet these moments of mindfulness help put things into perspective and reveal a wealth of important information about the site itself.

  • Do a site survey and make a basic map

It’s time to put your permaculturist explorers’ hat and take notes about your site. Note everything about the water situation, climate, soil, slope, aspect, wildlife… Do some lab tests on your soil and also experiment with some basic tests yourself. For example, I dug holes throughout my site and then poured water into them just to check how porous my soil is. Simple stuff like that. Help yourself and download my checklist below.
 Download my free site survey checklist HERE! 

Based on the information you’ve collected, make a rudimentary hand-drawn map or use Google Earth as a base layer and annotate the printout with your notes. From the map it should be visible where the site potentials lay, and what you’ll need to design for.

3. Design – Create a layout and choose the plants

SevenStoryGardenIllustration from Gaia’s Garden by Toby Hemenway. Excellent reference when designing a food forest.

  • Choose a general layout – orchard, woodland, savannah

There are four basic layouts that determine the final look of the food forest: In their book, Edible Forest Gardens, Dave Jacke and Eric Toensmeier suggest more options but I’ll round it down to the basics:

  1. Savanna type systems – alley cropping and silvopastoral system – examples:Mark Shepard/Grant Schultz
  2. Orchards – woodlands with regularly spaced trees – examples: Permaculture Orchard, David Holmgren
  3. Mid – to late succession woodland – this is what we are trying to emulate – examples: Robert Hart, Martin Crawford
  4. Closed canopy forest – end point of a succession – these are mature forests – example: “Your local forest”

Mid- to late succession woodlands offer the opportunity for the most varied, interesting, complex, and productive patterns of trees shrubs and herbs.

However, the woodlands we call orchards and agroforestry systems are better for commercial fruit, nut and herb production.

  • Start by outlaying your infrastructure first

Start your design with the scale of permanence in mind and plan your water, access and structures first. Good infrastructure design is essential in order to minimise maintenance, maximize productivity, and provide a habitat for beneficial animals.

This includes fences, patios, sheds, irrigation lines, water tanks, cold frames, greenhouses, water elements. It’s best to begin with these essentials, because they will be the most permanent elements of you food forest.

  • Make a list master list of plants you wish to grow

Make a master list of plants – your desired species and others necessary to fulfil a certain purpose in your food forest. Think about ecological functions needed throughout the garden such as food production, the gathering and retention of specific nutrients, beneficial insect nectar plants, and ground cover for weed control.

If there is a desired species that simply won’t work on your site, you can always find an ecological equivalent, an ecologically similar species that fills a similar community niche in comparable habitats. Be sure to also include existing species on your site, if any, and native and naturalised species you found in the forest.

  • Create guilds from your master list of plants

This is the very core of forest gardening. You want to create effective polycultures that share the resources and mutually support themselves. But how can you choose the right combination of plants? Here are just a few of the recommendations from Edible Forest Gardens.

You can do your guild build based on what you know or guess about plants, their species niche, and how they interact. In this way you can also create novel plant combinations thorough your experiments.

You can create a random mixture. A lot of people will just select a group of interesting plants and throw them together and see what happens. However, while it is sporadically ok to do so to spice things up, if the whole garden is like this, it will probably result in failure.

You can also try to emulate a habitat and use a model ecosystem as a template for design, incorporating species directly from the model habitat. This model habitat could be your local forest.

If you’re not sure where to start, Download my free PDF with 5 Temperate Climate Guild examples you can recreate in your food forest.

  • Do a patch design – define your planting areas and plant spacing

Design your patches one by one, a patch could be a row, a contour or a grouping of plants in one area. In the patch design the most important aspect is to find the planting distance. You can do this by using the ‘crown touching rule’ and placing the individual trees a crown’s diameter apart.

Usually, the biggest mistake people make is overly-dense spacing where tree crowns are interlocking. This is OK when you’re planting a screen or hedge, but otherwise this will put stress on the plants and limit their growth.

In his book, Creating Forest Gardens, Martin Crawford recommends adding 30-50% more distance around each woody plant if you want more sunlight for understory plants. Also, you want to plant wider than ‘crown touching’ distance when soil conditions are limiting, in order to reduce competition between plants for limited resources.

4. Prepare the site

Improving the soil on my site one patch at a time. Hugel swale with red clover/perennial rye cover crops.Improving the soil on my site one patch at a time. Hugel swale seeded with mixture of red clover/perennial rye cover crop.

  • Adapt your site if necessary

If you’re not starting from scratch with a bare field, the chances are there is something already growing there and you’ll need to adapt your site accordingly. This means clearing unwanted vegetation and leaving whatever you find useful. You can use anyavailable biomass for mulch, compost, wood chips, firewood, mushroom inoculation….

For example, I will be leaving some naturalised plums and using a wood chipper to create some mulch from the trees and branches I don’t need, plus I’ll be using the wood for my hugel beds.

  • Shape the earth to your advantage and optimize water retention

After you cleared the vegetation you can start the earthwork for optimizing water retention on your site. This includes digging swales, ponds, berms and dams, ploughing for keyline, anything you can effectively do to slow, sink and spread the available rainfall.

I think one question on everybody’s mind is whether or not to swale it. For assistance, I would encourage you to look at this cheat sheet by Ben Falk if you’re in two minds about doing swales on your site.

  • Set up infrastructure and put down irrigation, pathways and fencing

Following the earthworks, begin with the most difficult, important or permanent elements of the food forest.

Start putting down pathways throughout your site because you’ll want to minimise compaction in the areas you’ll be planting. Fencing the site is the next important thing, you don’t want those deer, coyotes, kangaroos, sheep or rabbits nibbling on your seedlings.

If necessary put down irrigation and install water tanks, you simply can’t overdo it when it comes to making sure there is enough water during the months of drought.

  • Build up your soil and improve the soil structure

Ideally, food forest soils contain a fungal presence ten times higher than that of bacteria. So you should aim to recreate those conditions.

In the beginning, you’ll be probably starting out from a bare field and you want to continually nudge your soil towards fungi domination. You can do this by inoculating the soil with fungi or cover cropping with green manure crops – Michael from the Holistic Orchard recommends red or crimson clover in preference as these two nitrogen-fixing legumes have a stronger affinity for mycorrhizal fungi. Finally, you want to spread woody mulch everywhere to feed the fungi in the soil.

For more info about improving the soil in your food forest read my Definitive Guide to Building Deep Rich Soils by Imitating Nature.

5. Source the plants and start planting

Here I'm taking some Juniperus communis cuttings in my local forest. Sourcing plants the cheap way.Here I’m taking some Juniperus communis cuttings in my local forest. I’m sourcing plants the cheap way.

  • Start a nursery or buy plants – your choice

Now, when all the preparation work is complete you can start planting.  You basically have two options depending on the budget: grow your own trees or acquire young ones.

If you’re on a tight budget I would suggest growing most of your trees yourself. You can read my post on ‘How to set up a Small Permaculture Nursery and Grow 1000s of Trees by yourself’ and start your nursery today.

Another option is to buy young trees from nurseries. However, the trees will be more expensive, already grafted trees and probably already one or two years old. Nonetheless, this way you can get an instant orchard without the hassle of growing your own.

  • Phase your project and plant in stages

Planting a food forest can take place in stages or all at once. However, you’re unlikely to do it all in one go and that’s why I will outline how to plant in stages. This normally involves planting hedges and/or canopy trees in the first year or two, then later shrubs and a ground cover layer. Here is a recommendation from Martin Crawford’s Creating a forest Garden book:

Windbreak/hedges and edges>>Canopy layer including N fixers>>Shrub layer including N fixers>>Perennial/ground cover layer>>annuals, biennial and climbers. However, in the beginning there will be a lot of light and space available, so you can use this for your annual veggie production.

  • Finally put your plants in the ground

I won’t go into detail on how you should be planting, for step-by-step details watch the Permaculture Orchard documentary where Stephan explains how to plant a tree in great details.

In short, just make sure you dig a large enough planting hole, spread the roots and sprinkle in mycorrhizal inoculant or dip the roots in a mycorrhizal root dip if required, then refill the hole with the soil you took out.

In almost every instance you should use sheet mulch after planting to control the weeds. Unless the soil is very poor do not add extra materials to it.

Conclusion

Creating a food forest is a multi-stage process and you don’t have to go through all the steps outlined above in the exact order. The idea behind this post is to give you a framework for planning and planting your first trees. Aftercare and maintenance will be a subject for another post.

There are four main books I would recommend if you’re serious about starting a food forest: Edible Forest Gardens, Creating a Forest Garden, Holistic Orchard and Teaming with Microbes – there is plenty of invaluable advice to be found in each.

So, where are you in the whole process of creating a food forest?

Let me know in the comments section below or send me an email

I’m happy to answer any questions you might have.

Published first on Permaculture Apprentice

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Re: The Daily SUN☼ - Earth, Wind & Solar Energy
« Reply #2 on: April 10, 2017, 12:48:00 PM »

From the 4/10/17 Issue

http://providencehightech.com/earth-wind-and-solar-energy/


Earth Wind And Solar Energy

April 9, 2017 by Providence High Tech Staff

C O N T E N T S:

KEY TOPICS

    Earth Wind And Solar Energy, LLC offers a range of services to help maximize and maintain your energy savings.(More…)
    The legislation would additionally require restoring a solar energy site or wind energy site to its original condition and recycling all equipment used in the renewable facility.(More…)
    U.S. consumption of natural gas compared to hydroelectric power and compared to hydro plus wind plus solar (hydro+W+S), based on U.S. Energy Information Administration data.(More…)
    Solar energy is particularly appealing these days, due to advances in technology and plummeting costs.(More…)

POSSIBLY USEFUL

    In 2014, wind power provided about 19% of all the energy consumed from renewable sources.(More…)
    In 2050, all wind and solar electricity would need to be sent into storage throughout the year to ensure adequate electricity supply, 24/7/365, year after year, which involves a total loss of 1.02, self-use x 1.07 T&D x 1.1, charging x 1.1 discharging 32%, i.e., wind and solar capacity, MW, plus associated grid expansions, would need to be 32% greater to offset these losses.(More…)

RANKED SELECTED SOURCES

images?q=tbn:ANd9GcTOkLF7sVlkGLgjDOdpjk_mXvg4WkA0wqPQQoykrntN2Nzm98olelCSRqeI
Image Courtesy:
link: http://www.alamy.com/stock-photo-green-earth-eco-globe-wind-turbine-solar-energy-panel-102868979.html
author: alamy.com
description: Green Earth Eco Globe Wind Turbine Solar Energy Panel Stock Photo …

KEY TOPICS

Earth Wind And Solar Energy, LLC offers a range of services to help maximize and maintain your energy savings. [1] Wind energy is an indirect form of solar energy created by a combination of factors, including the uneven heating of Earth’s atmosphere by solar radiation, variations in topography, and the rotation of Earth. [2]

The title of the REU represents the wide variety of sustainable energy sources the students will explore: “earth” represents the growth and harvesting of energy from biomass, “wind” represents using the wind to generate electricity, and “fire” represents harvesting solar energy. [3] Rare earth metals, hard-to-find materials, with unfamiliar names such as lanthanum, neodymium and europium, are used in wind and solar energy projects, but dwindling supplies could hinder a roll-out of low carbon technologies and slow China‘s shift away from coal power. [4]

Wind and Solar Energy is Stochastic: When Germany has one of its sunny and windy days, RE proponents usually mention Germany obtained a large percentage of its electricity generation from renewables. [5] Germany would have required about 11.29 TWh of pumped hydro storage to store/smooth all of its wind and solar energy. [5] NOTE: The energy loss to produce the syngas, compressing and piping it into storage caverns, discharging it from the caverns, recompressing and piping it to CCGTs, almost all of it performed with wind and solar energy, was omitted to reduce complication of the analysis. [5] These are separate from payments relating to curtailments, when some wind and solar energy could be produced, but is not needed in Germany and cannot be exported. [5] According to a study “Buffering Volatility: A Study on the Limits of Germany‘s Energy Revolution”, in 2014, Germany would require about 11.29 TWh of PHS to store/smooth all of its wind and solar energy. [5] LLC is a leading developer of community-scale wind and solar energy Energy for Communities. [6] If all of Germany?s wind and solar energy had been stored/smoothed, about 11.29 TWh. [5]

The economic case for wind and solar energy in Africa Berkeley CA (SPX) Mar 30, 2017 To meet skyrocketing demand for electricity, African countries may have to triple their energy output by 2030. [7] “Extension of federal policies for wind and solar development are helping Minnesota residents, businesses and schools save on their energy bills and procure locally-produced wind and solar energy,” says Anderson. [8]

All things considered, solar isn?t as popular as wind on the utility scale, but is generally a more practical renewable option for residential energy production. [9] After fielding many inquiries about the benefits of solar vs. wind energy for homes, the utility actually installed both technologies at their corporate headquarters in Spokane, Washington to provide a definitive answer to their customers. [9] NW Wind & Solar will be the design-build installation experts of the 100 kW PV energy system comprised of SolarWorld 340XL modules, SMA TriPower string inverters and Unirac ballast racking. [10] We”ve down loaded and filled out and faxed that paperwork to TXU Energy 9:40 AM on October 2nd but as expected we haven”t heard yet from TXU – nor has Air Wind and Solar bothered to follow up with us. [11]

Earth, Wind & Solar combines an Expo of sustainable lifestyle, services and products along with performances by the amazingly creative Squonk Opera. [12] The Earth, Wind, and Solar Festival will be the public unveiling of his mad scientist three dimensional projection masterpiece. [13]

The legislation would additionally require restoring a solar energy site or wind energy site to its original condition and recycling all equipment used in the renewable facility. [14] The protracted veto session, however, won?t end the fight over wind and solar energy in Vermont. [15]

Out of all the renewable energy produced in the U.S. in 2015, 19% came from wind, while just 6% came from solar power. [9] We partner with you to analyze and develop a comprehensive plan that will harness wind power and solar power, while effectively integrating the usage of renewable energy into your existing electrical system. [10]

About three days after installation, ONCOR sent a representative to our home to determine if we were tampering with the system! We promptly completed their paperwork in early February and ONCOR replaced our meter with another special electric “smart” meter that would record our system”s solar energy generation. [11]

A female minority owned company, Earth, Wind Solar installs renewable energy systems and energy efficiencies. [16] With increased future reliance on weather-dependent wind and solar electricity, it would be useful to determine the required energy storage system capacity, GWh, if nuclear and fossil plants were closed in the near future. [5] If fossil fuel and nuclear generators were closed down and wind and solar were minimal, hydro, bio, etc., whether in Germany or abroad, would not be able to meet Germany?s electrical demand without massive, bulk energy storage systems. [5] NOTE: Germany RE curtailments, mostly wind energy during windy days in north Germany, likely will increase, as more wind and solar build-outs are added in future years. [5] Company activities are mainly projects with solar and onshore wind energy. [6] The solar, wind and energy efficiency industries already employ millions of people in the U.S. and they’re poised to grow. [17] Then he assumed he had a much larger capacity, into which the present wind and solar variable energy flow would enter. [5] While most U.S. energy still comes from fossil fuels, renewable sources — especially wind and solar power — are rapidly catching up. [18] In previous years, field trips have been taken to the Meridian Way Wind Farm near Concordia, KS, the Jeffrey Energy Center, the Nesika Energy ethanol plant near Scandia, KS, several solar panel installations, and to a small hydroelectric plant in Lawrence, KS. [3] If the Court of Appeals rules that the government can legally enforcement the plan, the country will have to start using a lot more renewable energy (like wind and solar) — and much less coal — by the year 2030. [19] [xyz-ihs snippet=”Amazon-Affiliate-Native-Ads”] Solar And Wind Energy May Be Nice, But ? – 05.04.2016 Renewable energy like solar and wind is booming across the country as the costs of production have come down. [6] No. 2, Wind and Solar Lulls, Plus 75,000 MW of Nuclear Generation in December 2050 : Germany may change its collective mind regarding nuclear energy, once the people realize the cost and environmental impacts of the required wind, solar and transmissions system build-outs by 2050, as shown in Alternative No. 1. [5] Texas is the top state for wind jobs and California is the top state for solar and energy efficiency jobs. [17] The clean energy would come from a yet-to-be-constructed wind farm in Lake Erie and a solar farm to be built on a brownfield in the Cleveland area. [20] Wind vs. Solar Power Energy Matters – Wind energy vs solar power the two main choices for renewable energy equipment are wind turbines and solar panels. [6]

The “Earth, Wind, and Fire: Sustainability in the 21st Century” REU program is designed to provide both an in-depth technical exposure to one aspect of sustainable energy, and a broader exposure to sustainable energy and its impact on society. [3] The coalition, called the Renewable Energy Buyers Alliance, will help companies secure deals for wind and solar power and if successful would add 60 percent to existing renewable capacity. [17] The Illinois Power Agency Act requires 25 percent of eligible retail electricity sales be from renewable resources by 2025, including 6 percent from solar energy. [16] In addition to designing and installing solar energy solutions, Power Solutions Plus helps customers apply for incentives and grants that help to save on costs. [16] The first step in converting to solar energy is educating yourself about the benefits and the costs. [16] This nonprofit organization helps to promote the application of solar energy and other renewable resources. [16] This locally owned company is family operated and provides solar energy design, installation, maintenance and service. [16] Find facts about Illinois solar energy and some notable solar projects in the state. [16] Charged with solar energy during peak generating hours and would discharge energy, as needed to meet demand, during other hours, on a daily basis. [5] Solar Service has a design team that consults with owners, builders and architects to integrate solar energy into homes and businesses. [16] A special assessment is required for property tax exemptions to ascertain the value of improvements to a home or business from a solar energy system. [16] Nevada is a close second, with 8.9 out of every 1,000 jobs in solar energy. [17] A federal tax credit is available for solar energy systems. [6]

U.S. consumption of natural gas compared to hydroelectric power and compared to hydro plus wind plus solar (hydro+W+S), based on U.S. Energy Information Administration data. [21] It also has a problem with not being very large relative to our energy needs. Figure 5 shows how U.S. hydro, or the combination of hydro plus solar plus wind (hydro+S+W), matches up with current natural gas consumption. [21] “Renewable Energy” means energy from natural sources that continuously replenish themselves – such as wind, hydro and solar. [22] With this cost advantage the SunCell will likely replace all current primary energy sources including: coal, oil, nuclear, solar, hydro, wind, geothermal, and biomass. [21] Coal, once the dominant fuel source for Minnesota?s electric utilities, has given way to new types of energy resources, wind and solar among them. [8] Without these energy types, we find ourselves with a short list of types of energy — what BP calls Hydroelectric, Geobiomass (geothermal, wood, wood waste, and other miscellaneous types; also liquid fuels from plants), Wind, and Solar. [21] The energy amounts shown by BP for nuclear, hydro, wind and solar don’t represent the amount of heat that they could make, if used to heat apartments or to cook food. [21] Wind and solar together accounted for a little less than 2% of world energy consumption. [21] We offer our customers the opportunity to choose our clean electricity, which is matched with renewable energy credits sourced from national renewable sources such as hydro, wind and solar. [22] The cost of renewable energy has been plummeting to the point where wind and solar are now outcompeting coal. [21] The standard answer, probably because it is easiest to compute, is that the cost is simply the cost (or energy cost) of the wind turbines or the solar panels themselves, plus perhaps an inverter. [21]

With wind power, solar radiation is the ultimate energy source that drives the Earth’s weather and climate, including the winds harnessed by turbines. [23] Green energy advocates are aghast at the latest energy proposal in the state legislature to regulate wind farms and solar farms, a bill they say would turn North Carolina into the nation?s most hostile state for renewables. [14] The bill would also require a solar farm or wind farm to guarantee millions of dollars – 15 percent of the value of the facility plus the underlying land – to cover future costs of decommissioning, or removing the energy project at the end of its lifetime. [14]

Solar energy is particularly appealing these days, due to advances in technology and plummeting costs. [24] Distributed generation of solar energy has almost doubled in the past two years, with businesses citing the ITC as a major driver in their success. [8]

Solar energy is the energy of the Sun shining on the Earth, originating from entropic fusion reactions at the heart of the star. [23] It is important that we harness he potentials of earth, wind, water and solar towards the provision of electricity that would make our power utilization self directed. [25] Our renewable home energy solutions include solar power generation through our Sunrun referral program and renewable wind energy in select states, which means you have the power to choose energy that aligns with your values and budget. [26] If the bill becomes law, small-scale clean energy projects like rooftop solar and backyard wind turbines would be allowed but any utilities providing clean energy would be fined $10 per megawatt hour. [27]

Renewable energy, also known as green energy, generally refers to electricity generated by resources that replenish themselves naturally, such as the sun, wind, earth, and water. [26]

To the extent that electricity is produced with fossil fuels–consider all the PV panels manufactured in China, where coal is the number one generation source–it can negate some of the carbon avoidance from solar energy. [28] Without subsidies, solar energy plants have historically been unprofitable – but this is changing and “grid parity” (i.e. electricity from said source costs as much as electricity from the national grid) is either within reach or has been reached in the 2010s, depending on the country. [23] Solar energy is often hailed as the most environmentally benign source of electricity, and once a solar plant is in place, this is arguably true. [28]

While the European Union has an EPR scheme that funds disposal costs for PV panels, no such scheme exists in the U.S. However, the SVTC reports that a number of panel manufacturers have asked the Solar Energy Industries Association to work on this issue. [28] Since 2013, for example, a handful of Republican lawmakers have persistently but unsuccessfully tried to repeal North Carolina?s Renewable Energy Portfolio Standard, the 2007 law that?s driving the state?s solar energy revolution. [14] That legislation has helped vault North Carolina to third place nationwide for total solar energy capacity. [14]

POSSIBLY USEFUL

In 2014, wind power provided about 19% of all the energy consumed from renewable sources. [2] Fullers Energy can work with you to make the entire process as simple as possible and to ensure the maximum return on your wind power generator. [29] Of all the different kinds of alternative energy, wind power is probably the easiest one to comprehend conceptually. [29] Air, Wind & Solar”s pre sale proposal over estimated my current energy costs and grossly overestimated production. [11] Widespread proliferation of wind turbines in commercial and residential zones is still fairly new but Fullers Energy is well versed in the issues that may arise in different municipalities, counties and states. [29] That contribution is expected to grow and the potential is large: Energy from wind available in the United States is at least an order of magnitude larger than the nation’s total annual consumption of energy, although only a small fraction of it can be captured. [2] Wind energy produced 4.7% of America’s electricity in 2015. [2] People have been putting wind energy to use throughout history to propel sail boats, mill flour from grain, and pump water. [2]

Electricity from wind and solar sources can be harnessed to spin up giant flywheels or used to produce hydrogen, which could be stored and used in fuel cells when needed. [2] In the United States, wind power is significantly more popular than solar. [9] Offering Solar Photovoltaic, Thermal, & Small Wind turbines. [1] NW Wind & Solar with over four decades of experience is your source for developing customized solar electric systems and wind generators for homes and businesses. [10] Here?s everything you need to know about the benefits of residential wind vs. solar so that you can make your decision with confidence. [9] Air Wind and Solar built a steel patio cover at near cost, and worked with me to get the maximum efficiency and power out of the space I had available. [11] At the end of the month I contacted technical support at Outback Solar to find out what equipment that I needed to power the compressor on my geothermal heat pump, purchased it locally, hired an independent electrician to install it, deducted my expenses from the amount owed on the final payment for my system and sent Air Wind & Solar a check for the remaining amount. [11] I was installing a geothermal heat pump and contracted Air Wind & Solar to install a 3.5 Kw grid tie system with enough battery back up to power my heat pump for 12 hours. [11] I was a little reluctant to go with these guys because they had the lowest price I could find. (I shopped 4 other installers but chose to use air wind solar because I could get more panels for my budget) I”m referring my family to Air Wind and Solar. [11] We hired a contractor in May of 2016 and our panels were reevaluated by someone from Air Wind & Solar. [11] I chose Air Wind Solar to install panels on my garage roof back in April. [11] Oh, and as it turns out, we had not received the entire amount of money we were supposed to from our insurance company because they HAD NEVER RECEIVED an estimate from Air Wind & Solar 🙂 ALL THIS TO SAY, If I had a time machine, I would go back and emphatically warn my naive self to stay away from Air Wind & Solar. [11] During this conversation, I mentioned that I had attempted to contact Air Wind & Solar several times and my call and messages went unanswered. [11] Air wind and solar were to install us at the same time, but I wasn”t going to be available. [11] On December 17th, a contracted electrician came by our home and told us he had been sent by Air Wind & Solar to review the components of our installation that had FAILED to pass inspection. [11] In the meantime if ANYONE is considering engaging Air Wind and Solar for an installation – just remember the words Buyer Beware – this company has demonstrated very poor level of after installation service and a total lack of professionalism. [11] Air Wind and Solar is a very disappointing company to do business with. [11] They had installed the wrong equipment! After a week of giving evasive and ambiguous answers to when Air Wind & Solar was going to install the proper equipment Daryl quit answering my telephone calls. [11] Air Wind Solar installed 30 kW on my dental practice a little over 3 months ago. [11] Air Wind & Solar did a fine job installing my 5 kW system in Houston. [11] I formally notified Air Wind & Solar that I would give them a month to make a good faith effort to correct the errors in the system. [11] With their price I could install a 6.5kw system instead of a 5kW that everyone else was quoting me. (I had a limited budget) So I gave them a shot and I was delighted through the entire process and have been recommending my friends and family to air wind and solar ever since. [11] Air wind solar was one of them and I liked what they were telling me. [11] What a nightmare! Everything a representative of Air Wind & Solar said to me turned out to be a lie. [11] We at Air Wind and Solar strive to fulfill all of our customer’s expectations. [11] We chose to go with Air Wind and Solar because Andrew had more knowledge about what we were looking for than any of the other companies. [11] That Stood out for me though that set Air Wind & Solar apart was thier in house financing program. [11] For many months, Air Wind Solar led us to believe that it was CPS that was holding everything up. [11]

Their result : Over the course of 14 months, the solar panels produced about five times as much electricity as the wind turbine. [9] The primary benefit of wind over solar power for your home is that wind turbines aren?t dependent on sunlight. [9]

A typical wind turbine for residential use is about 80 feet tall, and it needs to be in the path of some serious wind to produce power efficiently. [9] Expansion of wind power depends on a variety of factors, including fossil-fuel prices, federal tax credits, state renewable energy programs, technology improvements, access to transmission grids, and public opinion. [2] If you live in a rural, windy area with lots of open space and few obstructions blocking the wind?s path, then installing wind turbines at your property can be a great option for renewable energy production. [9]

With wind turbines, you are creating electricity by running a fan. [29] Created by differences in atmospheric pressure from region to region across the globe, the movement of the wind can easily cause light weight blades on a tower to turn; the turning blades are connected to a shaft that rotates a small turbine to create electricity. [29] Installation, however, is complex and involves many variables, such as placement for maximum generation, placement to adhere to local codes, safety considerations, current inverters to change wind turbine current from DC to AC and net metering. [29] If those factors remain relatively constant, wind power generation capacity is expected to grow about one-third by 2040. [2] As of 2015, 40 states had at least some installed wind power systems, with the largest share on the West Coast and in the Midwest. [2] I didn’t know that 19% of all the power in the U.S. was generated by wind. [9] Wind power works best when you have a higher elevation and a clear area. [9] Wind turbines (sometimes grouped into ” wind farms ” containing hundreds of turbines) can prompt complaints from communities whose sight lines are altered. [2] Wind come with a significant caveat, however: in order to be effective, wind turbines need to be situated high above any obstacles that would block the wind. [9] Wind turbines also have moving parts, which can result in more wear-and-tear and higher maintenance requirements. [9]

They are working every day to incorporate energy efficiency and sustainability in construction, renovation, green space projects, operations and maintenance at UTC, while minimizing the use of non-renewable energy sources, and greenhouse gas emissions through green power. [13] By far the largest impediment to greater use of intermittent energy sources is that they currently lack a practical and cost-effective way to store the electricity generated so that it can be used when needed, rather than when available. [2] Intermittent electricity can be used to pump water to higher elevations, raising its potential energy. [2] Electrical energy can be stored as heat in an insulated enclosure or used to compress gas underground, where the pressure could be bled off to generate power on demand. [2]

It”s been a year since they were installed and so far my average bill is around $12.00 or so a month (my energy usage has gone up a little since the install). [11] John designed and installed not only a beautiful looking array but one that has exceeded our energy production expectations. [1]

School buildings represent 13% of commercial buildings energy use, or about 2.5% of total U.S. energy use (13% × 19%). [2] We are changing the way we think about, use, and create energy. [10]

Every time I called looking for an update, they would give me an answer, but I just wish that they were calling me more to give me the update. (I get that I was waiting for a rebate from my energy company) so I can”t complain too much. [11] Every time energy changes form, of course, there is some loss and efficiency is an urgent concern in all conversion technologies. [2]

Guidance through the energy storage buying decision and planning process. [1] Services include LED lighting, Energy Auditing, EV Charging, Energy Storage, & back up generators. [1]

We were informed later that day that we needed to establish an additional written contract with our current provider TXU Energy. [11] Then we had to find out on our own that we needed to complete a form with our electric provider – TXU Energy. [11]

Please take a moment to watch a brief video on how solar systems produce energy. [10]

An experiment by Inland Power & Light, a utility in the Pacific Northwest, underscores the comparative benefits of residential solar. [9] Our workshop covers how solar works in Snohomish county, site specifications, state, federal, and utility incentives, our community discount, cost and much more. [10] Enter your zip code to find out what typical solar installations cost in your neighborhood. [9]

We?ve driven innovation in solar technology for 10 years and counting. [1] On December 18, 2015 the Solar Investment Tax Credits (ITC) were extended for residential and commercial projects through the end of 2019. [10] Language in the bill allows owners who begin construction on their solar projects before the end of 2021 to claim the larger credit if their project is placed in service before the end of 2023. [10]

They did a so terrible that Oncor came and disconnect everything because it was safety how they installed the solar. [11] I questioned that, and a call to technical support at Outback Solar revealed that the inverter was not grid interactive. [11] Solar panels can be installed on almost any roof, as well as on the ground, and still produce enough power to meet the majority of your electricity needs. In the EnergySage Solar Marketplace, the average solar shopper met 84 percent of their annual electricity needs with solar in 2015. [9] They have the ability to generate power 24 hours a day, whereas solar panels only generate power during sunlight hours. [9]

There?s no reason that a solar panel system has to be the renewable energy that you use in your home. [9] He began talking to me and mentioned that SEVERAL of the homes he reviewed were unhappy with the length of time it had taken to actually have functioning solar panels and that he was beginning to question whether or not associating with this company would be risky for his personal business. [11] At the time Paul apologized for the inconvenience and offered to contact our insurance in order to get the proper amount of money they would need to repair the damage done to our solar panels. [11] By the time i got ready to leave the solar panel things were already on my roof. [11]

We contact Air Wind & Solar and indicate we are ready to have the solar panels installed again. [11] Had my solar system installed by Air Wind and Solar 2 months ago and haven”t had an electric bill since. [11] Having already decided to get a roof-mounted solar system, I got multiple bids and – due to our having “won” a drawing at an environmental trade show – Air Wind & Solar was cheapest by a great margin, so we agreed to have them provide the system. [11]

In January 2014 we installed a system through Air Wind on our new town home – they were recommended by a long time friend who had engaged them earlier in the year. [11] We have given up on Air Wind for any sort of assistance and will look for another company to inspect our installation and determine if it is appropriately connected to the utility grid. [11]

Unless you choose ground-mounted solar panels with a tracking system (a technology generally reserved for utility solar installations), your solar PV system will be stationary and require limited maintenance. [9] While waiting for them to be hooked up by CPS, an enormous hail storm blew through San Antonio, cracking a solar panel (despite the reassurance that they were exceptionally strong), necessitating a roof replacement, along with the removal and storage of our panels. [11]

Please take a look at our extensive project gallery featuring both commercial solar power and residential solar power. [10] We had a used AWS to install our solar system, what a nightmare. [11]

Installing a renewable energy system on your property is one of the best ways to save money on your electricity bills while reducing your impact on the environment. [9] While Earth Week traditionally is an annually reoccurring catalyst for a variety of riveting and influential events scattered across cities around the globe, we are in for a real treat this year Chattanooga. [13] At this phase of the “game”, every single day should be Earth Day, and every week should be Earth Week. [13] Earth Day 2017?s theme is Environmental & Climate Literacy. [10]

In 2050, all wind and solar electricity would need to be sent into storage throughout the year to ensure adequate electricity supply, 24/7/365, year after year, which involves a total loss of 1.02, self-use x 1.07 T&D x 1.1, charging x 1.1 discharging 32%, i.e., wind and solar capacity, MW, plus associated grid expansions, would need to be 32% greater to offset these losses. [5] Wind and solar electricity production varies from year to year, as does the weather. [5] Producing Methane Syngas by Electrolysis: Wind and solar electricity can be used to split water into hydrogen and oxygen by means of electrolysis. [5] Midwest has an optional “grid enabled” solar and wind power system and can install solar thermal, pool heating and solar water heating systems. [16] That means, either there must be enough electricity generation (mostly wind and solar, and some hydro, bio, etc.) to charge the batteries in a few days, plus serve the demand (a very tall order), or even more storage must be available to serve demand during the 2nd lull. [5] My article deals with storage required for a 100-h lull of wind and solar in winter. [5] Then there are those lulls when wind and solar generation is close to zero the fossil capacity is needed. [5] That storage capacity would be 773,388 GWh, with just 3 times the present level of wind and solar, and no increase in future consumption. [5] Alternative no. 2 shows how adding nuclear reduces storage and wind and solar costs by about $4 trillion. [5] Without seasonal shifting with storage, German wind and solar will go nowhere near 50%. [5] In 2016, gross electricity generation was 652 TWh, of which 456 TWh was from conventional generators and 196 TWh was from renewables, i.e., about 30% of gross electricity generation was from renewable sources, such as wind, solar, hydro, bio, etc. [5] About 70 TWh was from hydro, bio, etc. On an annual basis, wind and solar (stochastic sources) was 126/652 19.3% of electricity generation. [5]

Councilman Charles Germana said he likes the idea of converting a brownfield into an energy-producing solar farm as well as the potential for new jobs should the Great Lakes become home to more offshore wind projects. [20] Such was the situation, when high-pressure winter weather caused extremely low outputs of wind and solar electricity in Germany and surrounding countries during 2 periods in December 2016. [5] In practice, Germany will need 200-300 GW of solar and wind capacity to provide that 80%. [5] RE proponents often say, wind and solar can generate almost all electricity. [5] ‘normal’ years have say 3 weeks with wind&solar lull during which still a lot is produced by wind & solar, easily 20%. [5] Regarding economics, note that German wind & solar is now already 2 times cheaper than nuclear. [5] Instead of 8 times, only about 4 times the wind, solar and transmission system build-outs would be required. [5] An implicit assumption has been that production from wind and solar vary stochastically around an overall yearly average. [5] Solar and wind are among the most dynamic industries in the nation. [17] Substantial over-capacity of wind & solar combined with Power-to-Gas. [5] The prognosis is CO2 will continue to increase as nukes are closed down and wind and solar is not built out at a fast enough rate. [5] Of the 196 TWh, about 88 TWh was from wind, about 38 TWh from solar, for a total of 126 TWh. [5]

Flow batteries have better economics at longer run-time (which give more daily energy for the same pumps and membranes), but longer run-time storage will compete mostly with cheap nighttime power, and only be relevant at high solar penetration. [5] To answer that question, AWEA’s manager of industry data analysis, John Hensley, did the following math: 4.082 billion megawatt-hours (the average annual U.S. electricity consumption) divided by 7,008 megawatt-hours of annual wind energy production per wind turbine equals approximately 583,000 onshore turbines. [19] When you multiply a wind turbine’s average potential (2 megawatts) by its 40% annual energy efficiency, 365 days a year, you get Hensley’s estimate of the megawatt-hours of energy production each turbine can produce (7,008). [19] Though the U.S. invested $14.5 billion in wind-power project installations last year, wind farms still provide less than 5% of the nation’s energy, according to the American Wind Energy Association. [19] The wind farm is being developed by the nonprofit Lake Erie Energy Development Corp., but plans call for the project to be turned over to the U.S. subsidiary of a Norwegian wind development company to bring it to fruition. [20]

It already has a commitment from Cleveland Public Power to buy 25 percent of the wind energy produced, while American Municipal Power has agreed to buy 30 percent. [20] Thanks to technological advancements in wind turbine technology, the cost of deploying wind energy has fallen by 90% since the 1980s. [19] Eingebettetes Video Learn more about wind energy in Australia how wind turbines works. [6] Charged with wind energy and discharge energy, as needed to meet demand, during all hours of the year. [5] About 4.3 out of every 1,000 jobs in North Dakota are in wind energy, as are 3.6 of every 1,000 in South Dakota. [17] The federal tax credit for small wind energy systems expired at the end of 2016. [6]

Despite the momentum — and inevitability — of renewable energy’s rise to power, its short-term growth remains vulnerable to shifting political winds. [18] Offshore wind farms, in which turbines are installed in oceans rather than on land, can offer about 33% more power than onshore ones, since there is more wind blowing over the sea than on land. [19] That percentage also accounts for constraints to the electrical grid — if an electrical grid receives more power from a wind farm than it can handle, for example, managers will turn off a few turbines. [19] Wind turbines can also now be built taller and larger than ever, allowing them to harness more power than in years past, Hensley says. [19] To make his calculation, Hensley considered that the average wind turbine has an output of 2 megawatts of power and is 40% efficient. [19]

At a cost of about $0.45 trillion for nuclear plants (with almost no CO2 emissions), implementing the Energiewende would be about $4.03 trillion less costly, plus the environmental adversities of wind turbines, solar panels and associated transmission lines would be significantly less intrusive. [5] Existing Conditions, Wind and Solar Lulls in December 2016: At present, during periods of almost no wind and little sunshine, conventional generators provide the electricity to meet the demand. [5] No. 1, Wind and Solar Lulls in December 2050 : RE proponents claim wind, solar, hydro, bio, etc., generate almost all electricity, and fossil fuel and nuclear generators are not needed. [5] Synthetic Gas to Cover Wind and Solar Lulls: Wind and solar electricity could be used to split water into hydrogen and oxygen by means of electrolysis. [5]

Below is the 2050 power balance for the first wind and solar lull; the second lull is assumed identical for analysis purposes. [5] Very significant overbuilding of wind and solar would be required to ensure adequate storage for seasonal shifting and extended wind and solar lulls. [5] The Agora graph shows, the second wind and solar lull occurred a few days later. [5] Have 8 times the installed capacity, MW, of wind and solar systems and associated transmission, in 2050. [5] We’ve been talking about the impact of extended lulls in wind and solar power, of the sort that hit Germany this winter. [5] Three years later and 6,000 miles away in Paris, 190 countries signed the historic Paris Climate Agreement, including plans to introduce a greater share of wind and solar power in a “decarbonised” future. [4] The legislation “gives us a chance to play a part in developing two important industries, wind power and solar power,” he said. [20] CLEVELAND, Ohio – The Cuyahoga County Council is expected Tuesday to approved a 10-year, power-purchase agreement with Cleveland Public Power that includes buying locally generated wind and solar power. [20] Imports and exports would be minimal, as nearby countries also would have wind and solar lulls. [5] Experience the same wind and solar lulls in December 2050, as in December 2016. [5] This article shows what might be required during two consecutive wind and solar lulls in December 2050, as occurred in December 2016. [5]

I don’t know to what extent that holds for wind in Europe, but I know it does not hold even remotely for solar. [5]

The agreement also calls for the county to construct a solar farm on a brownfield and for the farm to provide power to the county. [20] Green Guy Solutions provides solar installation service for commercial and residential customers. [16] Some programs allow rebates of the cost of the system or installation while others offer loan programs for both residential and commercial solar. [16] The city will reimburse qualifying owners for improvements and upgrades, including installing solar photovoltaic systems, of up to 75 percent of the costs depending on the size of the applicant. [16]

At high solar penetration, solar loses it’s capacity value, even with storage, so a storable-fuel backup is needed. [5] For comparison, solar projects operate at an average of 20% efficiency, and fossil-fuel production facilities operate at 40% to 60% of their full capacity on average. [19] Solar production in Germany has a best month divided by worst month ratio of about 6; in Vermont it is about 4. [5]

A full-service solar company that works in Chicago and its surrounding areas, SunHeat helps customers realize the benefit of renewable energy. [16] Established in 1954, the ASES is a group of solar professionals and advocates and acts as a catalyst in advancing solar and renewable energy. [16] Our goal is to encourage those considering solar for their homes to get a basic understanding of solar potential in their areas and discover the best opportunities for clean energy available. [16] Magitek creates expandable solar systems that can grow with the customer?s energy needs and all systems include web-based monitoring. [16]

Green Power is a general construction company that uses green materials and processes, offering alternative energy design and installation. [16] Approvals for the project that would be constructed 8 to 11 miles from Cleveland’s harbor are still needed from the Ohio Power Siting Board and the U.S. Department of Energy. [20] Performed feasibility studies, wrote master plans, evaluated and performed designs for incineration systems, air pollution control systems, utility and industrial power plants, and integrated energy systems for campus-style building complexes. [5]

Good luck maintaining a competitive economy with the cost of electricity that that order of energy storage is going to mean. [5] Whereas the cost of batteries for vehicles likely would decrease in the near future, due to mass production, that likely would be much less so for engineered, 25 to 100 MW, utility-grade, bulk energy storage systems, which require up to ten acres of land. [5] Oh, and that’s ignoring the considerable energy required to compress the hydrogen for storage in “earth cavities”. [5] Back in 2014 the Chinese government declared a “war on pollution”, which was followed up by “history?s toughest” environmental protection law and standards for the rare earth industry on emissions and the use of water and energy. [4]

Residential and commercial customers with systems up to 2,000 kW that generate electricity for their own use may qualify for net metering, which provides credits for excess generated energy. [16] Electricity in 2050: At present, electricity is about 35 percent of all energy, but after implementation of heat pumps for almost all buildings and replacing almost all fossil fuel vehicles with electric vehicles, electricity would become about 60 percent of all energy. [5] For the past 150 years, nature has provided us with stored energy in the form of fossil fuels. [5] It’s not just 5 weeks of non-production every few years that your stored energy system needs to cover. [5] The actual energy in the storage system would need to be about 20000 GWh, because we cannot assume the batteries to be fully charged at the start of the lull, and batteries should not be frequently discharged to less than 50%, as it would significantly shorten battery life. [5] Salt caverns might save a bit on compression energy, but I’m not sure there’s enough storage capacity there for the magnitude of hydrogen storage one would need for P2G2P over one-year timeframes.) [5] For Germany, such energy storage facility would have a capacity of hundreds of TWh of electrical and thermal energy to cover seasonal variations. [5] This approach may not be attractive with a CF of about 0.20 for wind energy in Germany, and a P2G a-to-z process efficiency of 60%, and pumping into storage at 90%, and discharging from storage at 90%, and burning the gas in a CCGT at 50%. [5] NOTE: Germany policymakers are beginning to realize expensive, bulk energy storage systems are not an economically viable option in the near future. [5]

After the 5 hour market segment, the next category is not 12 hours, it’s weeks as Willem suggests (the exception is thermal energy storage at CSP and nuclear plants, where that 12 hour thermal storage is backed up with weeks of combustion fuel). [5] Seasonal energy shifting requires much greater storage than do W&S lulls, such as the 100-h lull of Alternative no. 1, which required only 13.65 TWh of storage. [5] The energy supplied by the storage system to cover the entire 100-hour lull would be 100 hour x 1.1 x 91.2 GW 10032 GWh, assuming a 10% discharge loss. [5] Losses Due to Seasonal Storage Requirements: At present, any energy sent into storage is less than 1% of gross electricity generation, and associated losses are minimal. [5]

This competition helps the state keep its overall energy costs down, near the national average. [16] For energy efficiency, the leading states are Vermont (35.8 out of every 1,000 jobs) and Delaware (28.5 out of every 1,000 jobs). [17]

At times the inflow would be high, at other times it would be low, but the energy flow from the reservoir would be in accordance with demand. [5] I just read an article that deals with storing energy at sufficient quantities for seasonal shifting, and at the same time meeting demand. [5]

Schron said it’s very likely that the energy landscape will be much different in several years. [20] The capacity payments are made to have “capacity reserve”, i.e., units available to provide energy, i.e., they are “on call”. [5] Tick Tock Energy provides customized plans to help homeowners implement energy plans to save money. [16]

Note that li-ion batteries (and therefore the improved flow battery in the article) have an energy density an order of magnitude worse than liquid ammonia (a storable fuel). [5]

The shift from fossil fuels to renewable energy is inevitable, since coal, oil and gas are far more finite than wind or sunlight. [18] China is the main driver of global investment in wind power. [4] Jobs in wind power are growing at roughly the same rate, the EDF adds, and wind-turbine technician is now the fastest-growing profession in the country overall. [18]

In terms of land use, those 583,000 turbines would take up about the total land mass of Rhode Island, Hensley says, because wind projects typically require 0.74 acres of land per megawatt produced. [19] An offshore turbine at the Block Island Wind Farm in Rhode Island. [19] Advocates hope the Icebreaker six-turbine wind farm will encourage the placement of more wind turbines in the Great Lakes and that Northeast Ohio will become a manufacturing center for the industry. [20] Wind turbine technicians are expected to be the fastest-growing occupation over the next 10 years. [17]

That means it can reach its full power-generating potential 40% of the time, since wind is not always blowing and farms sometimes shut down for routine maintenance. [19] Part of the plan calls for the creation of incentives to encourage states to build wind farms. [19] Students will also have the opportunity to tour an ethanol plant, a wind farm, and a hydroelectric plant. [3]

Those exports likely went to Denmark, as it relies on imports from Norway, Germany, the Netherlands, etc., during its wind lulls. [5] My area has gone through a full week of next to no wind and still has a couple more days forecast. [5]

The production of the rare earths needed to meet China?s demand for wind turbines up to 2050 (in a scenario of radical wind power expansion) will result in the release of 80 million cubic metres of waste water – enough to fill Hangzhou?s West Lake eight times over. [4]

RANKED SELECTED SOURCES
(33 source documents arranged by frequency of occurrence in the above report)

1. (75) Wind And Solar Energy Lulls: Energy Storage in Germany – The Energy Collective

2. (71) Destroying The “Wind & Solar Will Save Us” Delusion | Zero Hedge

3. (42) Air Wind & Solar LLC Reviews | Air Wind & Solar LLC Cost | Air Wind & Solar LLC solar panels, locations and complaints

4. (32) The dark side of renewable energy — Earth Journalism Network

5. (26) Solar Panels & Contractors in Illinois | LetsGoSolar.com

6. (20) Solar Energy vs. Wind Energy: Whats Best For Your Home? | EnergySage

7. (18) Farming With the Power of Renewable Energy | Successful Farming

8. (15) How many wind turbines it would take to power the US – Business Insider

9. (15) Our Energy Sources, Wind — The National Academies

10. (12) Facebook, Microsoft Give Wind and Solar Energy a Big Boost – EcoWatch

11. (11) Jobs in solar, wind power are growing 12 times faster than U.S. economy | MNN – Mother Nature Network

12. (11) Solar and wind energy propel growth in US renewables : Nature News & Comment

13. (10) Northwest Wind and Solar, Green Energy for Seattle, the Eastside, and Beyond

14. (10) Cuyahoga Council expected to approve wind and solar energy power agreement | cleveland.com

15. (10) Renewable Energy

16. (8) Wind And Solar Energy Wiki | Green Energy Sources

17. (7) How Solar Energy Works | Union of Concerned Scientists

18. (7) Solar Energy News

19. (7) Wind and solar energy projects could bring 5,000 new jobs to rural Minnesota – Institute on the EnvironmentInstitute on the Environment

20. (6) Earth Wind And Solar Energy, LLC | Enphase Solar System Installer

21. (6) Wind Fullers EnergySun | Earth | Wind | Water | Solar Energy

22. (6) Research Experience for Undergraduates | Chemical Engineering | Kansas State University

23. (5) NC bill takes aim at wind power and solar energy | The Charlotte Observer

24. (4) Earth, Wind And. Solar? – The Pulse ” Chattanooga’s Weekly Alternative

25. (3) Renewable energy – RationalWiki

26. (3) Weighing the Environmental Impacts of Wind and Solar

27. (2) Find Renewable Home Energy Solutions with Constellation

28. (2) Solar Report — Panoptic Group

29. (1) Earth, Wind & Solar Festival featuring Squonk Opera — Chattanooga Presents!

30. (1) After 11 Hours, Lawmakers Reach A Resolution On Renewable Energy Siting | Vermont Public Radio

31. (1) Combining Earth Wind And Solar is Key Noktel Resorts

32. (1) Wyoming GOP Introduces Bill That Penalizes and Outlaws Wind and Solar Energy – EnviroNews | The Environmental News Specialists

33. (1) Energy – The Earth Institute – Columbia University
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Offline Nearingsfault

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Re: The Daily SUN☼
« Reply #3 on: April 10, 2017, 07:02:05 PM »
Pretty dense stuff...  It's out of my league but the bulk of it involves fairly traditional grid stuff.  Throw renewables at a century old inefficient grid.  Renewables shine on the personal level and smaller micro grids.  When you get bigger you loose the feedback and the consequences of your actions...
« Last Edit: April 10, 2017, 07:46:14 PM by David B. »
If its important then try something, fail, disect, learn from it, try again, and again and again until it kills you or you succeed.

Offline RE

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Re: The Daily SUN☼
« Reply #4 on: April 10, 2017, 09:04:50 PM »
Pretty dense stuff...  It's out of my league but the bulk of it involves fairly traditional grid stuff.  Throw renewables at a century old inefficient grid.  Renewables shine on the personal level and smaller micro grids.  When you get bigger you loose the feedback and the consequences of your actions...

I agree the renewables of Solar & Wind are not well suited to Grid Power, which requires a steady and reliable source of power you can ramp up as necessary to meet demand.  Despite Elon Musk's Powerwall Batt claims, I don't think he'll ever build a batt system big enough to handle anything more than a large town/small city to cover shortfalls in generating capacity.

For the individual or small community though, the intermittency is not such a big deal and you don't need so much storage capacity.  So it works well in this application.  We have discussed how to do it on several occasions.

Problem of course is to get Investment from Wall Street with Funny Money, they need to see a Conduit Scheme and way to make money on it.  Distributed intermittent power does not have much upside potential in terms of profit.  So you get these dense kind of reports which are designed mainly to sell the TBTF banks on floating an IPO for you to get your company off the ground.  That is what Elon Musk has been a master at doing for the last 8 years.

RE
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Offline K-Dog

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Re: The Daily SUN☼
« Reply #5 on: April 11, 2017, 12:23:57 AM »
Nuts & Volts Magazine (February 2012)

The Edison Cell

http://www.nutsvolts.com/magazine/article/february2012_Noon

Off topic but:

I was thinking tonight that the NTE crowd has some screws loose.  The clathrate gun is taken by them as an axiom but actually the positive-feed back time constant for it could be quite long.  All the methane in the arctic is not going to come out all at once.  Trump has time to do us in first.  It will get warmer and warmer but it could take a long time before we cook and this place is not going to go the way of Venus.  In a couple of million years vast forests will cover the planet as they have before.  One way or another this will come to pass.  The time-constant is a real physical property in the mathematical model of any feedback system.  The Near Term human Extinction crowd does not seem to me to be very good at their math or they would realize their panic is irrational.

The die-off can take many forms.  Cooking is only one possibility and that won't happen tomorrow.

« Last Edit: April 11, 2017, 12:27:14 AM by K-Dog »
Under ideal conditions of temperature and pressure the organism will grow without limit.

Offline Nearingsfault

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Re: The Daily SUN☼
« Reply #6 on: April 11, 2017, 03:50:09 AM »
There is nothing wrong with nickel iron batteries.  They do have high rates of self discharge though.  Edison's original batteries were built to last a generation I don't know if you can make the same claim about their modern versions.   Nickel cadmium mostly replaced the nife then nimh same advantaged as nife less of the drawbacks. I have a set of telecom nicd that are 60 years old and still hold charge.
If its important then try something, fail, disect, learn from it, try again, and again and again until it kills you or you succeed.

Offline RE

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The 10 Commandments of RE
« Reply #7 on: April 11, 2017, 04:12:24 AM »
Nuts & Volts Magazine (February 2012)

The Edison Cell

http://www.nutsvolts.com/magazine/article/february2012_Noon

Off topic but:

I was thinking tonight that the NTE crowd has some screws loose.  The clathrate gun is taken by them as an axiom but actually the positive-feed back time constant for it could be quite long.  All the methane in the arctic is not going to come out all at once.  Trump has time to do us in first.  It will get warmer and warmer but it could take a long time before we cook and this place is not going to go the way of Venus.  In a couple of million years vast forests will cover the planet as they have before.  One way or another this will come to pass.  The time-constant is a real physical property in the mathematical model of any feedback system.  The Near Term human Extinction crowd does not seem to me to be very good at their math or they would realize their panic is irrational.

The die-off can take many forms.  Cooking is only one possibility and that won't happen tomorrow.

As I pointed out numerous times over on NBL, the system as a whole has a hard limit of around limit of around 22C no matter how much carbon is up in the atmosphere.


There's obviously some feedback loop that kicks in at this point preventing a Venusian style Global Cooking event.

Now, 22C is about +10C from where we are now, but that is an AVERAGE.  Here in Alaska, average temperature is 7C  in Lagos, Nigeria it is 27C.  +10C would bring Lagos up to 37C and it would be uninhabitable.  However, +10C only brings Alaska to 17C, nowhere near what Lagos is now and people live there just fine.

Now, you are going to get a massive die off, but not mainly due to climate.  Mainly due to the failure of industrial agriculture and due to diseases spreading as city sanitation systems break down.  And War of course.  This however is a GOOD THING, because it will allow the land in the lower latitudes to begin it's recovery process from the Age of Agriculture and the Age of Oil.  Most of the wildlife will migrate to the upper latitudes and plant species will migrate as well.  Seeds blown northward and carried in the gut of birds and animals which didn't take root before in cooler climates north will begin to take hold. The remaining  Homo Saps will bring seeds with him too, accelerating this process and growing things in Greenhouses for a while as the temps warm up, then transplanting them out of doors.

The ocean species will take a hit from further ocean acidification and warming, and we'll probably lose most of the shellfish we currently have.  However, we won't lose all the phytoplankton, single cell organisms mutate rapidly and adapt to harsher conditions.  You can see this with bacteria which will over a few days/weeks adapt to antibiotic regimes 1000X the strenght necessary to kill normal variants.  Once the overfishing stops with Homo Sap no longer out at sea in industrial powered Freezer ships, the remaining fish will migrate to the upper latitudes as well, and fish species today found in the Gulf of Mexico will be swimming in the Arctic Ocean for a while.  The remaining whales will follow them there.

Over many millenia, the carbon up in the atmosphere will be resequestered from this event, and the temps will begin to drop again.  The Homo Saps who survived the Great Die Off will begin to migrate south again, where in addition to an abundance of wildlife they will find the ruins of a long dead civilization.


Who will those hardy descendents of the survivors be?  They will be DINERS of course!  :icon_sunny:


If it were just any old Homo Saps that made it through the Zero Point, then they would repeat the same mistakes over again.

However, the words and stories of RE will be told and sung around the campfires as Oral Tradition by all the Generations of Diners, and the RE 10 Commandments will be carried on Stone Tablets through all the millenia.


THE 10 COMMANDMENTS OF RE

1- Thou shalt not create Money

2- Thou shalt not tolerate Greed

3- Thou shalt not permit Private Ownership of the Land

4- Thou Shalt not engage in large scale till agriculture

5- Thou shalt not smelt metal or fire ceramics except in only small amounts for a few helpful implements

6- Thou shalt not build permanent housing that cannot be rebuilt in a few months from local materials

7- Thou shalt not reproduce willy-nilly and must observe strict taboos of understanding carrying capacity for your patch of land

8- Thou shalt not harvest wood from Forests any faster than it replaces itself

9- Thou shalt not allow Goobermints past the size of 10,000 Human Souls

10- Thou shalt not disobey the 10 Commandments of RE  :icon_sunny:



Moses RE



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